For decades India has been intermittently tormented by brutal outbursts of religious violence, thrusting thousands of ordinary Hindus and Muslims into bloody conflict. In this provocative work, psychoanalyst Sudhir Kakar exposes the psychological roots of Hindu-Muslim violence and examines with grace and intensity the subjective experience of religious hatred in his native land. Through riveting case studies, Kakar explores cultural stereotypes, religious antagonisms, ethnocentric histories, and episodic violence to trace the development of both Hindu and Muslim identities. He argues that in early childhood the social identity of every Indian is grounded in traditional religious identifications and communalism. Together these bring about deep-set psychological anxieties and animosities toward the other. For Hindus and Muslims alike, violence becomes morally acceptable when communally and religiously sanctioned. As the changing pressures of modernization and globalization in a multicultural society grate at traditional religious-cultural identities, ethnic-religious conflicts ignite. The Colors of Violence speaks with eloquence and urgency to anyone concerned with the postmodern clash of religious and cultural identities.
Patients with borderline personality disorders represent a great portion of the most difficult to treat clients in psychiatry. Seven therapists share their expertise and experience to determine how treatment can be best tailored to the diversity of the condition. Three cases are studied in detail, recording the psychotherapy processes and outcomes. Research methodology and conclusions support the case studies, focusing on supportive versus expressive psychotherapeutic strategies. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
1. The Setting Shifting Perspectives The City: "Unparalleled in the World"
Hindus and Muslims: Versions of the Past Between Enemy Lines
2. The Riot The Story of a Cousin Told by His Elder Brother The Cousin from Lahore Territory and Passion Profile of a Riot Hyderabad: December 1990
3. The Warriors Testing the Tigers The Violent Poet Young Tigers and Pussy Cats Spreading the Wind Psyche and Wrestling
4. Victims and Others I: The Hindus A Pardi Family Pardis and the Modern World The Night of Long Knives Pardis and Muslims: The Past Image of the Muslim Gandi, Psychoanalysts, and Cows Children's Tales
5. Victims and Others II: The Muslims Rashid's Family Days and Nights of the Riot Barbar's Children The Victim Response Morality of Violence Morality and the Hindus
6. A New Hindu Identity Shadows of Mourning Secred Wounds Cultural Identity and Cure Psychology versus Politics?
Search for Hindu-ness The Virtuous Virago
7. The Muslim Fundamentalist Identity Meeting the Mullahs Religious Politics
8. Conclusion: Religious Conflict in the Modern World Religious Identities and Violence Histories and Futures Appendixes
1. The Giessen Test
2. The Morality Interview Notes Index