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The book presents the Atlantic coast history as a story of interaction and adaptation among the peoples of the four continents, and discusses the variety of social, political, environmental, and cultural processes set in motion by European exploration and settlement.
Beginning with a chapter on the pre-Columbian background of Europe, Africa, and North and South America, this lively narrative traces the history of colonial America to 1763. Covering British, Spanish, French, and Dutch colonization, the book examines colonial development in the North American colonies along the Atlantic coast and in the borderlands, the North American interior, and the Caribbean.
I. THREE WORLDS MEET.
1. On the Eve of Conquest: Worlds Old and New.
Native Americans Before Conquest.
America's First Immigrants.
The Agricultural Revolution.
Classical American Civilizations.
The Chaco Phenomenon.
Societies of Mesoamerica.
Empires of Exchange in North America.
Eastern Woodland Cultures.
Africa: Diverse Peoples and Complex Histories.
Trade and Empire.
African Societies and Cultures.
Europe on the Eve of Conquest.
European Renaissance and Reformation: Expanding Imaginative Horizons.
God, Gold, and Glory: The Iberian Peninsula in the Age of Conquest.
The English Moment.
The Protestant Queen.
2. Many Voices: Patterns of New World Encounter.
First Ventures Across the Atlantic.
The Atlantic Route to Gold, Slaves, and Spices.
Spain's “Admiral of the Ocean Sea.”
The World Divided in Two.
Conquistadores: A Mixed Legend.
The Conquest of Mexico.
Spanish Exploration in Florida and the Southwest.
Managing an Empire.
Early Northern European Exploration.
English Reconnaissance in North America.
Initial French Ventures.
The Indians' New World.
Trade and Cultural Exchange.
Varieties of Encounter.
The Columbian Exchange and Cultural Transformation.
Trade and Dependence.
A World Transformed.
3. Creating a Militant Atlantic World, 1500-1625.
The Iberian Atlantic.
La Carrera de Indias.
Spanish Treasure and Indian Labor.
The Portuguese Atlantic.
Africans in the Sixteenth-Century Atlantic.
Competition and Conspicuous Consumption.
Africans and the Atlantic Slave Trade.
The Middle Passage.
The African Diaspora: Sixteenth-Century Beginnings.
The Northern European Challenge.
Early French Ventures in the Caribbean and Brazil.
Challenging Spanish Florida.
New France on the St. Lawrence.
The Rise of the Dutch.
Challenging the Portuguese.
New Netherlands on the Hudson.
The Emerging English Atlantic.
The Sea Dogs.
Religion, War, and Nationalism.
Irish Rehearsal for American Colonization.
Raleigh and Roanoke.
Selling a Transatlantic Empire.
A Brave New World.
II. THE CONTEST FOR SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY SETTLEMENT.
4. Smoke and Greed on the Tobacco Coast, 1607-1660.
A Native American Empire.
The Ill-Fated Settlement at Jamestown.
Dreamers and Schemers: The Virginia Project.
Captain John Smith: Saving the Colonists from Greed.
The Tobacco Road to Riches and Slavery.
Maryland: A Catholic Refuge.
The Planters' Perspective.
Family Life in a Perilous Environment.
Rank and Status in Plantation Society.
Race and Freedom in the Chesapeake.
Indians and Colonists Adjust to a New Order.
Escaping the Past.
5. Cities on a Hill: Bible Commonwealths in New England, 1620-1660.
Pilgrims and Strangers.
A “New” England in America.
A Covenanted People in America.
“Trucking with the Indians.”
Dissenting Voices: Diversity and Fragmentation.
The Puritan Order in New England.
Longevity, Family, and Society.
A Commonwealth of Families.
Puritan Women in New England.
Rank and Status in New England Society.
A Changing Environment.
Varieties of Adaptation.
The First Generation's Legacy.
6. Sugar, Slaves, and Profits: The Beginnings of the British Caribbean.
“No Peace Beyond the Line.”
A West Indian City on a Hill.
Barbados: Sugar and Broken Dreams.
Contested Tobacco Islands.
The Carib Challenge.
An Appetite for Sweetness.
Sweetness and Profits.
Society in the English West Indies.
Family and Population in the Tropics.
Small Fortunes and Great Estates.
Riotous and Unruly Servants.
Africans in the English West Indies.
Sugar, Slaves, and the Atlantic Order.
7. From Commonwealth to Restoration: The Quest for a Commercial Empire.
Colonial Response to Civil War.
The English Civil Wars.
New England's Response.
Civil War, Plantations, and the Dutch.
Dutch Fluitschips and American Commerce.
The Iroquois and the Competition for Furs.
French Missions and Merchandise.
Economic Stagnation on the Spanish Frontier.
Cromwell's Quest for Dominion.
The First Navigation Act.
The Western Design and Jamaica.
Restoration and the Commercial Impulse.
Response to Economic Competition.
An Empire of Trade.
Eliminating the Dutch.
Colonial Response and English Adjustment.
Pirates and Privateers.
War, Rebellion, and the Covenant Chain.
King Philip's War.
Civil War in Virginia: Bacon's Rebellion.
Forging the Covenant Chain.
An Unfinished Agenda.
8. Toleration, Commerce, and Settlement: The Restoration Colonies.
Diversity in the Middle Colonies.
The Dutch and Swedish Legacy.
The Duke's Dominions.
The English and the Iroquois.
Confusion in New Jersey.
Quakers in America.
Penn's “Holy Experiment.”
Quakers and Indians.
Planting the Carolinas.
Proprietors of the Carolinas.
The Barbadian Connection.
Traders, Raiders, and Indian Slaves on the Carolina Frontier.
An Empire of Contradictions.
9. Glorious Revolution and International Realignment.
James II and the American Colonies.
Edmund Andros and the Dominion of New England.
The Middle Colonies and the Dominion.
The Dominion and the Covenant Chain.
James II and the Plantation Colonies.
The Glorious Revolution in England and America.
The Glorious Revolution in Massachusetts.
Contagion of Witchcraft.
Leisler's Rebellion in New York.
The Glorious Revolution in Maryland.
A Framework for Political Order.
An Age of Atlantic Wars.
Anglo-French Conflict in the West Indies.
Native Americans and European Wars.
A Commercial Empire Takes Shape.
Enforcing the Marketplace: 1696.
Policing Commerce: The War on Piracy.
Common Experiences, Separate Cultures.
III. PROVINCES IN A CONTESTED EMPIRE: THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.
10. Empires of Guns and Goods: North America at the Opening of the Eighteenth Century.
French America After 1700.
Whalers, Traders, and Farmers in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
“A Village Beginning at Montreal and Ending at Quebec.”
Forest Life in the Pays d'en Haut.
France on the Mississippi.
Spanish Borderlands of the Eighteenth Century.
Securing the Northern Frontier.
Peoples of the Spanish Borderlands.
Anglo-America on the Move.
Families and Farms in New England.
Trade and Diversity in the Middle Colonies.
“Venturing Backwards” in Virginia.
Carolina Planters and Traders.
Covenant Chains and Middle Grounds: From the Hudson to the Great Lakes.
Between Empires: Indians of the Southeast.
The Border Conflicts of Queen Anne's War.
New England Captives and Iroquois Neutrals.
War and Exchange in the Southeast.
The Stakes of Conflict.
11. Shifting Borderlands: Population Growth, Immigration, and the Movement of Peoples in Eighteenth-Century America.
“An Increase Without Parallel”: Growth and Migration.
Family, Land, and Movement in New England.
Diversity and Growth in the Middle Colonies.
From Tidewater to Piedmont: Expansion of the Chesapeake Colonies.
Slavery and Settlement.
The Lower South's Black Majority.
Bondage and Death in the British West Indies.
Convicts, Debtors, and a Buffer Colony.
Convicts for America.
Fledgling Colony: The Founding of Georgia.
“Bettering Their Condition”: Eighteenth-Century Immigration.
The North Atlantic Passage.
Ethnic Diversity in the Backcountry.
Migration and Adaptation in Indian Country.
Persisting Indian Power.
The “Five Civilized Tribes” Take Shape.
Horses, Raiders, and Traders: Native Mobility on the Great Plains.
Worlds of Motion.
12. The Anglicization of Provincial America.
Bonds of Empire.
The West Indian Connection.
Birth of a Consumer Society.
Communication and the “Public Prints.”
Families and Farms in the Colonial Countryside.
A Transatlantic Community of Letters.
Taverns, Salons, and “Private Societies.”
Religious Revivals in Provincial Societies.
The Great Awakening.
The Voice of Popular Religion.
Indian Awakenings in Eighteenth-Century America.
Living Like “Our Christian English Neighbors.”
The Great Awakening in Indian Country.
Prophets of Resistance in the Borderlands.
13. The Cost of “Refinement”: African American Cultures in The Colonial British Atlantic.
Plantations, Commerce, and Slavery.
An Empire of Sugar and Slaves.
Chesapeake Tobacco and Low-Country Rice.
Common Threads of African Experience.
Coercion, Resistance, Negotiation.
Race and Freedom.
African, Creole, Mulatto.
Family and Community.
Constructing African American Identities.
West Indian Slaves.
Rice and Slaves.
Slave Life on the Tobacco Plantations.
Slaves and Free Blacks in the North.
Coastal Blacks: Boatmen, Fishermen, Sailors.
A World Within a World.
14. Contesting Rule in a Commercial Empire.
Politics and Empire.
The English Constitution.
The Reality of British Politics.
Governing England's Colonies: The North American Experience.
Sugar and Politics in the British West Indies.
Spanish Garrisons and the French River Empire.
Power, Leadership, and Empire in Indian America.
The Contest for Empire.
Jenkins' Ear and War.
Albany Congress and Braddock's Defeat.
Seven Years of War.
Pitt and Victory.
The Cherokee War.
Perceptions of War.