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Cold War: The Essential Reference Guide


Cold War: The Essential Reference Guide is intended to introduce students to the tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States that dominated international affairs in the second half of the 20th century. A comprehensive overview essay, plus separate essays on the causes and consequences of the conflict, will provide readers with the necessary context to understand the many facets of this complex era.

The guide's expert contributors cover all of the influential people ...

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Cold War: The Essential Reference Guide

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Cold War: The Essential Reference Guide is intended to introduce students to the tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States that dominated international affairs in the second half of the 20th century. A comprehensive overview essay, plus separate essays on the causes and consequences of the conflict, will provide readers with the necessary context to understand the many facets of this complex era.

The guide's expert contributors cover all of the influential people and pivotal events of the period, encompassing the United States, the Soviet Union, Europe, Southeast Asia, China, the Middle East, Latin America, and Africa from political, military, and cultural perspectives. Reference entries offer valuable insight into the leaders and conflicts that defined the Cold War, while other essays promote critical thinking about controversial and significant Cold War topics, including whether Ronald Reagan was responsible for ending the Cold War, the impact of Sputnik on the Cold War, and the significance of the Prague Spring.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"The editors and 56 other experts contributed the 85 signed alphabetical entries, along with six essays discussing the causes and consequences of the Cold War, the growth of technology, evolving East-West relations, proxy wars and military aid, and Ronald Reagan and the Cold War. Each entry and essay contains bibliographical references. . . . A recommended purchase for school, academic, and public libraries."



"Overall, this work is extremely useful. It is informative, easy-to-use, and well-written."



Library Journal
Arnold (The Moro War: How America Battled a Muslim Insurgency in the Philippine Jungle, 1902–1913) and Wiener (managing editor, Journal of Military History; The Encyclopedia of North American Colonial Conflicts to 1775: A Political, Social, and Military History) make a very complex and interwoven set of events clear even to readers who are not military historians. Their concise but thorough work addresses broad topics such as the causes and consequences of the Cold War and offers entries on narrower subjects such as Arab nationalism, gulags, Ostpolitik (the German foreign policy initiative), and the United Nations. Related figures, from President Kennedy to Nikita Kruschev and from Joseph McCarthy to Yuri Andropov, are also profiled. An extensive bibliography at the close of the volume as well as suggestions for further reading at the end of each topic make this a great resource for starting research on the era. VERDICT This book makes a difficult topic easier to understand, but it still requires some knowledge of the time in question.—Christine Sharbrough, Derry P.L., NH
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781610690034
  • Publisher: ABC-CLIO, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 1/31/2012
  • Pages: 443
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 10.10 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Table of Contents

Overview of the Cold War ix

Causes of the Cold War xiii

Consequences of the Cold War xxiii

Reference Entries

Acheson, Dean Gooderham (1893-1971) 1

Afghanistan War (1979-1989) 3

Africa 6

Arab Nationalism 12

Bay of Pigs (April 17, 1961) 15

Berlin Blockade and Airlift (1948-1949) 16

Berlin Crises (1958-1961) 19

Berlin Wall (August 13, 1961-November 9, 1989) 21

Brandt, Willy (1913-1992) 24

Brezhnev, Leonid (1906-1982) 27

Central Intelligence Agency 29

Churchill, Winston (1874-1965) 31

Civil Defense 34

Committee on the Present Danger 38

Communist Revolutionary Warfare 41

Congo Civil War (1960-1965) 44

Cuba 45

Cuban Missile Crisis (October 1962) 48

Dominican Republic, U.S. Interventions in 55

Dulles, John Foster (1888-1959) 56

Eisenhower, Dwight David (1890-1969) 61

Geneva Conference (1954) 65

Gorbachev, Mikhail (1931-) 66

Greek Civil War (1946-1949) 68

Gromyko, Andrey (1909-1989) 70

Gulags 71

Helsinki Final Act (1975) 75

Hiss, Alger (1904-1996) 76

Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969) 76

Hoover, John Edgar (1895-1972) 78

Human Rights 79

Hydrogen Bomb 83

Indochina War (1946-1954) 87

Israel 91

Johnson, Lyndon Baines (1908-1973) 95

Kennan, George Frost (1904-2005) 99

Kennedy, John Fitzgerald (1917-1963) 101

Khrushchev, Nikita (1894-1971) 104

Kissinger, Henry (1923-) 107

Korean War (1950-1953) 108

Laos 119

Latin America, Popular Liberation Movements in 121

Literature 123

Malayan Emergency (1948-1960) 131

Mao Zedong (1893-1976) 132

Marshall Plan 135

McCarthyism 139

Missiles, Intercontinental Ballistic 141

Moscow Meeting, Brezhnev and Nixon (May 22-30, 1972) 144

Mutual Assured Destruction 146

National Security Act (July 26, 1947) 149

National Security Agency 150

Nixon, Richard Milhous (1913-1994) 151

Non-Aligned Movement 153

North American Aerospace Defense Command 155

North Atlantic Treaty Organization, History of (1948-1990) 157

NSC-68, National Security Council Report 160

Nuclear Arms Race 161

Nuclear Tests 164

Ostpolitik 169

Partial Test Ban Treaty (August 5, 1963) 173

Peace Movements 174

Perestroika 178

Prague Spring (1968) 178

Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty 183

Reagan, Ronald Wilson (1911-2004) 184

Sakharov, Andrei Dimitrievich (1921-1989) 189

Sino-Soviet Split (1956-1966) 190

Solidarity Movement 193

Sputnik (October 4, 1957) 196

Stalin, Josef (1879-1953) 198

Strategic Air Command 201

Strategic Arms Limitation Talks and Treaties 203

Strategic Arms Reduction Talks and Treaties 207

Strategic Defense Initiative 209

Tiananmen Square (June 4, 1989) 213

Tito, Josip Broz (1892-1980) 215

Truman Doctrine (March 12, 1947) 217

U-2 Incident (May 1960) 221

United Nations 222

Vietnam War (1957-1975) 231

Vladivostok Meeting (November 22-24, 1974) 238

Warsaw Pact 239

Washington Summit Meeting, Reagan and Gorbachev (December 7-10, 1987) 242

Yeltsin, Boris (1931-2007) 245

Primary Source Documents

Declaration on Liberated Europe: The Yalta Conference (February 1945) 249

Ho Chi Minh: Telegrams to President Harry S. Truman (September 29, 1945, and February 28, 1946) 250

Winston Churchill: "The Sinews of Peace" (Iron Curtain Speech) (March 5, 1946) 251

George C. Marshall: Remarks by the Secretary of State (Marshall Plan) (June 5, 1947) 253

North Atlantic Treaty (1949) 256

Harry S. Truman: First U.S. Acknowledgment of Soviet Atomic Bomb Detonation (September 23, 1949) 258

Joseph McCarthy: Speech on Spread of Communism (February 20, 1950) 259

Harry S. Truman: Declaration of a National Emergency (December 16, 1950) 261

Douglas MacArthur: Post-Recall Speech to Congress (April 19, 1951) 262

Korean Armistice Agreement (1953) 268

Dwight D. Eisenhower: "The Row of Dominoes," Presidential Press Conference (April 7, 1954) 271

Warsaw Security Pact (1955) 273

Mao Zedong: "U.S. Imperialism Is a Paper Tiger" (July 14, 1956) 276

Imre Nagy: Final Message to the Hungarian People (1956) 279

Soviet Announcement of Sputnik (October 5, 1957) 279

John F. Kennedy: Inaugural Address (January 20, 1961) 281

Vadim Orlov: Account of the B-59 Incident (1962) 284

John F. Kennedy: Commencement Address Announcing Cooperation with Soviets (June 10, 1963) 285

Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1963) 291

Tonkin Gulf Resolution (August 7, 1964) 293

Chinese Announcement of Nuclear Test (October 16, 1964) 294

Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (1968) 296

Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty I (May 26, 1972) 299

U.S. War Powers Act (November 7, 1973) 301

Yuri Andropov: Memorandum to Brezhnev on Afghanistan (December 1979) 303

Civil Defense Instructions for Home Fallout Shelters (1980) 305

U.S. Government: Disappearances and Human Rights, Three Document Excerpts (1980-1996) 307

Ronald Reagan: The "Evil Empire" (March 8, 1983) 345

Ronald Reagan: "Tear Down This Wall" Speech (June 12, 1987) 348

The Minsk Declarations (Dissolution of the Soviet Union) (December 8, 1991) 353

Competition Spurs Technology 359

Evolving East-West Relations 363

Proxy Wars and Militaiy Aid 367

Ronald Reagan and the Cold War 371

Cold War Chronology 377

Bibliography 393

List of Editors and Contributors 415

Index 419

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