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Overview

This reader-friendly book presents the fundamental principles of physics in a clear and concise manner. Emphasizing conceptual understanding as the basis for mastering a variety of problem-solving tools, the book provides a wide range of relevant applications and illustrative examples. Insight boxes and references to real-life applications. One-third of the Insight boxes are new to this edition, covering topics such as "More Broken Records: The Clap Skate," "Space Explorations: Gravity Assists," "Human Body Temperature," "Electric Potential and Nerve Signal," and more. The real-life applications cover topics such as nutrition labels, reaction time, transverse and longitudinal seismic waves, sky diving and terminal velocity, and more. For anyone interested in Physics.
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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Updated from its 1997 edition, this introductory college level physics text is strong on visual tools, from abundant color illustrations, photographs, and diagrams to "learn by drawing" segments and "insight" boxes presenting concrete applications of physics principles. Chapter reviews include a variety of exercises, with answers provided at the end of the text. The volume's 30 chapters are organized into six sections: mechanics, thermodynamics, oscillations and wave motion, electricity and magnetism, optics, and modern physics. Appendices list mathematical relationships, kinetic theory of gases, planetary data, alphabetical listing of chemical elements, and properties of selected isotopes. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130841667
  • Publisher: Pearson Education
  • Publication date: 7/15/1999
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 522
  • Product dimensions: 8.51 (w) x 10.46 (h) x 0.60 (d)

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

We continue to believe that there are two goals any introductory physics course must accomplish, regardless of the approach, emphasis, or pedagogical techniques: (1) to impart an understanding of the basic physics principles and (2) to enable students to solve a variety of reasonable problems in topics presented in the text material.

These goals are linked. An understanding of physical principles is of limited use if it does not enable students to solve problems. Physics is a problem-solving science— and in the real world, students will be evaluated on their ability to produce correct answers on final exams or on the MCAT. Yet learning to solve problems by rote is not the same thing as learning physics. Knowing and doing— insight and skill— must go hand in hand.

Any deficiency in meeting the first goal is likely to be obvious. Test scores quickly get the attention of both test takers and test graders. Low grades demoralize instructors while discouraging students who, understandably, conclude that physics is "too hard" for any but the phenomenally gifted. Deficiencies in meeting the second goal tend to be more subtle. Research in physics education has shown that a surprising number of students who learn to solve typical problems well enough to pass examinations do so without ever arriving at a real understanding of the most elementary physical concepts. Such students often get high marks on exams, yet when asked to answer simple, qualitative questions designed to test their grasp of basic principles, they betray a surprising lack of insight. Simply put, they can solve quantitative problems and get the right answer, butthey do not know why it is right.

Achieving Our Goals— Features of the Fourth Edition

Most of the specific features of College Physics can be understood in light of these goals.

Conceptual Basis. We believe that giving students a secure grasp of physical principles will almost invariably enhance their problem-solving abilities. Central to this belief is an approach to the development of problem-solving skills that stresses the understanding of basic concepts, rather than the mechanical and rote use of formulas, as the essential foundation. Throughout the writing of College Physics, we have organized discussions and incorporated pedagogical tools to ensure that conceptual insight drives the development of practical skills.

Concise Coverage. To maintain a sharp focus on essential concepts, a book should emphasize the basics and minimize superfluous material. Topics of marginal interest have been avoided, as have those that present formal or mathematical difficulties for students. Similarly, we have not wasted space deriving relationships when they shed no additional light on the principle involved. It is usually more important for students in a course such as this to understand what a relationship means and how it can be used rather than the mathematical or analytical techniques employed to derive it.

Applications. College Physics has always been known for the strong mix of applications related to technology, science, architecture, medicine, and everyday life in its Insight boxes and text narrative. While the Fourth Edition continues to have a wider range of applications than do most texts, we have also increased the number of biological applications in recognition of the high percentage of pre-med and allied health majors who take this course. Some examples are the new Insight boxes Human Body Temperature, Electric Potential and Nerve Signal Transmission, and Magnetism in Nature. Overall, one-third of our Insight boxes are new. The Fourth Edition also contains many new applications within the text narrative and has an increased emphasis on real-world and applied topics in the worked Examples and end-of-chapter Exercises. A list of the most important applications with page references is found on p. xiii.

Visualization: "Learn by Drawing." visualization is one of the most important problemsolving tools in physics. In many cases, if students can make a sketch of a problem, they can solve it. "Learn by Drawing" features offer students specific help on making certain types of sketches,and graphs that will provide key insights into a variety of physical situations. The Fourth Edition has three new Learn by Drawing features, on the following topics: Cartesian coordinates and one dimensional motion, oscillation in a parabolic potential well, and the independence of potential difference on reference point.

Demonstrations. Photo sequences of 16 physics demonstrations bring physical principles to life, helping students understand that the information and equations on the page describe real-world phenomena.

Integrated Learning Objectives. Specific learning objectives, located at the beginning of each chapter section, help students structure their reading and facilitate review.

Suggested Problem-Solving Procedure. An extensive section (Section 1.7) provides a framework for thinking about problem solving. This section includes:

  • An overview of problem-solving strategies;
  • A seven-step procedure that is general enough to apply to most problems in physics but is easily used in specific situations;
  • Three Examples that illustrate the problemsolving process, showing how the general procedure is applied in practice.
Problem-Solving Strategies and Hints. The initial treatment of problem solving is followed up throughout College Physics with an abundance of suggestions, tips, cautions, shortcuts, and useful techiques for solving specific kinds of problems. These strategies and hints help students apply general principles to specific contexts as well as avoid common pitfalls and misunderstandings.

Conceptual Examples. College Physics was among the first physics text to include examples that are conceptual in nature in addition to quantitative ones. Our Conceptual Examples ask students to think about a physical situation and choose the correct prediction on the basis of an understanding of relevant principles. The discussion that follows (Reasoning and Answer) explains clearly how the correct answer can be identified as well as why the other answers are wrong.

More Explanation in Examples. Too many solutions to worked examples in other texts rely on formulas such as "From Eq. 6.7 we have. . . ." We have tried to make the solutions to in-text Examples as clear, patient, and detailed as possible. The aim is not merely to show students which equations to use but to explain the strategy being employed and the role of each step in the overall plan. Students are encouraged to learn the "why" of each step along with the "how." This technique will make it easier for students to apply the demonstrated techniques to other problems that are not identical in structure.

Thinking It Through. New to the Fourth Edition, every worked Example now includes a "Thinking It Through" section after the problem statement and before the Solution to focus students on the critical thinking and analysis they should do before beginning to use equations.

Follow-up Exercises. Follow-up Exercises at the end of each Conceptual Example and each regular worked Example further reinforce the importance of conceptual understanding and offer additional practice. (Answers to Follow-up Exercises are given at the back of the book.)

Chapter Review. Each Chapter Review is made up of three parts:

  1. Important Terms: A listing, with page references, of the key terms introduced in the chapter that students should be able to define and explain.
  2. Important Concepts: A summary of the key principles of each chapter.
  3. Important Equations: A listing, cross-referenced to the equations in the chapter, of the major laws and mathematical relationships introduced. Specific applicability and limiting conditions are clearly stated for each expression.
Exercises. Each chapter ends with a wealth of Exercises, organized by chapter section and ranked by general level of difficulty. In addition, the Exercises offer the following special features to help students refine both their conceptual understanding and their problem-solving skills:
  • Integration of Conceptual and Quantitative Exercises. To help break down the artificial and ultimately counterproductive barrier between conceptual questions and quantitative problems, we do not distinguish between these categories in the end-of-chapter Exercises. Instead, each section begins with a series of multiple-choice and short-answer questions that provide content review, test conceptual understanding, and ask students to reason from principles. The aim is to show students that the same kind of conceptual insight is required regardless of whether the desired answer involves words, equations, or numbers. The conceptual or "thought" questions are marked by a bold TQ in the Annotated Instructor's Edition of the text for easy reference when assigning questions. Unlike most other texts, College Physics offers short answers to all odd-numbered conceptual questions (as well as to all odd-numbered quantitative problems) in the back of the text so that students can check their understanding. About 35% of all Thought Questions and Exercises in the Fourth Edition are new.
  • Interactive Exercises. New to the Fourth Edition, many of the end-of-chapter Exercises are keyed to simulations on Prentice Hall's multimedia study guide, the Interactive Journey through Physics. Exercises that have a corresponding simulation are indicated with a CD-ROM icon. The College Physics Media Pack (ISBN 0-13-085346-1), a specially discounted package consisting of the text and Interactive Journey through Physics CD-ROM, includes a crossreference/location guide to allow you to match Exercise numbers to corresponding simulations.
  • Paired and Trio Exercises. Most numbered sections include at least one set of paired Exercises and, new to the Fourth Edition, one set of trio Exercises, that deal with similar situations. The first problem in a pair or trio is solved in the Study Guide; the second problem, exploring a similar situation, has only an answer at the back of the book, thereby encouraging students to work out the problem on their own. The third problem in a trio is answered in the Student Study Guide and Solutions Manual

    .

  • Additional Exercises. Each chapter includes a supplemental section of Additional Exercises drawn from all sections of the chapter to ensure that students can synthesize concepts.
The Absolutely Zero Tolerance for Errors Club (The AZTECs). This team approach to accuracy checking worked quite well in the third edition, so we did it again. Bo Lou of Ferris State University, the author of our Instructor's Solutions Manual, headed the AZTEC team and was supported by the text authors and two additional accuracy checkers, Bill McCorkle of West Liberty State University and Dave Curott of the University of North Alabama. Each member of the team individually and independently worked all end-of-chapter Exercises. The results were then collected, and any discrepancies were resolved by a "team" discussion. All data in the chapters, as well as the answers at the back of the book, were checked and rechecked in first and second page proofs. In addition, two other physics teachers— J. Erik Hendrickson and K. W. Nicholson— read all first pages in detail, checking for errors in the chapter narrative and text art. Although it is probably not humanly possible to produce a physics text with absolutely no errors, that was our goal; we worked very hard to make the book as error-free as we could.

New Multimedia Explorations of Physics

New to the Fourth Edition are a state-of-the art Website and a CD-ROM media package.

Companion Website. Our Website (at ...

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

IV. ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM.

15. Electric Charge, Forces, and Fields.
16. Electric Potential, Energy, and Capacitance.
17. Electric Current and Resistance.
18. Basic Electric Circuits.
19. Magnetism.
20. Electromagnetic Induction.
21. AC Circuits.

V. OPTICS.

22. Geometrical Optics: Reflection and Refraction of Light.
23. Mirrors and Lenses.
24. Physical Optics: The Wave Nature of Light.
25. Optical Instruments.

VI. MODERN PHYSICS.

26. Relativity.
27. Quantum Physics.
28. Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Physics.
29. The Nucleus.
30. Nuclear Reactions and Elementary Particles.

APPENDICES.

Appendix I. Mathematical Relationships.
Appendix II. Kinetic Theory of Gases.
Appendix III. Planetary Data.
Appendix IV. Alphabetical Listing of the Chemical Elements.
Appendix V. Properties of Selected Isotopes.
Answers to Follow-up Exercises.
Answers to Odd-numbered Exercises.
Photo Credits.
Index.

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Preface

PREFACE:

Preface

We continue to believe that there are two goals any introductory physics course must accomplish, regardless of the approach, emphasis, or pedagogical techniques: (1) to impart an understanding of the basic physics principles and (2) to enable students to solve a variety of reasonable problems in topics presented in the text material.

These goals are linked. An understanding of physical principles is of limited use if it does not enable students to solve problems. Physics is a problem-solving science— and in the real world, students will be evaluated on their ability to produce correct answers on final exams or on the MCAT. Yet learning to solve problems by rote is not the same thing as learning physics. Knowing and doing— insight and skill— must go hand in hand.

Any deficiency in meeting the first goal is likely to be obvious. Test scores quickly get the attention of both test takers and test graders. Low grades demoralize instructors while discouraging students who, understandably, conclude that physics is "too hard" for any but the phenomenally gifted. Deficiencies in meeting the second goal tend to be more subtle. Research in physics education has shown that a surprising number of students who learn to solve typical problems well enough to pass examinations do so without ever arriving at a real understanding of the most elementary physical concepts. Such students often get high marks on exams, yet when asked to answer simple, qualitative questions designed to test their grasp of basic principles, they betray a surprising lack of insight. Simply put, they can solve quantitative problems and get the right answer,butthey do not know why it is right.

Achieving Our Goals— Features of the Fourth Edition

Most of the specific features of College Physics can be understood in light of these goals.

Conceptual Basis. We believe that giving students a secure grasp of physical principles will almost invariably enhance their problem-solving abilities. Central to this belief is an approach to the development of problem-solving skills that stresses the understanding of basic concepts, rather than the mechanical and rote use of formulas, as the essential foundation. Throughout the writing of College Physics, we have organized discussions and incorporated pedagogical tools to ensure that conceptual insight drives the development of practical skills.

Concise Coverage. To maintain a sharp focus on essential concepts, a book should emphasize the basics and minimize superfluous material. Topics of marginal interest have been avoided, as have those that present formal or mathematical difficulties for students. Similarly, we have not wasted space deriving relationships when they shed no additional light on the principle involved. It is usually more important for students in a course such as this to understand what a relationship means and how it can be used rather than the mathematical or analytical techniques employed to derive it.

Applications. College Physics has always been known for the strong mix of applications related to technology, science, architecture, medicine, and everyday life in its Insight boxes and text narrative. While the Fourth Edition continues to have a wider range of applications than do most texts, we have also increased the number of biological applications in recognition of the high percentage of pre-med and allied health majors who take this course. Some examples are the new Insight boxes Human Body Temperature, Electric Potential and Nerve Signal Transmission, and Magnetism in Nature. Overall, one-third of our Insight boxes are new. The Fourth Edition also contains many new applications within the text narrative and has an increased emphasis on real-world and applied topics in the worked Examples and end-of-chapter Exercises. A list of the most important applications with page references is found on p. xiii.

Visualization: "Learn by Drawing." visualization is one of the most important problemsolving tools in physics. In many cases, if students can make a sketch of a problem, they can solve it. "Learn by Drawing" features offer students specific help on making certain types of sketches,and graphs that will provide key insights into a variety of physical situations. The Fourth Edition has three new Learn by Drawing features, on the following topics: Cartesian coordinates and one dimensional motion, oscillation in a parabolic potential well, and the independence of potential difference on reference point.

Demonstrations. Photo sequences of 16 physics demonstrations bring physical principles to life, helping students understand that the information and equations on the page describe real-world phenomena.

Integrated Learning Objectives. Specific learning objectives, located at the beginning of each chapter section, help students structure their reading and facilitate review.

Suggested Problem-Solving Procedure. An extensive section (Section 1.7) provides a framework for thinking about problem solving. This section includes:

  • An overview of problem-solving strategies;
  • A seven-step procedure that is general enough to apply to most problems in physics but is easily used in specific situations;
  • Three Examples that illustrate the problemsolving process, showing how the general procedure is applied in practice.
Problem-Solving Strategies and Hints. The initial treatment of problem solving is followed up throughout College Physics with an abundance of suggestions, tips, cautions, shortcuts, and useful techiques for solving specific kinds of problems. These strategies and hints help students apply general principles to specific contexts as well as avoid common pitfalls and misunderstandings.

Conceptual Examples. College Physics was among the first physics text to include examples that are conceptual in nature in addition to quantitative ones. Our Conceptual Examples ask students to think about a physical situation and choose the correct prediction on the basis of an understanding of relevant principles. The discussion that follows (Reasoning and Answer) explains clearly how the correct answer can be identified as well as why the other answers are wrong.

More Explanation in Examples. Too many solutions to worked examples in other texts rely on formulas such as "From Eq. 6.7 we have. . . ." We have tried to make the solutions to in-text Examples as clear, patient, and detailed as possible. The aim is not merely to show students which equations to use but to explain the strategy being employed and the role of each step in the overall plan. Students are encouraged to learn the "why" of each step along with the "how." This technique will make it easier for students to apply the demonstrated techniques to other problems that are not identical in structure.

Thinking It Through. New to the Fourth Edition, every worked Example now includes a "Thinking It Through" section after the problem statement and before the Solution to focus students on the critical thinking and analysis they should do before beginning to use equations.

Follow-up Exercises. Follow-up Exercises at the end of each Conceptual Example and each regular worked Example further reinforce the importance of conceptual understanding and offer additional practice. (Answers to Follow-up Exercises are given at the back of the book.)

Chapter Review. Each Chapter Review is made up of three parts:

  1. Important Terms: A listing, with page references, of the key terms introduced in the chapter that students should be able to define and explain.
  2. Important Concepts: A summary of the key principles of each chapter.
  3. Important Equations: A listing, cross-referenced to the equations in the chapter, of the major laws and mathematical relationships introduced. Specific applicability and limiting conditions are clearly stated for each expression.
Exercises. Each chapter ends with a wealth of Exercises, organized by chapter section and ranked by general level of difficulty. In addition, the Exercises offer the following special features to help students refine both their conceptual understanding and their problem-solving skills:
  • Integration of Conceptual and Quantitative Exercises. To help break down the artificial and ultimately counterproductive barrier between conceptual questions and quantitative problems, we do not distinguish between these categories in the end-of-chapter Exercises. Instead, each section begins with a series of multiple-choice and short-answer questions that provide content review, test conceptual understanding, and ask students to reason from principles. The aim is to show students that the same kind of conceptual insight is required regardless of whether the desired answer involves words, equations, or numbers. The conceptual or "thought" questions are marked by a bold TQ in the Annotated Instructor's Edition of the text for easy reference when assigning questions. Unlike most other texts, College Physics offers short answers to all odd-numbered conceptual questions (as well as to all odd-numbered quantitative problems) in the back of the text so that students can check their understanding. About 35% of all Thought Questions and Exercises in the Fourth Edition are new.
  • Interactive Exercises. New to the Fourth Edition, many of the end-of-chapter Exercises are keyed to simulations on Prentice Hall's multimedia study guide, the Interactive Journey through Physics. Exercises that have a corresponding simulation are indicated with a CD-ROM icon. The College Physics Media Pack (ISBN 0-13-085346-1), a specially discounted package consisting of the text and Interactive Journey through Physics CD-ROM, includes a crossreference/location guide to allow you to match Exercise numbers to corresponding simulations.
  • Paired and Trio Exercises. Most numbered sections include at least one set of paired Exercises and, new to the Fourth Edition, one set of trio Exercises, that deal with similar situations. The first problem in a pair or trio is solved in the Study Guide; the second problem, exploring a similar situation, has only an answer at the back of the book, thereby encouraging students to work out the problem on their own. The third problem in a trio is answered in the Student Study Guide and Solutions Manual

    .

  • Additional Exercises. Each chapter includes a supplemental section of Additional Exercises drawn from all sections of the chapter to ensure that students can synthesize concepts.
The Absolutely Zero Tolerance for Errors Club (The AZTECs). This team approach to accuracy checking worked quite well in the third edition, so we did it again. Bo Lou of Ferris State University, the author of our Instructor's Solutions Manual, headed the AZTEC team and was supported by the text authors and two additional accuracy checkers, Bill McCorkle of West Liberty State University and Dave Curott of the University of North Alabama. Each member of the team individually and independently worked all end-of-chapter Exercises. The results were then collected, and any discrepancies were resolved by a "team" discussion. All data in the chapters, as well as the answers at the back of the book, were checked and rechecked in first and second page proofs. In addition, two other physics teachers— J. Erik Hendrickson and K. W. Nicholson— read all first pages in detail, checking for errors in the chapter narrative and text art. Although it is probably not humanly possible to produce a physics text with absolutely no errors, that was our goal; we worked very hard to make the book as error-free as we could.

New Multimedia Explorations of Physics

New to the Fourth Edition are a state-of-the art Website and a CD-ROM media package.

Companion Website. Our Website (at ...

Read More Show Less

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