Cognitive and Psychometric Analysis of Analogical Problem Solving

Overview

The major objective of the investigation presented in this book is to assess the validity of analogies, a component of the GRE General Test, from a perspective other than the prediction of grade-point average. The book examines a very practical problem in test construction: the apparent inability of item writers to regularly and predictably construct verbal items in general, and analogy items in particular, that are both difficult and sufficiently discriminating. The book demonstrates that the incorporation of ...

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Overview

The major objective of the investigation presented in this book is to assess the validity of analogies, a component of the GRE General Test, from a perspective other than the prediction of grade-point average. The book examines a very practical problem in test construction: the apparent inability of item writers to regularly and predictably construct verbal items in general, and analogy items in particular, that are both difficult and sufficiently discriminating. The book demonstrates that the incorporation of results from the cognitive laboratory into the test development process is a natural step and should be attempted. The book focuses on analogical reasoning because it is a pervasive human-thought process.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Reports the results of an investigation of some factors determining performance on analogy problems by examining a large number of items on the graduate record exams from both cognitive and psychometric perspectives. For cognitive scientists and linguists. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780387973210
  • Publisher: Springer New York
  • Publication date: 11/30/1990
  • Series: Recent Research in Psychology Series
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1991
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 237
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 0.53 (d)

Table of Contents

1: Introduction.- Objectives of the Project and Overview of the Report.- 2: Theories of Memory Representation and Analogical Reasoning.- A Normative Model.- Words and Concepts.- Representation of Word Meaning.- Prototype Theory.- Feature Models.- Semantic Networks.- Schemata, Frames, and Scripts.- Summary.- Relations Between Concepts.- Relation Expressions.- Novel Relations.- Relation Similarity.- Summary.- Comparison of Relations.- Relation Element Theory.- Reasoning with Analogies.- Psychometric Models.- Spearman’s Model.- Sternberg’s Models.- Evans’ Model.- Pellegrino and Collaborators.- Embretson (Whitely) Models.- Relation Element Theory.- Reasoning Models.- Rumelhart and Abrahamson’s Model.- Gentner’s Structural Mapping Theory.- Holyoak and Thagard’s ACME Model.- Summary.- 3: A Taxonomy of Semantic Relations.- The Taxonomy.- Completeness of the Taxonomy.- A Higher-Order Classification of Semantic Relations.- Intensional and Pragmatic Relations.- The 10 Relation Families.- Precedents for the Dichotomy.- Empirical Evidence for the Dichotomy.- Previous Studies.- A Reanalysis of Whitely’s 1977 Data.- A New Sorting Study.- A Comparison of GRE Candidates With Different Majors.- Factor Analytic Evidence.- Earlier Work on Cognitive Dictionaries.- Uses of the Taxonomy.- Item Development.- Computer Generation of Items.- Theoretical Primitives.- Research.- 4: Description of the Item Pool.- Distribution of Deltas and r-Biserial.- Distribution According to Test Development Taxonomies.- Distribution According to Relational Taxonomy.- Relationship of the Taxonomy of Semantic Relations to Other Test Development Taxonomies.- Summary.- 5: The Effect of Vocabulary Level and Rationale Complexity on Item Difficulty.- Data and Procedures.- Regression of Delta on Stem and Key Frequency for All Items.- The Role of Complexity in Difficulty.- Summary.- 6: The Relationship Between Delta and r-Biserial.- The Negative Relationship As an Artifact.- The Relationship of Delta and r-Biserial for Other GRE Items.- Other Data Sets.- Recomputing r-Biserial.- Polyserial Analysis.- Summary.- 7: Expert Analyses of Analogy Items.- Method.- Results.- Data Analysis.- Prediction of Item Difficulty.- Raters’ Model of Item Difficulty.- Prediction of Delta.- Raters’ Performance and Type of Analogy.- Summary.- 8: Cognitive Processing and Item Difficulty.- Relationship Between Processing Demands and Psychometric Difficulty.- Subjects and Method for Experiments 1 and 2.- Experiment 1.- Experiment 2.- Lexical Overlap.- Practical Value of Process Variables in Modeling Difficulty.- Summary.- 9: Cross Validation: Analysis of Pretested Items.- Establishing Criteria.- Regression Results.- A Practical Assessment of Utility.- Predicting Low r-Biserials.- Summary.- 10: Summary and Conclusions.- The Study in Perspective.- Systematic Item Writing.- Psychological Response Modeling.- Processing Models.- Practical Considerations.- Further Research.- References.- Author Index.

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