Cold Cases: An Evaluation Model with Follow-up Strategies for Investigators / Edition 1

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Overview

Nearly 185,000 homicides since 1980 remain unsolved, yet with limited staff and resources, it is no surprise that law enforcement units place the bulk of their efforts on current cases where victims' family members and the media demand answers. Cold Cases: An Evaluation Model with Follow-up Strategies for Investigators provides a comprehensive roadmap for digging those cold cases out of the file room and getting them resolved. Practical and concise, the book is an invaluable tool for police officers and detectives attempting to solve crimes that would otherwise be forgotten.

Evaluating the Case

Divided into three sections, the book begins with a historical perspective on how cases get to the point where it appears all investigative leads have been exhausted. It includes a chapter on understanding the process of homicide and those who kill - critical information for the homicide investigator. Next, the authors explain the evaluation model.
They demonstrate the key elements of organization, thoroughness, and the value of the scientific method. This section validates theories of the crime, raises evidentiary issues and concerns, addresses the informational and behavioral aspects relative to the crime and the participants in the crime, and documents investigative strategies for future efforts on the case.

Investigating and Solving the
Crime

The third section discusses the investigation that follows the evaluation. The book considers questions investigators must ask, including what should be looked at beyond the case file itself, and how the growth in technology since the date of the incident might provide new opportunities to uncover clues. This section also explores the choice of interview/interrogation techniques based on the behavioral aspects involved. Finally, the authors suggest how investigators can maximize their efforts and obtain not just an arrest, but a conviction.

Useful appendices include sample standard operating procedures from three different agencies to use as a guide for setting up a cold case unit and a list of additional resources a department may look to for assistance. By following the cold cases evaluation model in this volume, those charged with resolving long-forgotten crimes can increase their chance of an accurate resolution, or at least be able to say that everything that can be done has been done.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"I recommend this book to forensic practitioners. … We can gain a better understanding of the anatomy of a cold case investigation and how we can better assist the investigators."
— Alan Benton, B.A., Sgt. ( Retired), Forensics Instructor, Ontario Police College
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Product Details

Meet the Author

James M. Adcock, PhD and Sarah L. Stein, MFS are with The Center for the Resolution of Unresolved Crime (CRUC) in Hattiesburg, Mississippi, USA

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Table of Contents

List of Figures xiii

Series Editor's Preface xv

Acknowledgments xvii

Introduction xxi

Authors xxvii

Section I Getting Started: How do we Prepare to Review and Conduct Cold Case Investigations?

1 What Is a Cold Case and How Did We Get Here? James M. Adcock Sarah L. Stein 3

Historical Perspective 6

Endnotes 10

2 Understanding the Process of Homicide and Those Who Kill James M. Adcock Sarah L. Stein 13

Social Scientists' Research on Homicide 13

Homicide During the 1960s to 1990s 16

Solvability Research 20

The Phases of Homicide 22

Endnotes 23

3 Creating a Cold Case Squad (Concepts for Initialization) James M. Adcock Sarah L. Stein 27

Endnotes 37

Section II The Evaluation Process

4 The Cold Case Evaluation Model-Introduction and Phase I James M. Adcock Sarah L. Stein 41

Introduction 41

Cold Case Evaluation Protocol 43

Phase I 45

The Case File 49

Official Documents 50

Police Reports 51

Victimology 52

Statements/Interviews 52

Physical/Forensic Evidence 53

Records 53

Persons of Interest 54

Handwritten Notes 54

Media 55

Miscellaneous 55

5 The Cold Case Evaluation Model-Phase II James M. Adcock Sarah L. Stein 57

Introduction 57

The Evaluation Model 57

Endnotes 68

6 The Cold Case Evaluation Model-Phases III and IV James M. Adcock Sarah L. Stein 69

Introduction 69

Phase III 69

Phase IV 75

Section III Follow-Up Investigative Strategies

7 Applying Science and Technology to Cold Cases Albert B. Harper 85

Science and the Scientific Method in Criminal Investigation 85

Scientific Advances, Databases, and Linkage Possibilities 86

DNA and Biological Evidence 86

What Is DNA? 87

Forensic DNA 88

DNA Technology 89

Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) 91

Mitochondrial DNA, Y Chromosome, and Other DNA Analyses 91

Fingerprint Evidence 94

Classification of Fingerprints 95

Advances in Fingerprint Recognition 95

Analysis of Previously Developed Prints and AFIS 96

Ballistics Evidence 98

Other Database and Analytical Tools 99

Conclusion 100

References 101

8 Suspect Identification Using Pre-, Peri-, and Post-Offense Behaviors Richard Walter Sarah L. Stein James M. Adcock 103

Perpetrator Subtypes 104

Power-Assertive Type 104

Power-Reassurance Type 104

Anger-Retaliatory Type 105

Anger-Excitation Type 106

Summary 106

Methods 109

Crime Behavior 109

Pre-Crime Behavior 110

Post-Crime Behavior 111

Case Illustration 111

Conclusion 123

Endnotes 123

9 Interview and Interrogation Issues and Concerns Relating to Cold Cases James M. Adcock Sarah L. Stein 125

The Interview Process 128

The Behavioral Analysis Interview (BAI) 129

The Prescriptive Interview 132

Murder Typologies and Interrogation Strategies 135

Power-Assertive (PA) 136

Power-Reassurance (PR) 137

Anger-Retaliatory (AR) 138

Anger-Excitation (AE) 139

Summary 140

Endnotes 141

10 Evaluation Reports and Legal Considerations James M. Adcock Sarah L. Stein 143

Introduction 143

Report Formats 143

The Prosecutor 144

Legal Considerations 148

General Considerations 149

Chain of Custody 150

Memory of Witnesses 150

Loss of Evidence 151

Other 151

The Murder of Martha Moxley (A Case Study) 151

Martha's Story 152

Conclusion 155

Endnotes 156

11 Conclusion James M. Adcock Sarah L. Stein 157

Endnote 159

Appendices

A Office of the Morris County Prosecutor, New Jersey-Standard Operating Procedures 161

B Metropolitan Police Department, Washington, D.C.-Major Case/Cold Case Squads-Standard Operating Procedures 177

C Establishing a Police Gray Squad to Resolve Unsolved Homicide Cases-Tulsa Police Department, Tulsa, OK 189

D Sample Cold Case Evaluation Report 193

E Alternate Resources for Investigators 221

Index 225

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