Color Appearance Models by Mark D. Fairchild | Hardcover | Barnes & Noble
Color Appearance Models

Color Appearance Models

by Mark D. Fairchild

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The essential resource for readers needing to understand visual perception and for those trying to produce, reproduce and measure color appearance in various applications such as imaging, entertainment, materials, design, architecture and lighting.

This book builds upon the success of previous editions, and will continue to serve the needs of those


The essential resource for readers needing to understand visual perception and for those trying to produce, reproduce and measure color appearance in various applications such as imaging, entertainment, materials, design, architecture and lighting.

This book builds upon the success of previous editions, and will continue to serve the needs of those professionals working in the field to solve practical problems or looking for background for on-going research projects. It would also act as a good course text for senior undergraduates and postgraduates studying color science.

The 3rd Edition of Color Appearance Models contains numerous new and expanded sections providing an updated review of color appearance and includes many of the most widely used models to date, ensuring its continued success as the comprehensive resource on color appearance models.

Key features:

  • Presents the fundamental concepts and phenomena of color appearance (what objects look like in typical viewing situations) and practical techniques to measure, model and predict those appearances.
  • Includes the clear explanation of fundamental concepts that makes the implementation of mathematical models very easy to understand.
  • Explains many different types of models, and offers a clear context for the models, their use, and future directions in the field.

Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"…still stands alone as a monograph on the models and their tests. Anyone interested in color management or in quantifying color appearance should buy and read the book…" (COLOR research and application, December 2005)

Product Details

Publication date:
Wiley-IS&T Series in Imaging Science and Technology Series
Edition description:
New Edition
Product dimensions:
6.60(w) x 9.70(h) x 1.10(d)

Read an Excerpt


The law of proportion according to which the several colors are formed, even if a man knew, he would be foolish in telling, for he could not give any necessary reason, nor indeed any tolerable or probable explanation of them.

Despite Plato's warning, this book is about one of the major unresolved issues in the field of color science, the efforts that have been made toward its resolution, and the techniques that can be used to address current technological problems. That issue is the prediction of the color appearance experienced by an observer when viewing stimuli in natural, complex settings. Useful solutions to this problem have impacts in a number of industries, such as lighting, materials, and imaging.

In lighting, color appearance models can be used to predict the color-rendering properties of various light sources, thereby allowing specification of quality rather than just efficiency. In materials fields (coatings, plastics, textiles, and so on), color appearance models can be used to specify tolerances across a wider variety of viewing conditions than is currently possible. The imaging industries have produced the biggest demand for accurate and practical color appearance models. The rapid growth in color-imaging technology, particularly the desktop publishing market, has led to the emergence of color-management systems. It is widely acknowledged that such systems require color appearance models to allow images originating in one medium and viewed in a particular environment to be acceptably reproduced in a second medium and viewed under different conditions.

While the need for color appearance models is recognized, theirdevelopment has been at the forefront of color science and confined to the discourse of academic journals and conferences. This book brings the fundamental issues and current solutions in the area of color appearance modeling together in a single place for those needing to solve practical problems.

Everyone knows what color is, but the accurate description and specification of colors is quite another story. In 1931, the Commission Internationale de l'...clairage (CIE) recommended a system for color measurement that established the basis for modern colorimetry. That system allowed the specification of color matches through CIE XYZ tristimulus values. However, it was immediately recognized that more advanced techniques were required. The CIE recommended the CIELAB and CIELUV color spaces in 1976 to enable uniform international practice for the measurement of color differences and the establishment of color tolerances.

While the CIE system of colorimetry has been applied successfully for nearly 70 years, it is limited to the comparison of stimuli that are identical in every spatial and temporal respect and viewed under matched viewing conditions. CIE XYZ values describe whether two stimuli match. CIELAB values can be used to describe the perceived differences between stimuli in a single set of viewing conditions. Color appearance models extend the current CIE systems to allow the description of what color stimuli look like under a variety of viewing conditions. The application of such models opens up a world of possibilities for the accurate specification, control, and reproduction of color.

Understanding color-appearance phenomena and developing models to predict them have been the topics of a great deal of research-particularly in the last 10 to 15 years. Color appearance remains a topic of much active research that is often being driven by technological requirements. Despite the fact that the CIE is not yet able to recommend a single color appearance model as the best that is available for all applications, many specialists need to implement some form of a model to solve their research, development, and engineering needs.

One application area is the development of color-management systems based on the ICC profile format that is being developed by the International Color Consortium and incorporated into essentially all modern computer operating systems. However, implementation of color management using ICC profiles requires the application of color appearance models with no specific instructions on how to do so. And unfortunately, the fundamental concepts, phenomena, and models of color appearance are not recorded in a single source. Currently, anyone interested in the field must search out the primary references across a century of scientific journals and conference proceedings. This is due to the large amount of active research in the area.

While searching for and keeping track of primary references is fine for those doing research on color appearance models, it should not be necessary for every scientist, engineer, and software developer interested in the field. So the goal of this book is to provide, in a single source, an overview of color appearance and details of many of the most widely used models. The general approach has been to provide an overview of the fundamentals of color measurement and the phenomena that necessitate the development of color appearance models. This eases the transition into the formulation of the various models and their applications that appear later in the book. This approach has proven quite useful in various university courses, short courses, and seminars in which the full range of material must be presented in a limited time.

Following is a preview of each chapter:

  • Chapters 1 through 3 review the fundamental concepts of human color vision, psychophysics, and the CIE system of colorimetry that are prerequisites to an understanding of the development and implementation of color appearance models.
  • Chapters 4 through 7 present the fundamental definitions, descriptions, and phenomena of color appearance. They review the historical literature that has led to modern research and development of color appearance models.
  • Chapters 8 and 9 concentrate on one of the most important component mechanisms of color appearance: chromatic adaptation. The models of chromatic adaptation described in Chapter 9 are the foundation of the color appearance models described in later chapters.
  • Chapter 10 presents the definition of color appearance models and outlines their construction using the CIELAB color space as an example.
  • Chapters 11 through 13 provide detailed descriptions of the Nayatani et al., Hunt, and RLAB color appearance models, along with the advantages and disadvantages of each.
  • Chapter 14 reviews the ATD and LLAB appearance models that are of increasing interest for some applications.
  • Chapters 15 and 16 describe tests of the various models through a variety of visual experiments and colorimetric applications of the models.
  • Chapter 17 presents an overview of device-independent color imaging, the application that has provided the greatest technological push for the development of color appearance models.
  • Chapter 18 includes thoughts on the future directions for color appearance modeling research and application.
  • The appendix provides a snapshot of the status of the CIE color appearance models being developed for further testing by CIE TC1-34 as this book goes to press.

The field of color appearance modeling is still in its infancy and likely to continue developing in the near future. However, Chapters 1 through 10 of this book provide overviews of fundamental concepts, phenomena, and techniques that will change little, if at all, in the coming years. Thus these chapters should serve as a steady reference. The later chapters describe models, tests, and applications that will be subject to evolutionary changes as research progresses. However, they do provide a useful snapshot of the current state of affairs and provide a basis from which it should be much easier to keep track of future developments. To assist readers in this task, a World Wide Web page has been set up that lists important developments and publications since the publication of this book (see ...

Meet the Author

Mark D. Fairchild, Rochester Institute of Technology, USA

Dr. Fairchild is Professor of Color Science and Imaging Science at RIT. He is an Associate Dean for Research & Graduate Education of RIT's College of Science, facilitating the growth and strengthening of the college's research activities and graduate programs. Until recently, he had been the Director of the Munsell Color Science Laboratory for the past 12 years.

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