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A distinctive and clear guide for school consultants wishing to learn community collaboration with the help of learning tools, case studies, and resources.
Collaborative Consultation in the Schools is the only text to explain how to successfully collaborate with a range of professionals, students, and families in a school setting. The revised fourth edition has a new focus on problem-solving collaboration and places these activities within a larger Response-to-Intervention service delivery model. The text discusses scientifically based practices for consulting on academic and behavior problems, including methods for assessing and supporting intervention integrity. In addition, the application of current research is now illustrated in a number of case studies throughout this text. As always, this unique text continues to provide ample activities and examples for students and practitioners alike regarding practicing effective and collaborative school consultation in a variety of educational environments.
Overview of School-Based Consultation
Consultation and Collaboration: Definitions, Distinctions and Characteristics
Collaborative Consultation as an Expanded Role
Defining Characteristics and Goals of Collaboration Consultation
The Triadic Nature of Consultation
The Role of Process and Content Expertise in Consultation
Consultation at Different Levels of Problem Severity
Recent Changes in Education Affecting School Consultation
Response to Intervention
Why is Collaborative Consultation Replacing Expert Models of Consultation?
What is the Present Status of Collaborative Consultation in the Schools?
Research on the Effectiveness of School Consultation
Consultation Models and Professional Practices
A Rationale for a Model
Two Theoretical Traditions
Mental Health Paradigm
Models of School Consultation
Conjoint Behavioral Consultation
Consultation Configurations and Settings
Beginning Teacher Support Consultation
Student Study Teams (SST)
Resource/Consulting Teacher (R/Ct) Program Model
Individualized Education Program (IEP) Team
Transition Planning Teams (TPT)
Roles, Skills and Activities of School-Based Consultants
Student Study Teams (SST)
The Importance of Structure
Consulting with Parents and Families
Problem-Solving Consultation in a Response-to-Intervention System
Steps to Follow in the Consultation Process
Intervention Development and Implementation
Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Interventions and Recycle if Necessary
Response to Intervention (RtI)
Tier 1: Universal Prevention
Tier 2: Selective Intervention
Initial Referral to SST
Initial Discussion with the Teacher(s)
Classroom (Ecological) Observation
Using Parents as Allies in the Consultation Process
The First SST Meeting
The Follow-up SST Meeting
Tier 3: Indicated Interventions
Assessment of the Student
Functional Behavioral Assessment/Analysis
Planning or Modifying Interventions
Communication and Interpersonal Skills
Taking Notes, Keeping Track
Controlling the Consultative Interaction
Potential Difficulties in Communication
Evaluating Your Communication Skills
Desirable Interpersonal Characteristics and Skills
Power in the Consultative Relationship
Recent Thinking About Power Issues in Consultation
Types of Resistance
Causes of Resistance
Resistance by Parent-Consultees
Consultation in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Settings
Ethics in School Consultation
The Purpose, Sources, and Importance of Ethical Practice
Principles of Ethical Behavior
Codes of Ethics and Standards for professional Practice
A Problem-Solving Model for Dealing with Ethical Issues
Areas of Potential Ethical Conflict
Ethical Competencies, Confrontations and Advocacy
Additional Practice in Ethical Problem-Solving
Consulting About Students with Emotional or Behavioral Problems
An Orientation to the Nature of Emotional or Behavioral Problems (EBP)
General Reasons for Behavior Problems
Attention from Others
Child-Rearing Practices; Home and Community Influences
Classroom Management Practices
Conflict with Authority and Lack of Positive Relationship
Wanting to Have Fun, Alleviate Boredom, or Deal with Frustration
Mental Health Disorders
Health and Safety Issues
Categorical Systems for EBP
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA)
IDEA v. DSM IV
IDEA Mandates on Assessment, Intervention and Discipline of Students with EBP
Functional Assessment and Analysis of Behavior
Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)
Review of Record
Functional Analysis of Behavior
Positive Behavior Support
Consulting About Students with Academic Learning Problems
Important Variables in School Learning
Poor School Achievement: Nine Reasons and Suggested Interventions
1. Ineffective or Insufficient Instruction
3. Lower than Average Intellectual or Language Development
4. Health and Sensory Factors
5. Inability to Concentrate
6. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD)
7. Study Skills and Learning Strategies Deficiencies
8. Learning Disabilities or Disorders
9. Cultural, Socioeconomic, and Linguistic Differences
Sorting Through Reasons for Poor Achievement
Consultation about Academic Problems: A Brief Example
Third Grade: Poor Reading
Systems-Level Consultation: The Organization as the Target of Change
Why Systems-level Consultation?
Macro-Systemic Influences on School Innovation
State-Wide Technical Assistance
High Poverty, High performing (HP2) Schools
Value-Added Models of Evaluating Teacher Performance
Micro-Systemic Influences on School Innovation
Who Initiates Systems Change? Where does it come from?
Professional Development Activities of Consultants
Professional Development to Promote and Sustain an RtI Service Delivery Model
Systems Change Phases: The RtI Example
Determining a Need and Creating Readiness
Determining a Long-Term Vision and Desired Alternative Practices
Installation and Initial Implementation
Initiating Systems-Change: Inclusion Case Example
History of Concern
Concerned Parties (Constituents)
Key Trigger Incident(s)
Developing Initial Plans for Change
Selection of Changes in Practices, Roles, Funding
Implementation of the Program
Monitoring and Evaluating the Program
Summary of Case Example
Case Studies in Consultation: Behavior and Academic Problems in the Classroom
Orientation to the Cases
Case 1: Defiance
Discussion Questions and Comments on Case 1
Case 2: Academic Failure
Discussion Questions and Comments on Case 2
This book was written to fill the needs of two different groups: university students and practitioners in the schools. The students are likely to be doing work in special education, school psychology, school counseling, or educational administration. The practitioners are currently employed in these professions and are being asked more and more to help others, usually teachers or parents, solve teaching/learning and behavior management problems. In this book, I present the consultation process as a collaborative, problem-solving endeavor designed to assist consultees in their work with students who have, or are at risk for, school adjustment or learning problems. In addition, I include a chapter on ethics and advocacy and a chapter on systems-level consultation designed to improve service delivery to students and teachers in a whole school or district.
Consultation as a service delivery system in the public schools has increased in popularity over the past decade. Prior to 1990, most special and general educators were still expected to deal on their own with whatever problems they experienced in their teaching or management of children; indeed, those who sought help may have been regarded as unable to deal with the job of teaching and subtly, or overtly, rejected by their peers or supervisors. To an even greater extent, parents in the United States, since the decline of the extended family configurations that were prevalent before the Second World War, have been expected to raise their children without much assistance from others. The "village" that it takes to raise a child had disappeared and been replaced by neighbors known only slightly and relatives who lived faraway. Only people with large financial resources could access relatively expensive professional help for their children who needed it. Most parents, including those with children with disabilities, were left to their own resources.
In today's schools, we are fortunate to have experienced a change in attitudes about the value of team building and collaborative assistance. Part of the credit for this change should be given to the field of special education, which, as a result of P.L. 94-142, first implemented in 1977, established the need for team conferences (IEP meetings) to discuss the needs of, and solutions for, the learning and behavior/adjustment problems of students with disabilities. Since that time, teacher assistance teams, student study teams, and a host of other formal or semiformal team arrangements have been developed and have proven their effectiveness in meeting the needs of students who require some degree of assistance to be successful in school. These team interactions also meet the needs of teachers and parents in their efforts to teach or parent effectively.
Beyond what takes place in team meetings, there remains a real need for everyday assistance for both special education teachers who are providing direct teaching services to students with disabilities and general educators who are charged with teaching mainstreamed or included students with disabilities, in addition to a large cadre of other at-risk students. This text is primarily devoted to helping those who assist these special and general educators to deal with the everyday, ongoing challenges presented by these students. Largely because of increased inclusion and a seemingly growing number of at-risk youth, school personnel have learned the value of collaborative work as opposed to isolated work. In a school with a collaborative work ethic, the administration supports teachers who freely seek help from others, join in groups to discuss common or individual problems, and admit that they Kneed help. Job descriptions and expectations have changed accordingly. Special education teachers are increasingly leaving their resource rooms and special day classes and are spending part, if not all, of their school days in general education classes. School psychologists are learning alternative ways of assessing students, which include more time observing in the classes and more time talking with the teachers about the referrals and appropriate interventions that can be utilized in general education classes. School counselors are more likely to see if they can deal with some referrals through consultation with teachers and parents in conjunction with individual or group counseling efforts. Mentor teachers, vice-principals, and others who may have the opportunity to assist teachers and parents are also seeing their roles expand to include consultation.
This text differs in two major ways from others that are devoted to consultation in the schools. The first difference is the inclusion of five extended case studies. Two of these are about students who manifest behavior problems, two are in regard to students with learning (achievement) problems, and the fifth is a study of a systems-change effort. The second difference is the inclusion of separate chapters on students' learning and behavior problems. These problems are the main reasons for referral to a school consultant, whether that person has a primary position as a special education teacher, a school counselor, a school psychologist, a mentor teacher, or a vice-principal. Thus, it is important to have fundamental information about the probable causes and possible solutions to these problems.
This text has a number of strengths: (1) It is written in a user-friendly fashion. The author is very experienced in the practice of school consultation and has utilized his experiences to keep the situations described and interventions discussed at a very practical level. There is a bit of folk wisdom permeating these pages, a kind of common sense that may be lacking in some other texts that take perhaps too much of a seemingly impractical research-oriented perspective. Practitioners know that consultation is not an easy process to implement; this text presents the rough with the smooth and, because of this, lets future consultants know what the realities of the public schools are. (2) Each chapter has a number of student activities embedded in the narrative. These are intended to focus readers' attention on key aspects of the material and to give them a chance to practice the skills being discussed and to interact with others regarding the critical issues that are presented. (3) There are a number of figures and tables that serve a variety of purposes, such as models of forms, examples of paperwork that are used, and material cited from the work of others.
In this second edition I have added a set of objectives for each chapter which serve as guides to what the chapter covers. Also, this second edition has nearly twice the number of activities as did the first edition. There are also many more specific suggestions about interventions, especially in Chapter 5. The addition of a whole chapter on ethics and advocacy (Chapter 4) is not common among texts on consultation, in spite of the importance of these issues; I hope you will find it enlightening.
Chapter 1 presents an overview of school consultation as practiced by internal (i.e., regularly employed personnel) consultants. It defines terms and discusses the characteristics of consultation that are collaborative in nature; major focus points and questions about them; and the benefits and effectiveness of school consultation. I consider the consultee as a variable and explore information about consultation in culturally and linguistically diverse settings. The chapter concludes with a statement of philosophy about the educational placements of students with disabilities.
Chapter 2 presents a brief overview of various models and functional aspects that apply to school consultation. The behavioral and mental health models are discussed in some detail. There is also information about the roles, skills, and activities of consultants; student study team functions; and information about the development and conduct of inservice training.
Chapter 3 presents an extended discussion of the communication and interpersonal skills needed for effective consultation and reviews resistance to consultation and power dynamics in the consultative process.
Chapter 4 is devoted to issues of ethics and advocacy. In addition to a general overview of ethical issues, the chapter includes a review of the CEC ethical code and the standards of practice development for special educators. Case studies are presented to show how to apply the code and standards to situations that can occur in schools. A separate discussion of advocacy indicates how this potentially sensitive area can be utilized in a collaborative manner.
Chapter 5 is the heart of this text. Here I present generic models of the consultation process along with the solutions-oriented consultation system (SOCS), a 10-step practical model designed to guide school-based consultants through the often confusing stages that are necessary for comprehensive consultation work.
Chapter 6 reviews students' behavior/adjustment problems. I discuss reasons for these problems, terminology, and diagnostic methods including functional assessment, observation, interviews, rating scales, and charting methods. I also include general ideas for modifying classroom behavior.
Chapter 7 contains two extended case studies about two students who manifest behavior/adjustment problems and demonstrate how SOCS can be used to guide consultants' work.
Chapter 8 reviews learning/achievement problems among students and offers ideas for the diagnosis and remediation of these problems.
Chapter 9 consists of two case studies about students who manifest poor school achievement. Again, I use SOCS as the conduct guide for the consultation.
Chapter 10 is concerned with systems-change efforts. Reform and the revitalization of our public schools are topics of considerable importance as we move toward the achievement of GOALS 2000 and the "No child left behind" federal education bill approved by President George W. Bush in 2002. This chapter deals with systems-change ideas and presents a case study showing how a major change in service delivery to students with disabilities can be achieved.
I would like to thank the reviewers of the manuscript for their constructive comments: Donna Kearns, University of Central Oklahoma; Mark P. Mostert, Old Dominion University; Qaisar Sultana, Eastern Kentucky University; and Diana T. Woodrum, West Virginia University.