×

Uh-oh, it looks like your Internet Explorer is out of date.

For a better shopping experience, please upgrade now.

Cognitive Psychology / Edition 4
     

Cognitive Psychology / Edition 4

1.0 1
by Douglas Medin
 

See All Formats & Editions

ISBN-10: 0471458201

ISBN-13: 2900471458202

Pub. Date: 03/28/2004

Publisher: Wiley

This coherent overview of cognitive psychology is organized in terms of themes that cut across topic areas. Written by well-known researchers, the book is completely current in describing ongoing controversies in research; it provides summaries of key experiments that distinguish between them; and it encourages the reader to think critically about current research

Overview

This coherent overview of cognitive psychology is organized in terms of themes that cut across topic areas. Written by well-known researchers, the book is completely current in describing ongoing controversies in research; it provides summaries of key experiments that distinguish between them; and it encourages the reader to think critically about current research and theories. The focus on the importance of physical and computational constraints on cognition is preserved throughout the book.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
2900471458202
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
03/28/2004
Edition description:
REV
Pages:
576

Table of Contents

Part IOverview1
Chapter 1Possibilities, Information, and Approaches to the Study of the Mind3
Introduction4
Domain of Cognitive Psychology4
Intuition4
Puzzles5
Possibilities8
A Framework9
A Closer Look9
Themes and Implications11
Experience and Experimentation11
Empiricism12
Scientific Observation13
Experimentation14
The Challenge of Cognitive Psychology14
Summary14
Roots of Cognitive Psychology16
Introspectionism16
Behaviorism17
Critique of Behaviorism18
Summary20
Cognitive Psychology20
Summary22
The Emergence of Cognitive Science22
Summary23
Cognitive Neuroscience Techniques24
Event-Related Potentials24
Positron Emission Tomography25
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)26
Summary28
Levels and Types of Explanations29
Summary31
Ecological Validity32
Summary33
Part IIAcquiring Information37
Chapter 2Learning39
Introduction40
The Challenge of Learning40
The Biological Backdrop of Learning41
Fixed-Action Patterns and Releasers43
Critical Periods and Imprinting43
Constraints on Learning48
Summary49
Basic Learning49
Habituation49
Classical Conditioning50
Summary56
Trial-and-Error Learning or Instrumental Learning57
Paired-Associate Learning59
Implications61
The Learning-Performance Distinction62
Contingency Learning and Illusory Correlation63
Contingency Learning and Casual Learning65
Summary65
Content and Meaningful Learning66
Chapter 3Perception69
The Problem of Perception69
Visual Perception71
Low-Level Vision72
Localization75
Summary84
High-Level Vision84
Feature Detection Theories85
Structural Theories87
Template Matching and Alignment91
Face Recognition and Visual Subsystems94
Summary95
Levels and the Integration of Information in Perceptual Context Effects96
The Word Superiority Effect96
Summary100
Chapter 4Attention103
Introduction104
What Is Attention For?105
Why Are There Limits?105
Five Functions of Attention106
Perceptual Attention108
Focusing ISensory Stores108
Focusing IISelecting Channels110
Perceptual Enhancement112
Location of Attentional Limits113
Bottleneck Theories115
Late Selection117
Capacity Theories117
Summary119
Binding119
Attention in Complex Tasks123
Capacity and Automaticity125
Central Executive Functions and Action130
Attention and Action Selection130
Part IIIMemory135
Chapter 5Memory: Remembering New Information137
Introduction138
Uses of Memory138
Centrality of Memory139
Processes of Memory140
Short-Term Memory140
Introduction140
Characteristics of Short-Term Memory141
Working Memory144
Summary150
Long-Term Memory150
Introduction150
Encoding152
Retrieval157
Encoding-Retrieval Interactions158
Forgetting166
Summary171
Chapter 6Memory Systems and Knowledge173
Introduction174
Semantic Knowledge174
Characteristics of Semantic Memory174
The Hierarchical Model175
Evaluation of the Hierarchical Model177
Episodic Memory178
Are Episodic and Semantic Memory Distinct Memory Systems?179
Amnesia, Episodic, and Semantic Memory183
Procedural and Declarative Memory184
Implicit and Explicit Memory185
Implicit and Explicit Memory with Normal-Memory Adults186
Evaluation of the Implicit-Explicit Distinction191
Two Models of Memory193
Introduction193
The ACT Theory193
A Parallel Distributed Processing Model of Memory201
Summary206
Chapter 7Remembering New Information: Beyond Basic Effects209
Introduction209
Schemas: Understanding and Remembering Complex Situations211
Introduction and Motivation211
Understanding214
Schemas215
Scripts219
Schema Activation222
Problems with Schemas222
Summary223
Reconstructive Memory223
Encoding-Retrieval Interactions Revisited223
Schemas and Stereotypes224
Summary227
Memory in the World227
Introduction227
Eyewitness Testimony227
Flashbulb Memories232
Recovered Memories236
Summary241
Knowing Your Memory241
Introduction241
Strategies and Knowledge241
Metamemory247
Summary249
Chapter 8Spatial Knowledge, Imagery, and Visual Memory252
Introduction253
Representations254
Relations Between Representations and Referents254
Analog Representations255
Summary257
Spatial Knowledge257
Maps and Navigation257
Hierarchical Representations of Space259
The Brain and Spatial Cognition261
Summary261
Imagery262
Evidence for Use of Visual Imagery262
Representation of Images266
Summary271
Visual Memory271
Remembering Details272
Memory for Pictures275
The Picture-Superiority Effect276
Memory for Faces278
Summary278
Part IVLanguage and Understanding281
Chapter 9Language283
Introduction284
Language and Communication284
Principles of Communication286
The Given-New Strategy286
Presupposition and Assertion286
Conversational Maxims287
Summary289
The Productivity of Human Language289
Productivity and Novelty289
Ambiguity290
Phonology291
Phonological Rules294
Speech Perception296
Summary301
Syntax301
The Need for Structure301
Structure302
Phrase Structure303
The Psychological Reality of Syntax304
Summary306
Understanding Language306
Heuristics and Strategies307
Minimal Attachment308
Text Comprehension310
Chapter 10Concepts and Categories: Representation and Use317
Introduction318
Why Categorize?318
Computational Complexity318
Functions of Concepts319
Summary320
Concepts and Misconceptions320
Summary322
Structure of Natural Object Concepts323
The Classical View323
The Probabilistic View324
Summary332
Between-Category Structure333
Summary336
Does Similarity Explain Categorization?336
Summary339
Concepts as Organized by Theories340
Putting Similarity in Its Place341
Do Different Principles Apply for Different Kinds of Concepts?342
Summary344
Use of Categories in Reasoning345
Goals and Ad Hoc Categories345
Conceptual Combination345
Categories and Induction346
Part VThinking351
Chapter 11Reasoning353
Introduction354
Logic and Reasoning354
Validity and Truth356
Deductive Versus Inductive Reasoning357
Summary358
The Psychology of Deduction358
Conditional Reasoning358
Conditional Reasoning in Hypothesis Testing: The Selection Task361
Summary365
The Psychology of Inductive Reasoning366
Probabilistic Reasoning366
Test Quality: A Case Study of Base Rates367
Base Rate Neglect369
Confusing Conditional Probabilities370
Summary370
The Importance of Content370
Analogy and Similarity372
An Example of Mapping375
A Return to Similarity375
Summary377
Mental Models and Intuitive Theories377
Intuitive Theories381
Hypothesis Testing and Scientific reasoning383
Chapter 12Problem Solving390
Introduction391
Problems, Problems, Problems391
What Is a Problem?391
Types of Problems391
Methods for Studying Problem Solving392
Summary395
Problem Solving as Representation and Search395
Introduction395
The Problem Space Analysis396
Problem Solving as Search399
Problem Solving as Representation403
Summary411
Reliance on Specific Relevant Knowledge411
Introduction411
The Influence of Related Problems411
Summary418
Chapter 13Expertise and Creativity420
Introduction420
Expertise421
Introduction421
Comparing Experts and Novices421
Developing Expertise429
Adaptive Expertise436
Summary437
Creativity438
Introduction438
The Traditional View440
Some Recent Views of Creativity443
Summary448
Chapter 14Judgment and Decision Making450
Introduction451
Rational and Normative Models452
Expected Value Theory453
Expected Utility Theory454
Limitations of Expected Utility and Alternatives to It455
Violations of Expected Utility455
Prospect Theory461

Customer Reviews

Average Review:

Post to your social network

     

Most Helpful Customer Reviews

See all customer reviews

Cognitive Psychology 1 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 1 reviews.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago