Color Appearance Models


The essential resource for readers needing to understand visual perception and for those trying to produce, reproduce and measure color appearance in various applications such as imaging, entertainment, materials, design, architecture and lighting.

This book builds upon the success of previous editions, and will continue to serve the needs of those professionals working in the field to solve practical problems or looking for background for on-going research projects. It would ...

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The essential resource for readers needing to understand visual perception and for those trying to produce, reproduce and measure color appearance in various applications such as imaging, entertainment, materials, design, architecture and lighting.

This book builds upon the success of previous editions, and will continue to serve the needs of those professionals working in the field to solve practical problems or looking for background for on-going research projects. It would also act as a good course text for senior undergraduates and postgraduates studying color science.

The 3rd Edition of Color Appearance Models contains numerous new and expanded sections providing an updated review of color appearance and includes many of the most widely used models to date, ensuring its continued success as the comprehensive resource on color appearance models.

Key features:

  • Presents the fundamental concepts and phenomena of color appearance (what objects look like in typical viewing situations) and practical techniques to measure, model and predict those appearances.
  • Includes the clear explanation of fundamental concepts that makes the implementation of mathematical models very easy to understand.
  • Explains many different types of models, and offers a clear context for the models, their use, and future directions in the field.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"…still stands alone as a monograph on the models and their tests. Anyone interested in color management or in quantifying color appearance should buy and read the book…" (COLOR research and application, December 2005)
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Mark D. Fairchild, Rochester Institute of Technology, USA

Dr. Fairchild is Professor of Color Science and Imaging Science at RIT. He is an Associate Dean for Research & Graduate Education of RIT's College of Science, facilitating the growth and strengthening of the college's research activities and graduate programs. Until recently, he had been the Director of the Munsell Color Science Laboratory for the past 12 years.

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Table of Contents

Series Preface xiii

Preface xv

Acknowledgments xviii

Introduction xix

1 Human Color Vision 1

1.1 Optics of the Eye 2

1.2 The Retina 7

1.3 Visual Signal Processing 14

1.4 Mechanisms of Color Vision 19

1.5 Spatial and Temporal Properties of Color Vision 27

1.6 Color Vision Deficiencies 32

1.7 Key Features for Color Appearance Modeling 36

2 Psychophysics 38

2.1 Psychophysics Defined 39

2.2 Historical Context 40

2.3 Hierarchy of Scales 43

2.4 Threshold Techniques 45

2.5 Matching Techniques 49

2.6 One-Dimensional Scaling 50

2.7 Multidimensional Scaling 52

2.8 Design of Psychophysical Experiments 54

2.9 Importance in Color Appearance Modeling 55

3 Colorimetry 56

3.1 Basic and Advanced Colorimetry 57

3.2 Why is Color? 57

3.3 Light Sources and Illuminants 59

3.4 Colored Materials 63

3.5 The Human Visual Response 68

3.6 Tristimulus Values and Color Matching Functions 70

3.7 Chromaticity Diagrams 77

3.8 Cie Color Spaces 79

3.9 Color Difference Specification 81

3.10 The Next Step 83

4 Color Appearance Terminology 85

4.1 Importance of Definitions 85

4.2 Color 86

4.3 Hue 88

4.4 Brightness and Lightness 88

4.5 Colorfulness and Chroma 90

4.6 Saturation 91

4.7 Unrelated and Related Colors 91

4.8 Definitions in Equations 92

4.9 Brightness–Colorfulness Vs Lightness–Chroma 94

5 Color Order Systems 97

5.1 Overview and Requirements 98

5.2 The Munsell Book of Color 99

5.3 The Swedish Ncs 104

5.4 The Colorcurve System 106

5.5 Other Color Order Systems 107

5.6 Uses of Color Order Systems 109

5.7 Color Naming Systems 112

6 Color Appearance Phenomena 115

6.1 What are Color Appearance Phenomena? 115

6.2 Simultaneous Contrast, Crispening, and Spreading 116

6.3 Bezold–Brücke Hue Shift (Hue Changes with Luminance) 120

6.4 Abney Effect (Hue Changes with Colorimetric Purity) 121

6.5 Helmholtz–Kohlrausch Effect (Brightness

Depends On Luminance and Chromaticity) 123

6.6 Hunt Effect (Colorfulness Increases

with Luminance) 125

6.7 Stevens Effect (Contrast Increases

with Luminance) 127

6.8 Helson–Judd Effect (Hue of Non-Selective Samples) 129

6.9 Bartleson–Breneman Equations (Image

Contrast Changes with Surround) 131

6.10 Discounting-the-Illuminant 132

6.11 Other Context, Structural, and

Psychological Effects 133

6.12 Color Constancy? 140

7 Viewing Conditions 142

7.1 Configuration of the Viewing Field 142

7.2 Colorimetric Specification of the Viewing Field 146

7.3 Modes of Viewing 149

7.4 Unrelated and Related Colors Revisited 154

8 Chromatic Adaptation 156

8.1 Light, Dark, and Chromatic Adaptation 157

8.2 Physiology 159

8.3 Sensory and Cognitive Mechanisms 170

8.4 Corresponding Colors Data 174

8.5 Models 177

8.6 Color Inconstancy Index 178

8.7 Computational Color Constancy 179

9 Chromatic Adaptation Models 181

9.1 Von Kries Model 182

9.2 Retinex Theory 186

9.3 Nayatani et al. Model 187

9.4 Guth’s Model 190

9.5 Fairchild’s 1990 Model 192

9.6 Herding Cats 196

9.7 Cat02 197

10 Color Appearance Models 199

10.1 Definition of Color Appearance Models 199

10.2 Construction of Color Appearance Models 200

10.3 Cielab 201

10.4 Why Not Use Just Cielab? 210

10.5 What About Cieluv? 210

11 The Nayatani et al. Model 213

11.1 Objectives and Approach 213

11.2 Input Data 214

11.3 Adaptation Model 215

11.4 Opponent Color Dimensions 217

11.5 Brightness 218

11.6 Lightness 219

11.7 Hue 219

11.8 Saturation 220

11.9 Chroma 221

11.10 Colorfulness 221

11.11 Inverse Model 222

11.12 Phenomena Predicted 222

11.13 Why Not Use Just the Nayatani et al. Model? 223

12 The Hunt Model 225

12.1 Objectives and Approach 225

12.2 Input Data 226

12.3 Adaptation Model 228

12.4 Opponent Color Dimensions 233

12.5 Hue 234

12.6 Saturation 235

12.7 Brightness 236

12.8 Lightness 238

12.9 Chroma 238

12.10 Colorfulness 238

12.11 Inverse Model 239

12.12 Phenomena Predicted 241

12.13 Why Not Use Just the Hunt Model? 242

13 The Rlab Model 243

13.1 Objectives and Approach 243

13.2 Input Data 245

13.3 Adaptation Model 246

13.4 Opponent Color Dimensions 248

13.5 Lightness 250

13.6 Hue 250

13.7 Chroma 252

13.8 Saturation 252

13.9 Inverse Model 252

13.10 Phenomena Predicted 254

13.11 Why Not Use Just the Rlab Model? 254

14 Other Models 256

14.1 Overview 256

14.2 Atd Model 257

14.3 Llab Model 264

14.4 Ipt Color Space 271

15 The Cie Color Appearance Model (1997), Ciecam97s 273

15.1 Historical Development, Objectives, and Approach 273

15.2 Input Data 276

15.3 Adaptation Model 277

15.4 Appearance Correlates 279

15.5 Inverse Model 280

15.6 Phenomena Predicted 281

15.7 The Zlab Color Appearance Model 282

15.8 Why Not Use Just Ciecam97s? 285

16 Ciecam02 287

16.1 Objectives and Approach 287

16.2 Input Data 288

16.3 Adaptation Model 290

16.4 Opponent Color Dimensions 294

16.5 Hue 294

16.6 Lightness 295

16.7 Brightness 295

16.8 Chroma 295

16.9 Colorfulness 296

contents xi

16.10 Saturation 296

16.11 Cartesian Coordinates 296

16.12 Inverse Model 297

16.13 Implementation Guidelines 297

16.14 Phenomena Predicted 298

16.15 Computational Issues 298

16.16 Cam02-Ucs 300

16.17 Why Not Use Just Ciecam02? 301

16.18 Outlook 301

17 Testing Color Appearance Models 303

17.1 Overview 303

17.2 Qualitative Tests 304

17.3 Corresponding-Colors Data 308

17.4 Magnitude Estimation Experiments 310

17.5 Direct Model Tests 312

17.6 Colorfulness in Projected Images 316

17.7 Munsell in Color Appearance Spaces 317

17.8 Cie Activities 318

17.9 A Pictorial Review of Color Appearance Models 323

18 Traditional Colorimetric Applications 328

18.1 Color Rendering 328

18.2 Color Differences 333

18.3 Indices of Metamerism 335

18.4 A General System of Colorimetry? 337

18.5 What About Observer Metamerism? 338

19 Device-Independent Color Imaging 341

19.1 The Problem 342

19.2 Levels of Color Reproduction 343

19.3 A Revised Set of Objectives 345

19.4 General Solution 348

19.5 Device Calibration and Characterization 349

19.6 The Need for Color Appearance Models 354

19.7 Definition of Viewing Conditions 355

19.8 Viewing-Conditions-Independent

Color Space 357

19.9 Gamut Mapping 357

19.10 Color Preferences 361

19.11 Inverse Process 362

19.12 Example System 363

19.13 Icc Implementation 364

20 I mage Appearance Modeling and the Future 369

20.1 From Color Appearance to Image Appearance 370

20.2 S-Cielab 375

20.3 The icam Framework 376

20.4 A Modular Image Difference Model 382

20.5 Image Appearance and Rendering Applications 385

20.6 Image Difference and Quality Applications 391

20.7 icam06 392

20.8 Orthogonal Color Space 393

20.9 Future Directions 396

21 High-Dynamic-Range Color Space 399

21.1 Luminance Dynamic Range 400

21.2 The Hdr Photographic Survey 401

21.3 Lightness–Brightness Beyond Diffuse White 403

21.4 hdr-Cielab 404

21.5 hdr-Ipt 406

21.6 Evans, G0, and Brilliance 407

21.7 The Nayatani Theoretical Color Space 409

21.8 A New Kind of Appearance Space 409

21.9 Future Directions 416

References 418

Index 440

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The law of proportion according to which the several colors are formed, even if a man knew, he would be foolish in telling, for he could not give any necessary reason, nor indeed any tolerable or probable explanation of them.

Despite Plato's warning, this book is about one of the major unresolved issues in the field of color science, the efforts that have been made toward its resolution, and the techniques that can be used to address current technological problems. That issue is the prediction of the color appearance experienced by an observer when viewing stimuli in natural, complex settings. Useful solutions to this problem have impacts in a number of industries, such as lighting, materials, and imaging.

In lighting, color appearance models can be used to predict the color-rendering properties of various light sources, thereby allowing specification of quality rather than just efficiency. In materials fields (coatings, plastics, textiles, and so on), color appearance models can be used to specify tolerances across a wider variety of viewing conditions than is currently possible. The imaging industries have produced the biggest demand for accurate and practical color appearance models. The rapid growth in color-imaging technology, particularly the desktop publishing market, has led to the emergence of color-management systems. It is widely acknowledged that such systems require color appearance models to allow images originating in one medium and viewed in a particular environment to be acceptably reproduced in a second medium and viewed under different conditions.

While the need for color appearance models is recognized, theirdevelopment has been at the forefront of color science and confined to the discourse of academic journals and conferences. This book brings the fundamental issues and current solutions in the area of color appearance modeling together in a single place for those needing to solve practical problems.

Everyone knows what color is, but the accurate description and specification of colors is quite another story. In 1931, the Commission Internationale de l'...clairage (CIE) recommended a system for color measurement that established the basis for modern colorimetry. That system allowed the specification of color matches through CIE XYZ tristimulus values. However, it was immediately recognized that more advanced techniques were required. The CIE recommended the CIELAB and CIELUV color spaces in 1976 to enable uniform international practice for the measurement of color differences and the establishment of color tolerances.

While the CIE system of colorimetry has been applied successfully for nearly 70 years, it is limited to the comparison of stimuli that are identical in every spatial and temporal respect and viewed under matched viewing conditions. CIE XYZ values describe whether two stimuli match. CIELAB values can be used to describe the perceived differences between stimuli in a single set of viewing conditions. Color appearance models extend the current CIE systems to allow the description of what color stimuli look like under a variety of viewing conditions. The application of such models opens up a world of possibilities for the accurate specification, control, and reproduction of color.

Understanding color-appearance phenomena and developing models to predict them have been the topics of a great deal of research-particularly in the last 10 to 15 years. Color appearance remains a topic of much active research that is often being driven by technological requirements. Despite the fact that the CIE is not yet able to recommend a single color appearance model as the best that is available for all applications, many specialists need to implement some form of a model to solve their research, development, and engineering needs.

One application area is the development of color-management systems based on the ICC profile format that is being developed by the International Color Consortium and incorporated into essentially all modern computer operating systems. However, implementation of color management using ICC profiles requires the application of color appearance models with no specific instructions on how to do so. And unfortunately, the fundamental concepts, phenomena, and models of color appearance are not recorded in a single source. Currently, anyone interested in the field must search out the primary references across a century of scientific journals and conference proceedings. This is due to the large amount of active research in the area.

While searching for and keeping track of primary references is fine for those doing research on color appearance models, it should not be necessary for every scientist, engineer, and software developer interested in the field. So the goal of this book is to provide, in a single source, an overview of color appearance and details of many of the most widely used models. The general approach has been to provide an overview of the fundamentals of color measurement and the phenomena that necessitate the development of color appearance models. This eases the transition into the formulation of the various models and their applications that appear later in the book. This approach has proven quite useful in various university courses, short courses, and seminars in which the full range of material must be presented in a limited time.

Following is a preview of each chapter:

  • Chapters 1 through 3 review the fundamental concepts of human color vision, psychophysics, and the CIE system of colorimetry that are prerequisites to an understanding of the development and implementation of color appearance models.
  • Chapters 4 through 7 present the fundamental definitions, descriptions, and phenomena of color appearance. They review the historical literature that has led to modern research and development of color appearance models.
  • Chapters 8 and 9 concentrate on one of the most important component mechanisms of color appearance: chromatic adaptation. The models of chromatic adaptation described in Chapter 9 are the foundation of the color appearance models described in later chapters.
  • Chapter 10 presents the definition of color appearance models and outlines their construction using the CIELAB color space as an example.
  • Chapters 11 through 13 provide detailed descriptions of the Nayatani et al., Hunt, and RLAB color appearance models, along with the advantages and disadvantages of each.
  • Chapter 14 reviews the ATD and LLAB appearance models that are of increasing interest for some applications.
  • Chapters 15 and 16 describe tests of the various models through a variety of visual experiments and colorimetric applications of the models.
  • Chapter 17 presents an overview of device-independent color imaging, the application that has provided the greatest technological push for the development of color appearance models.
  • Chapter 18 includes thoughts on the future directions for color appearance modeling research and application.
  • The appendix provides a snapshot of the status of the CIE color appearance models being developed for further testing by CIE TC1-34 as this book goes to press.

The field of color appearance modeling is still in its infancy and likely to continue developing in the near future. However, Chapters 1 through 10 of this book provide overviews of fundamental concepts, phenomena, and techniques that will change little, if at all, in the coming years. Thus these chapters should serve as a steady reference. The later chapters describe models, tests, and applications that will be subject to evolutionary changes as research progresses. However, they do provide a useful snapshot of the current state of affairs and provide a basis from which it should be much easier to keep track of future developments. To assist readers in this task, a World Wide Web page has been set up that lists important developments and publications since the publication of this book (see and/or http:// fairchild). A spreadsheet with example calculations can also be found there.

'Yes,' I answered her last night;
'No,' this morning sir, I say,
Colours seen by candle-light
Will not look the same by day.
-Elizabeth Barrett Browning


A project like this book is never really completed by a single person. I particularly thank my family for the undying support that encouraged its completion. The research and learning that led to it are directly attributable to my students. Much of the research would not have been completed without their tireless work, and I would not have learned about color appearance models were it not for their keen desire to learn more about them from me. I am deeply indebted to all of my students and friends-those who did research with me, those who worked at various times in the Munsell Color Science Laboratory, and those who participated in my university and short courses at all levels. There is no way to list all of them without making an omission, so I will take the easy way out and thank them as a group.

I also am indebted to those who reviewed various chapters while this book was being prepared and who provided useful insights, suggestions, and criticisms. These reviewers include Paula J. Alessi, Edwin Breneman, Ken Davidson, Ron Gentile, Robert W. G. Hunt, Lindsay MacDonald, Mike Pointer, Michael Stokes, Jeffrey Wang, Eric Zeise, and Valerie Zelenty.

Thanks also to all of the industrial and government sponsors of our research and education in the Munsell Color Science Laboratory at R.I.T. In particular, thanks to Thor Olson of Management Graphics for the donation of the Opal image recorder and the loan of the 120-camera back used to output the color images included in this book. Last, but not least, I thank Colleen Desimone for her excellent work as the Munsell Color Science Laboratory secretary, which makes life at the office much easier.

Honeoye Falls, N.Y.

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