The Cognition of Basic Musical Structures

The Cognition of Basic Musical Structures

by David Temperley
     
 

ISBN-10: 0262701057

ISBN-13: 9780262701051

Pub. Date: 09/01/2004

Publisher: MIT Press

In this book, David Temperley addresses a fundamental question about music cognition: how do we extract basic kinds of musical information, such as meter, phrase structure, counterpoint, pitch spelling, harmony, and key from music as we hear it? Taking a computational approach, Temperley develops models for generating these aspects of musical structure. The

Overview

In this book, David Temperley addresses a fundamental question about music cognition: how do we extract basic kinds of musical information, such as meter, phrase structure, counterpoint, pitch spelling, harmony, and key from music as we hear it? Taking a computational approach, Temperley develops models for generating these aspects of musical structure. The models he proposes are based on preference rules, which are criteria for evaluating a possible structural analysis of a piece of music. A preference rule system evaluates many possible interpretations and chooses the one that best satisfies the rules.

After an introductory chapter, Temperley presents preference rule systems for generating six basic kinds of musical structure: meter,
phrase structure, contrapuntal structure, harmony, and key, as well as pitch spelling (the labeling of pitch events with spellings such as A flat or G sharp). He suggests that preference rule systems not only show how musical structures are inferred, but also shed light on other aspects of music. He substantiates this claim with discussions of musical ambiguity, retrospective revision, expectation, and music outside the Western canon (rock and traditional African music). He proposes a framework for the description of musical styles based on preference rule systems and explores the relevance of preference rule systems to higher-level aspects of music,
such as musical schemata, narrative and drama, and musical tension.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780262701051
Publisher:
MIT Press
Publication date:
09/01/2004
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
422
Product dimensions:
7.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.00(d)
Age Range:
18 Years

Table of Contents

Prefaceix
Acknowledgmentsxiii
1Introduction1
1.1An Unanswered Question1
1.2Goals and Methodology4
1.3Music Cognition and Music Theory8
1.4The Input Representation9
1.5The Preference Rule Approach13
1.6The Implementation Strategy14
ISix Preference Rule Systems21
2Metrical Structure23
2.1Meter23
2.2Previous Research on Metrical Analysis27
2.3A Preference Rule System for Meter30
2.4Implementation39
2.5Tests42
2.6Problems and Possible Improvements44
2.7Other Factors in Metrical Structure48
2.8Choosing the Right Tactus52
3Melodic Phrase Structure55
3.1Musical Grouping and Phrase Structure55
3.2Studies of Musical Grouping in Psychology56
3.3Models of Grouping Structure60
3.4A Preference Rule System for Melodic Phrase Structure65
3.5Implementation and Tests71
3.6Grouping in Polyphonic Music76
4Contrapuntal Structure85
4.1Counterpoint85
4.2Sequential Integration in Auditory Psychology87
4.3Computational Models of Contrapuntal Analysis91
4.4A Preference Rule System for Contrapuntal Analysis96
4.5Implementation102
4.6Tests106
5Pitch Spelling and the Tonal-Pitch-Class Representation115
5.1Pitch-Class, Harmony, and Key115
5.2Spatial Representations in Music Theory116
5.3Tonal-Pitch-Class Labeling123
5.4A Preference Rule System for Tonal-Pitch-Class Labeling124
5.5Implementation132
5.6Tests134
6Harmonic Structure137
6.1Harmony137
6.2Experimental and Computational Work on Harmonic Analysis139
6.3A Preference Rule System for Harmonic Analysis147
6.4Implementation154
6.5Some Subtle Features of the Model159
6.6Tests162
6.7Other Aspects of Harmonic Structure164
7Key Structure167
7.1Key167
7.2Psychological and Computational Work on Key168
7.3The Krumhansl-Schmuckler Key-Finding Algorithm173
7.4Improving the Algorithm's Performance176
7.5Modulation187
7.6Implementation188
7.7Tests191
7.8An Alternative Approach to Modulation198
IIExtensions and Implications203
8Revision, Ambiguity, and Expectation205
8.1Diachronic Processing and Ambiguity205
8.2Modeling the Diachronic Processing of Music206
8.3Examples of Revision210
8.4Revision in Tonal Analysis215
8.5Synchronic Ambiguity219
8.6Ambiguity in Contrapuntal Structure224
8.7Ambiguity in Meter228
8.8Expectation231
9Meter, Harmony, and Tonality in Rock237
9.1Beyond Common-Practice Music237
9.2Syncopation in Rock239
9.3Applications and Extensions of the Syncopation Model247
9.4Harmony in Rock253
9.5Modality and Tonicization in Rock258
10Meter and Grouping in African Music265
10.1African Rhythm265
10.2Meter in African Music268
10.3How Is Meter Inferred?272
10.4Western and African Meter: A Comparison276
10.5Hemiolas and the "Standard Pattern"279
10.6"Syncopation Shift" in African Music282
10.7Grouping Structure in African Music286
10.8Conclusions289
11Style, Composition, and Performance291
11.1The Study of Generative Processes in Music291
11.2Describing Musical Styles and Compositional Practice292
11.3Further Implications: Is Some Music "Nonmetrical"?299
11.4Preference Rules as Compositional Constraints: Some Relevant Research305
11.5Preference Rule Scores and Musical Tension307
11.6Performance317
12Functions of the Infrastructure325
12.1Beyond the Infrastructure325
12.2Motivic Structure and Encoding326
12.3Musical Schemata336
12.4Tension and Energy339
12.5The Functions of Harmony and Tonality340
12.6Arbitrariness345
12.7Explaining Musical Details: An Exercise in Recomposition349
12.8The Power of Common-Practice Music354
AppendixList of Rules357
Notes361
References381
Author Index393
Subject Index397

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