Collaborate or Perish!: Reaching Across Boundaries in a Networked Worldby William Bratton, Zachary Tumin
In Collaborate or Perish! former Los Angeles police chief and New York police commissioner William Bratton and Harvard Kennedy School’s Zachary Tumin lay out a field-tested playbook for collaborating across the boundaries of our networked world. Today, when everyone is connected, collaboration is the game changer. Agencies and firms, citizens and/i>
In Collaborate or Perish! former Los Angeles police chief and New York police commissioner William Bratton and Harvard Kennedy School’s Zachary Tumin lay out a field-tested playbook for collaborating across the boundaries of our networked world. Today, when everyone is connected, collaboration is the game changer. Agencies and firms, citizens and groups who can collaborate, Bratton and Tumin argue, will thrive in the networked world; those who can’t are doomed to perish.
No one today is better known around the world for his ability to get citizens, governments, and industries working together to improve the safety of cities than William Bratton. At Harvard, Zachary Tumin has led senior executives from government and industry in executive sessions and classrooms for over a decade, burnishing a global reputation for insight and leadership. Together, Bratton and Tumin draw on in-depth accounts from Fortune 100 giants such as Alcoa, Wells Fargo, and Toyota; from masters of collaboration in education, social work, and the military; and from Bratton’s own storied career. Among the specific strategies they reveal:
• Start collaboration with a broad vision that supporters can add to and make their own
• Rightsize problems, and get value in the hands of users fast
• Get the right people involved—from sponsors to grass roots
• Make collaboration pay in the right currency—whether recognition, rewards, or revenue
Today companies and managers face unique challenges—and opportunities—in reaching out to others, thanks to the incredibly connected world in which we live. Bratton and Tumin provide practical strategies anyone can use, from the cubicle to the boardroom. This is the ultimate guide to getting things done in today’s networked world.
“Bratton and Tumin give example after vivid example of something I have long believed: that by creating a vision, aligning goals, breaking down barriers, and working together to innovate, we can achieve results that few thought possible.” ―Captain Chesley “Sully” Sullenberger, author of Highest Duty: My Search for What Really Matters.
“Collaborate or Perish! is a brilliant guide replete with sound practical insight into what it takes to successfully collaborate in today’s highly networked world. Bratton and Tumin skillfully use their own experiences and fascinating analyses of business, high-stakes national defense issues, and government to bring their ideas to life.” ―Professor Renée Mauborgne, INSEAD, coauthor of the international bestseller Blue Ocean Strategy
“Collaborate or Perish packs a powerful one-two punch: practical street-smart experience lashed up to a coherent intellectual framework for managing and fostering change. It’s a user’s down-to-earth guide for transforming a traditional hierarchy into an agile, self-sustaining network. I only wish I had such a guide in some of my former government positions.” —Gen Michael V. Hayden, USAF (ret.), and former Director, National Security Agency and Central Intelligence Agency
“The velocity of the things and events around us are accelerating faster than ever. Chief Bratton and Zach Tumin have insightfully captured that our individual effectiveness must be multiplied through people, platforms, and unparalleled passion.” ―Greg Brown, chairman and CEO of Motorola
“Bill Bratton and Zach Tumin reveal in this book a first-class understanding for organization and management in a variety of situations. Their theme is collaboration along with technology that provides critical information for evaluating the situation on the ground under a leadership that supplies direction and support. The lessons, based in part on Bill Bratton’s own record as police commissioner of both New York and Los Angeles, shine through the pages of this book to the point where it becomes inspirational for the reader . . . An extraordinary book for anyone interested in how ‘action leads to results,’ as Mr. Bratton puts it. —Mort Zuckerman, editor in chief of U.S. News & World Report and publisher of the New York Daily News
The joy of this book—yes, joy—is in seeing people run through walls: on the streets of a big city plagued by extortion rackets; submersed in a submarine that is not picking up danger signals; in a disease control center baffled by clues to the source of a bug that is hourly threatening thousands and ruining hundreds of angry farmers; in a customs shed unable to process goods fast and safely enough; in a convoy in Iraq and Afghanistan up against the diabolical permutations of the bomb-makers. Bratton and Tumin document scores of successful resolutions of apparently insuperable complexities. The magic key, from their own experiences and others, is collaboration. Technology counts but people talking to people counts for more. . . . The rich accumulation of the lessons is valuable but entertaining too. Every copy of the book should bear a sticker: Guaranteed not to bore. ―Sir Harold Evans, author of They Made America: From the Steam Engine to the Search Engine, Two Centuries of Innovation
“Bill Bratton is the Vince Lombardi of the security game. And in Collaborate or Perish!, he and Zach Tumin explain the roots of this success: building a team, unifying a team, and then getting results through leadership and collaboration.” ―Graydon Carter, editor of Vanity Fair
“Becoming more effective and succeeding is a goal most of us share. Now William Bratton and Zachary Tumin focus on the power of effective collaboration, citing real-life examples as the key to real success. Their insight together with their extremely readable story clearly and convincingly explain why “going it alone” no longer works in our increasingly connected society.” —Leonard Stern, chairman and CEO of the Hartz Group
“Collaborate or Perish! is a refreshing kick in the pants—a wonderful collection of real-world, ‘power of the many’ examples. We all need to hear the rallying cry to take action together. Bill Bratton and Zach Tumin create excitement and a new desire to get involved. They not only motivate, they provide a playbook for how.” —Lt Gen Tad Oelstrom, USAF (ret.), and Director, National Security Program, Harvard Kennedy School
“The days of a Lone Ranger approach to problem-solving are over. In today’s interconnected world, the best ideas and most effective implementation come when collaboration is at the core. Collaborate or Perish! is chock-full of real-world examples and behind-the-scenes insights from across industries and sectors that illustrate how success comes when teams work together.” ―Eli Broad, founder of the Broad Foundations
“Like many New Yorkers, I love Bill Bratton. It may be that no single person had more of a role transforming New York City into the safe, welcoming city it became when he was police commissioner. Collaborate or Perish, written with Zachary Tumin, captures everything that makes Bratton so special. It’s built around a big vision—that true collaboration is the key to solving the world’s most complex problems—but it’s also grounded in incredibly specific, cool, disruptive strategies for how to make collaboration happen, and the sort of insider stories that only someone like Bratton is in a position to know. I savored every word of this book . . .” ―Tony Schwartz, author of The Way We’re Working Isn’t Working and The Power of Full Engagement
“In today’s world, collaboration across organizational boundaries is an imperativenot only within the public sector, but between the public, private, and nonprofit sectors. In Collaborate or Perish!, Bill Bratton and Zach Tumin show us how it works, providing a series of lessons that spell the difference between success and failure. Not only that, they do so in entertaining fashion, with real-world stories that jump off the page. Read this book!” ―David Osborne, senior partner at the Public Strategies Group and coauthor of Reinventing Government, The Price of Government, and other books.
“No effective organization is an island. Whether you’re in the corporate world, the public sector, the military, or even a small business owner, Bill Bratton and Zach Tumin’s guide to institutional collaboration is a game changer.” —Cynthia Brown, publisher of American Police Beat
“In this networked, wired, ‘flat’ world of ours today, for some reason, America is losing its competitive edge. In Collaborate or Perish!, internationally renowned anti-crime expert Bill Bratton and Zach Tumin identify that reason and point the way to regaining our edge. In today’s world, our individualist culture won’t cut it. We’ve simply got to collaborate, if we are to survive, much less thrive. Wall Street, Main Street, and, especially, Washington, listen up!” ―Clark Ervin, director of the Aspen Institute Homeland Security Program
“Bratton and Tumin make a convincing case that collaboration benefits not only policing, but virtually every organizational process and decision. In settings from casinos to schools, Collaborate or Perish! demonstrates how systematic collaboration can transform an organization.” ―Thomas H. Davenport, President’s Distinguished Professor of IT and Management, Babson College
“Bill Bratton has proved that he knows how to get results. In New York City and Los Angeles, he brought crime down because he had a big new vision for the police—he said police must prevent crime, not just investigate after the harm has been done. And Bratton saw his job as changing the urban environment, so people would feel safe in the city and would once again trust their police. To achieve these sweeping changes, Bill looked beyond the police department and got other people and organizations involved in his mission. Zach Tumin has led the way in bringing this kind of collaborative thinking to corporate America. Together, Bill and Zach have written a book that’s a road map for any organization to succeed. They tell compelling stories of what is possible when you look for partners who can help you achieve your goals.” ―Chuck Wexler, Police Executive Research Forum
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Read an Excerpt
The Case for Collaboration
THE HUNT FOR TEN RED BALLOONS
On October 29, 2009, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) announced its "Network Challenge." At 10:00 a.m. on December 5, 2009, at ten locations throughout the United States, DARPA would let fly an eight-foot-diameter red weather balloon tethered to the ground. Each balloon would be readily visible from local roads and buildingspoints the average person could reach. A $40,000 prize would go to the first team to accurately report the location of all ten weather balloons.
The contest was meant to replicate the challenge of trying to gather information about an adversary in an open environment. DARPA wanted to test whether ordinary folks using commonly available off-the-shelf technology and social media like Twitter or Facebook could work togethercollaborateto solve a problem that would be, in the words of one expert from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, "impossible to solve by traditional intelligence gathering methods."
A team from MIT's Media Lab won. No surprise there. MIT had a slew of faculty and top graduate students, the most sophisticated equipment, and great publicity. CNN profiled them and drew attention to their cause. A Georgia Tech team placed second, for similar reasons.
Both teams competed fiercely. They put out misinformation, reporting false sightings, sent others on wild-goose chases, and bought time for themselves. Both teams wrote complex computer programs to defend themselves against such attacks.
Given their advantages, you would expect MIT and Georgia Tech to come out aheadand they did, with a winning time under nine hours.
But what is interesting is the guy who finished in a tie for third with eight balloons, and actually led the pack for the first four hours of the competitionnineteen-year-old hacker George Hotz. Hotz heard about the contest only a couple of days before, and only an hour before it started he put up a website called Dudeitsaballoon.com.
How did he do it? His idea was based on a kind of mass collaboration.
Hotz had nearly fifty thousand followers on Twitter. They, in turn, had hundreds of thousands of followers. His plan was to mobilize them allget thousands in the game and all those eyeballs searching for the prized red balloons. It almost worked.
Hotz was already famous in the hacker community for "jailbreaking" the Sony PlayStation and the Apple iPhone. He'd cracked their proprietary codes, and for the iPhone wrote software that let iPhone owners use it on any wireless network, not just AT&T'smuch to AT&T's and Apple's chagrin and the hacker community's glee.
These legendary hacks made Hotz a star. He gained tens of thousands of Twitter followers, all of whom wanted to be the first to know what George Hotz might do next. On Twitter, they would soon find out.
On the day before the DARPA contest, Hotzwho went by his Twitter name, @geohottweeted his followers to stand by for a major announcement the next day. That started a buzz going in the Twitterverse and on hacker bulletin boards.
On Saturday morning @geohot tweeted his fifty thousand followers:
10AM EST today marks the start of a US wide scavenger hunt, for 10 red balloons http://bit.ly/7chum5 #dudeitsaballoon
He quickly followed up with another tweet:
So I need your help to do two things, 1, find big red balloons, and 2, RT [retweet] and trend this !!!! http://bit.ly/7chum5 #dudeitsaballoon
He included a link to his website. The hashtagged #dudeitsaballoon guaranteed that if his message got retweeted, as requested, #dudeitsaballoon would rise to the top of the Twitter trending terms. That would amplify its effectand call further attention to Hotz's cause.
Visitors clicking through to Hotz's website found the following message:
Right now you are all probably waking up to another normal Saturday. But this Saturday is not normal. In addition to planes, birds, owls, and everything else in the sky, there are 10 red balloons scattered around the United States. Starting at 10AM EST, your US government is using tax dollars to send 10 big red weather balloons into the sky. I need to know the location of those balloons.
So if you see a big red balloon in the sky, about 8ft round, numbered 1 to 10 . . . report it here ASAP so I can win the contest.
Hotz offered $1,000 to anyone who gave him a confirmed sighting. And he offered something that would incite any die-hard hacker.
"Seriously," Hotz wrote. "If you guys come through for me . . . I'll make you an untethered jailbreak."
Offering an untethered jailbreak to the hacker community was like dangling red meat in front of a lion. It was the gold standard of all hacks. Unlike Hotz's earlier iPhone hack, which left the iPhone tethered to software you had to run each time you started the phone, this time Hotz was promising to hack the iPhone again and create an untethered jailbreak. Untethered, you could use your phone just like any cell phone, on any carrier. Untethered, the iPhone would be released from its earthly moorings. It would be hacker heaven.
Word raced around hacker online sites and bulletin boards that George Hotz was offering to do an untethered jailbreak for spotting the red balloons. We have to win this, the hacker community buzzed. Do it for @geohot; do it for us!
By hour four, Hotz had four verified sightingsmore than the MIT team and the Georgia Tech team. He traded two of his four sightings with one of the other front-running teams. That made six.
Eventually, the MIT and Georgia Tech teams surged ahead, but not before Hotz found eight of the ten balloons. He had done better than dozens of teams competing. It was far more than what traditional intelligence gathering could accomplish.
More than that, it showed DARPA the raw power of the Internet to foster collaboration. What George Hotz lacked in funding, institutional support, and educational credentials he made up for with digital age assets: networks of followers who, on an otherwise ordinary Saturday and with a promise of glory and gifts, he could get in the game fast. Already arrayed on trusted platforms, Hotz sent current through those networks, turned followers into partisans, and got them collaboratingin minutes. Together, they pulled off something extraordinary (and nearly won the Challenge).
RESTORING AN EMPIRE STATE OF MIND
BILL BRATTON Takes New York
As the commissioner of the New York City Police Department and the Boston Police Department, and chief of the Los Angeles Police Department, I learned about the power of collaboration across departments, agencies, and private industry early on.
In 1993, an army of squeegee people seemed to have taken over New York. At every corner and tunnel entrance in the city, you'd stop for a light and they would pounce, some filthy rag or sponge coming up to your windshield, a face and hand close behind. You could try to wave them off. Or you could try to ignore them, eyes straight ahead. Not always practical. It was sort of a mini-street corner protection racket, with the convenient charade of a spit-enhanced wipe down and a key scratch across your car's paint job if you didn't pay them for the "cleaning."
In 1993, the election for New York City mayor was on. US Attorney Rudy Giuliani was running against Mayor David Dinkins, crime, disorderand squeegee people. You could almost make a compound noun of those terms, lumping them all together, and many voters did. The news stories were incessant, fueling what every New Yorker sensed anyway, whether they commuted by car, foot, or subway: the city was out of control.
Ten percent of New Yorkers experienced violent crime in a year. But every day 100 percent experienced the city's disorder: fare beaters and drunks on the subways, mental patients off their meds wandering the streets, prostitution operating out in the open. Long lines, high taxes, poor service. Broken neighborhoods, broken people, broken windowsa broken city.
It all fueled a sense of chaos. The New York Post summed it up for the incumbent, Mayor Dinkins: "Dave, Do Something!"
Too late for his mayoralty, Dinkins raised money for six thousand more cops. Too often, NYPD commissioner Ray Kelly's cops scattered the squeegee people only to see them rally to some other corner moments later.
When the dust of the November elections settled, the voters had replaced Dinkins with Giuliani; the new mayor soon replaced Kelly with me as NYPD commissioner. I had been the commissioner of the Boston Police Department and before that, in 1991, chief of the New York City Transit Police Department.
Giuliani had made a campaign promise to get rid of the squeegee guys, so I knew I needed to move quickly, continuing the work Kelly had begun. Counting heads, it turned out that the "army" of squeegee men had actually numbered about seventy-five. Well before the Internet, the blogosphere, or the Twitterverse, New York's potent tabloids had turned seventy-five sponge-and-bucket guys into a national symbol of impotent government and a city on the brink.
Persistent police work paid off. Many of the men had had prior problems with the law and couldn't afford to get arrested again. Which is exactly what we promised, and did. We stayed around long enough to break up this thriving little extortion racket that was driving the city crazy. Seemingly overnight the squeegee men were gonethough we did have in our favor thirty-eight thousand cops versus seventy-five squeegee pests.
The tactics I used to conquer that problem formed the strategy of what I hoped would be a much more ambitious effort, one aimed not just at cutting crime but at dramatically changing the quality of life in New York.
The NYPD had people bluffed, as I later wrote in my first book looking back at the time. They had the reputation as the greatest crime-fighting machine in the history of policing, but to me the big blue wall was a lot of blue smoke and a few mirrors.
They were good at responding to crime, they just weren't very good at preventing it. They weren't even trying to prevent it. They were just cleaning up around it.
The NYPD, like many departments, was "all response, all the time." The 911 dispatch system created in the 1970s had democratized policing: it was no longer "who you knew downtown." Now, any citizen could mobilize the department with a free call from a pay phone. And millions did. Police were racing across the city from call to call.
But the 911 system didn't dent crime muchthe onslaught of crack, disorder, and guns in the 1980s and '90s saw to that. A single citizen could make hundredseven thousandsof calls complaining about nuisance gangs, drugs, and prostitutes on the same corner. Officers responded every time, but nothing changed. It was like shoveling sand against the tidethe tide kept coming back.
Remember the precinct house nicknames of the time"Fort Apache, the Bronx" or "Little House on the Prairie"? That's what American policing had become: isolated outposts, controlling little outside its four wallsor outside the cruiser. The 911 dispatch kept cops in cars, windows rolled up, AC blasting, racing to calls or on "random" patrol in between, intending to deter crime by their mere presence.
As New York City's police commissioner, I quickly set out to establish a new form of policing, one that required collaboration not only between all areas of the department, but also with other agencies and the public. My goal was to transform the city and the American police profession.
It all starts with a vision, I told the department: as good as we are, we can do better. But we can't do it alone.
The path forwardthe new platform for policing New Yorkcame to be known as CompStat.
"When have you guys ever addressed crime?" Jack Maple, my right hand at the New York Transit Police Department and now at the NYPD, was digging in. John Timoney, a twenty-five-year NYPD veteran and now my chief of department, had called Maple out for his comment to a reporter. "Those guys over there at the NYPD have given up on crime fighting," Maple had said.
Timoney pointed to this operation and that, and cited his stellar service as commander of New York's 5th Precinct on the Lower East Side. Maple would have none of it. "Your Narcotics Bureau works nine to five, Monday through Friday. The Warrant squad is off weekends. Auto crimes, off weekends. Robbery squad, off weekends. The whole place takes weekends and nightsjust when the criminal element gets down to work."
And that was the problem.
To transform the city, I knew, my team and I would have to start with the NYPD. To succeed, I needed believers and doers. I screened the incoming command staff and promoted my own leaders over the heads of othersTimoney among them, and Louis Anemone, who would be chief of patrol. My inner staff was made up of longtime NYPD partisansbut commanders who were loyal to me, who understood and bought into my vision: the NYPD could do better, and this was the way.
Maple had been through this before with me when years earlier I reorganized the New York Transit Police Department. Metropolitan Transit Authority president David Gunn had told me at the time that fare beating was bleeding the MTA dry; disorder was shrinking ridership. There was brand-new capital waiting to be poured into rebuilding the subwaysbut the subways were out of control. He needed them tamed.
I concentrated patrols where the problem was highest, and ran high-visibility mass arrests. We were able to bring fare beating on the subways down from 170,000 per day to the point where it fell so low that the MTA stopped tracking it. Malcolm Gladwell wrote about this "tipping point" phenomenon in his book of the same name.
But I also learned something that stuck with me: many fare beaters tend to have character flaws. One in seven was wanted on a warrant or probation and parole violation. One in twenty-one carried an illegal weapon.
And that got the cops going: an arrest for fare beating wasn't just about writing a paper summons anymore. Now it was about making felony collars. And when fare beating went away, crime fell, and so, too, did the sense of disorder. And when it did, ridership returned. The MTA coffers began to fill again; the capital plan could go forward. That was the idea.
Take care of the small stuff, shake the tree for information, and you head off the big stuff. Take a fare beater or a low-level drug dealer off the street, and whatever criminal behavior he had in mind goes away with him. You can control behavior to such an extent that you can change it. That was the broken windows theory in practice.1
1 The "broken windows" theory was articulated by George L. Kelling and James Q. Wilson in the March 1982 issue of The Atlantic: "Broken Windows: The Police and Neighborhood Policing."
Meet the Author
WILLIAM J. BRATTON is chairman of Kroll, one of Altegrity, Inc.’s three core businesses. Mr. Bratton joined Altegrity in November 2009 after serving as chief of the Los Angeles Police Department for seven years. Prior, he served as chief of the New York City Transit Police and commissioner of the Boston Police Department and the New York City Police Department. A frequent lecturer, writer, and commentator, Bill Bratton is known as one of the world’s premier police chiefs. Mr. Bratton also serves on the Motorola Solutions board of directors. In 2009 Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II recognized Bratton with the honorary title of Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (CBE).
ZACHARY TUMIN is special assistant to the director and faculty chair of Harvard Kennedy School’s Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program, the most recent of a number of key posts that Mr. Tumin has held at the school. In addition to leading research programs and executive teaching at Harvard, Mr. Tumin served in senior executive roles for industry and government, including as head of public safety for the New York City public schools, on the executive staffs of the Brooklyn District Attorney and the New York State Organized Crime Task Force, and as director of the Financial Services Technology Consortium. A frequent lecturer, Mr. Tumin is also author of numerous teaching cases, working papers, reports, and essays.
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