Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Overview

Over a century ago, William James proposed that people search through memory much as they rummage through a house looking for lost keys. We scour our environments for territory, food, mates, and information. We search for items in visual scenes, for historical facts, and for the best deals on Internet sites; we search for new friends to add to our social networks, and for solutions to novel problems. What we find is always governed by how we search and by the structure of the ...

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Overview

Over a century ago, William James proposed that people search through memory much as they rummage through a house looking for lost keys. We scour our environments for territory, food, mates, and information. We search for items in visual scenes, for historical facts, and for the best deals on Internet sites; we search for new friends to add to our social networks, and for solutions to novel problems. What we find is always governed by how we search and by the structure of the environment.

This book explores how we search for resources in our minds and in the world. The authors examine the evolution and adaptive functions of search; the neural underpinnings of goal-searching mechanisms across species; psychological models of search in memory, decision making, and visual scenes; and applications of search behavior in highly complex environments such as the Internet. As the range of information, social contacts, and goods continues to expand, how well we are able to search and successfully find what we seek becomes increasingly important. At the same time, search offers cross-disciplinary insights to the scientific study of human cognition and its evolution. Combining perspectives from researchers across numerous domains, this book furthers our understanding of the relationship between search and the human mind.

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What People Are Saying

From the Publisher
"We desperately need a better understanding of how people search for information in the real world. After all, intelligent search and stopping search, both internally and externally, are keys to adaptive behavior. This book provides a comprehensive view of current knowledge and, importantly, lays out the direction for future research on 'satisficing' (as opposed to 'optimizing') search mechanisms in humans and other species."—GerdGigerenzer, Director, Max Planck Institute for Human Development

"This collection significantly broadens and deepens our scientific understanding of search as it manifests in behavior, biology, cognitive processes, the brain, and computation.

Twenty years ago, the idea that one kind of search, such as information search, was like another,such as food foraging, was typically met with resistance that focused on differences (after all,information is not food). This book demonstrates the rich tapestry of explanations of search that cuts across fields, and the papers provide fertile opportunities for a new generation of researchers to reach across disciplines to find exciting and productive concepts and models."—Peter Pirolli, Research Fellow, Palo Alto ResearchCenter

Gerd Gigerenzer
We desperately need a better understanding of how people search for information in the real world. After all, intelligent search and stopping search,both internally and externally, are keys to adaptive behavior. This book provides a comprehensive view of current knowledge and, importantly, lays out the direction for future research on 'satisficing' (as opposed to 'optimizing') search mechanisms in humans and other species.
Peter Pirolli
This collection significantly broadens and deepens our scientific understanding of search as it manifests in behavior, biology, cognitive processes,the brain, and computation. Twenty years ago, the idea that one kind of search, such as information search, was like another, such as food foraging, was typically met with resistance that focused on differences (after all, information is not food).

This book demonstrates the rich tapestry of explanations of search that cuts across fields, and the papers provide fertile opportunities for a new generation of researchers to reach across disciplines to find exciting and productive concepts and models.

Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780262018098
  • Publisher: MIT Press
  • Publication date: 8/31/2012
  • Series: Strungmann Forum Reports
  • Pages: 416
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Meet the Author

Peter M. Todd is Professor of Informatics, Cognitive Science, and Psychology at Indiana University.

Thomas T. Hills is Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of Warwick.

Trevor W. Robbins is Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience and Chair of Experimental Psychology at the University of Cambridge, where he is also Director of the Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute.

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Table of Contents

The Ernst Strüngmann Forum vii

List of Contributors ix

1 Building a Foundation for Cognitive Search Peter M. Todd Thomas T. Hills Trevor W. Robbins 1

Evolution of Search, Adaptation, and Ecology

2 The Evolution of Cognitive Search Thomas T. Hills Reuven Dukas 11

3 Ecological and Behavioral Approaches to Search Behavior David W. Stephens Iain Couzin Luc-Alain Giraldeau 25

4 Searching for Fundamentals and Commonalities of Search John M. C. Hutchinson David W. Stephens Melissa Bateson Iain Couzin Reuven Dukas Luc-Alain Giraldeau Thomas T. Hills Frederic Méry Bruce Winterhalder 47

Search, Goals, and the Brain

5 Executive Control of Cognitive Search Joshua W. Brown Derek E. Nee 69

6 Search Processes and Hippocampus A. David Redish 81

7 Neural Bases of Actions and Habits John P. O'Doherty Bernard W. Balleine 97

8 Chemical Neuromodulation of Goal-Directed Behavior Roshan Cools 111

9 Search, Goals, and the Brain Catharine A. Winstanley Trevor W. Robbins Bernard W. Balleine Joshua W. Brown Christian Büchel Roshan Cools Daniel Durstewitz John P. O'Doherty Cyriel M. A. Pennartz A. David Redish Jeremy K. Seamans 125

Mechanisms and Processes of Cognitive Search

10 Visual Search Jeremy M. Wolfe 159

11 Human Memory Search Eddy J. Davelaar Jeroen G. W. Raaijmakers 177

12 Model-Based Reinforcement Learning as Cognitive Search: Neurocomputational Theories Nathaniel D. Daw 195

13 Cognitive Control, Cognitive Search, and Motivational Salience: A Systems Neuroscience Approach K. Richard Ridderinkhof Helga A. Harsay 209

14 Convergent and Divergent Operations in Cognitive Search Bernhard Hommel 221

15 Unpacking Cognitive Search: Mechanisms and Processes Thorsten Pachur Jeroen G. W. Raaijmakers Eddy J. Davelaar Nathaniel D. Daw Michael R. Dougherty Bernhard Hommel Michael D. Lee Sean M. Polyn K. Richard Ridderinkhof Peter M. Todd Jeremy M. Wolfe 237

Search Environments, Representation, and Encoding

16 Foundations of Search: A Perspective from Computer Science James A. R. Marshall Frank Neumann 257

17 Problem Solving and Search in Networks David Lazer Ethan S. Bernstein 269

18 From Plato to the World Wide Web: Information Foraging on the Internet Wai-Tat Fu 283

19 Optimal Strategies and Heuristics for Ecological Search Problems John M. McNamara Tim W. Fawcett 301

20 Search Environments, Representation, and Encoding Lael J. Schooler Curt Burgess Robert L. Goldstone Wai-Tat Fi Sergey Gavrilets David Lazer James A. R. Marshall Frank Neumann Jan M. Wiener 317

Bibliography 335

Subject Index 397

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