Combustion / Edition 3

Combustion / Edition 3

by Irvin Glassman, Glassman

ISBN-10: 0122858522

ISBN-13: 9780122858529

Pub. Date: 12/28/1996

Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books

This Third Edition of Glassman's classic text clearly defines the role of chemistry, physics, and fluid mechanics as applied to the complex topic of combustion. Glassman's insightful introductory text emphasizes underlying physical and chemical principles, and encompasses engine technology, fire safety, materials synthesis, detonation phenomena, hydrocarbon fuel


This Third Edition of Glassman's classic text clearly defines the role of chemistry, physics, and fluid mechanics as applied to the complex topic of combustion. Glassman's insightful introductory text emphasizes underlying physical and chemical principles, and encompasses engine technology, fire safety, materials synthesis, detonation phenomena, hydrocarbon fuel oxidation mechanisms, and environmental considerations. Combustion has been rewritten to integrate the text, figures, and appendixes, detailing available combustion codes, making it not only an excellent introductory text but also an important reference source for professionals in the field. Key Features

  • Explains complex combustion phenomena with physical insight rather than extensive mathematics
  • Clarifies postulates in the text using extensive computational results in figures
  • Lists modern combustion programs indicating usage and availability
  • Relates combustion concepts to practical applications

Product Details

Elsevier Science & Technology Books
Publication date:
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6.50(w) x 9.12(h) x 1.84(d)

Table of Contents

Prologue     xvii
Preface     xix
Chemical Thermodynamics and Flame Temperatures     1
Introduction     1
Heats of reaction and formation     1
Free energy and the equilibrium constants     8
Flame temperature calculations     16
Analysis     16
Practical considerations     22
Sub- and super sonic combustion thermodynamics     32
Comparisons     32
Stagnation pressure considerations     33
Problems     36
Chemical Kinetics     43
Introduction     43
Rates of reactions and their temperature dependence     43
The Arrhenius rate expression     45
Transition state and recombination rate theories     47
Simultaneous interdependent reactions     52
Chain reactions     53
Pseudo-first-order reactions and the "fall-off" range     57
The partial equilibrium assumption     60
Pressure effect in fractional conversion     61
Chemical kinetics of large reaction mechanisms     62
Sensitivity analysis     63
Rate of production analysis     65
Coupled thermal and chemical reactingsystems     66
Mechanism simplification     68
Problems     69
Explosive and General Oxidative Characteristics of Fuels     75
Introduction     75
Chain branching reactions and criteria for explosion     75
Explosion limits and oxidation characteristics of hydrogen     83
Explosion limits and oxidation characteristics of carbon monoxide     91
Explosion limits and oxidation characteristics of hydrocarbons     98
Organic nomenclature     99
Explosion limits     103
"Low-temperature" hydrocarbon oxidation mechanisms     106
The oxidation of aldehydes     110
The oxidation of methane     112
Low-temperature mechanism     112
High-temperature mechanism     113
The oxidation of higher-order hydrocarbons     117
Aliphatic hydrocarbons     117
Alcohols     127
Aromatic hydrocarbons     129
Supercritical effects     139
Problems     141
Flame Phenomena in Premixed Combustible Gases     147
Introduction     147
Laminar flame structure     151
The laminar flame speed     153
The theory of Mallard and Le Chatelier     156
The theory of Zeldovich, Frank-Kamenetskii, and Semenov     161
Comprehensive theory and laminar flame structure analysis     168
The laminar flame and the energy equation     176
Flame speed measurements     176
Experimental results: physical and chemical effects     185
Stability limits of laminar flames     191
Flammability limits     192
Quenching distance     200
Flame stabilization (low velocity)     201
Stability limits and design     207
Flame propagation through stratified combustible mixtures     211
Turbulent reacting flows and turbulent flames     213
The rate of reaction in a turbulent field     216
Regimes of turbulent reacting flows     218
The turbulent flame speed     231
Stirred reactor theory     235
Flame stabilization in high-velocity streams     240
Combustion in small volumes     250
Problems     254
Detonation     261
Introduction     261
Premixed and diffusion flames     261
Explosion, deflagration, and detonation     261
The onset of detonation      262
Detonation phenomena     264
Hugoniot relations and the hydrodynamic theory of detonations     265
Characterization of the Hugoniot curve and the uniqueness of the C-J point     266
Determination of the speed of sound in the burned gases for conditions above the C-J point     276
Calculation of the detonation velocity     282
Comparison of detonation velocity calculations with experimental results     286
The ZND structure of detonation waves     293
The structure of the cellular detonation front and other detonation phenomena parameters     297
The cellular detonation front     297
The dynamic detonation parameters     301
Detonation limits     302
Detonations in nongaseous media     306
Problems     307
Diffusion Flames     311
Introduction     311
Gaseous fuel jets     311
Appearance     312
Structure     316
Theoretical considerations     318
The Burke-Schumann development     322
Turbulent fuel jets     329
Burning of condensed phases     331
General mass burning considerations and the evaporation coefficient     332
Single fuel droplets in quiescent atmospheres     337
Burning of droplet clouds     364
Burning in convective atmospheres     365
The stagnant film case     365
The longitudinally burning surface     367
The flowing droplet case     369
Burning rates of plastics: The small B assumption and radiation effects     372
Problems     374
Ignition     379
Concepts     379
Chain spontaneous ignition     382
Thermal spontaneous ignition     384
Semenov approach of thermal ignition     384
Frank-Kamenetskii theory of thermal ignition     389
Forced ignition     395
Spark ignition and minimum ignition energy     396
Ignition by adiabatic compression and shock waves     401
Other ignition concepts     402
Hypergolicity and pyrophoricity     403
Catalytic ignition     406
Problems     407
Environmental Combustion Considerations     409
Introduction     409
The nature of photochemical smog     410
Primary and secondary pollutants     411
The effect of NO[subscript x]     411
The effect of SO[subscript x]      415
Formation and reduction of nitrogen oxides     417
The structure of the nitrogen oxides     418
The effect of flame structure     419
Reaction mechanisms of oxides of nitrogen     420
The reduction of NO[subscript x]     436
SO[subscript x] emissions     441
The product composition and structure of sulfur compounds     442
Oxidative mechanisms of sulfur fuels     444
Particulate formation     457
Characteristics of soot     458
Soot formation processes     459
Experimental systems and soot formation     460
Sooting tendencies     462
Detailed structure of sooting flames     474
Chemical mechanisms of soot formation     478
The influence of physical and chemical parameters on soot formation     482
Stratospheric ozone     485
The HO[subscript x] catalytic cycle     486
The NO[subscript x] catalytic cycle     487
The ClO[subscript x] catalytic cycle     489
Problems     491
Combustion of Nonvolatile Fuels     495
Carbon char, soot, and metal combustion     495
Metal combustion thermodynamics     496
The criterion for vapor-phase combustion     496
Thermodynamics of metal-oxygen systems     496
Thermodynamics of metal-air systems     509
Combustion synthesis     513
Diffusional kinetics     520
Diffusion-controlled burning rate     522
Burning of metals in nearly pure oxygen     524
Burning of small particles - diffusion versus kinetic limits     527
The burning of boron particles     530
Carbon particle combustion (C. R. Shaddix)     531
Practical carbonaceous fuels (C. R. Shaddix)     534
Devolatilization     534
Char combustion     539
Pulverized coal char oxidation     540
Gasification and oxy-combustion     542
Soot oxidation (C. R. Shaddix)     545
Problems     548
Appendixes     551
Thermochemical Data and Conversion Factors     555
Conversion factors and physical constants     556
Thermochemical data for selected chemical compounds     557
Thermochemical data for species included in reaction list of Appendix C     646
Adiabatic Flame Temperatures of Hydrocarbons     653
Adiabatic flame temperatures     653
Specific Reaction Rate Constants      659
H[subscript 2]/O[subscript 2] mechanism     659
CO/H[subscript 2]/O[subscript 2] mechanism     661
CH[subscript 2]O/CO/H[subscript 2]/O[subscript 2] mechanism     662
CH[subscript 3]OH/CH[subscript 2]O/CO/H[subscript 2]/O[subscript 2] mechanism     663
CH[subscript 4]/CH[subscript 3]OH/CH[subscript 2]O/CO/H[subscript 2]/O[subscript 2] mechanism     665
C[subscript 2]H[subscript 6]/CH[subscript 4]/CH[subscript 3]OH/CH[subscript 2]O/CO/H[subscript 2]/O[subscript 2] mechanism     668
Selected reactions of a C[subscript 3]H[subscript 8] oxidation mechanism     673
N[subscript x]O[subscript y]/CO/H[subscript 2]/O[subscript 2] mechanism     677
HCl/N[subscript x]O[subscript y]/CO/H[subscript 2]/O[subscript 2] mechanism     683
O[subscript 3]/N[subscript x]O[subscript y]/CO/H[subscript 2]/O[subscript 2] mechanism     684
SO[subscript x]/N[subscript x]O[subscript y]/CO/H[subscript 2]/O[subscript 2] mechanism     685
Bond Dissociation Energies of Hydrocarbons     693
Bond dissociation energies of alkanes     694
Bond dissociation energies of alkenes, alkynes, and aromatics     695
Bond dissociation energies of C/H/O compounds     698
Bond dissociation energies of sulfur-containing compounds     699
Bond dissociation energies of nitrogen-containing compounds     700
Bond dissociation energies of halocarbons     702
Flammability Limits in Air     703
Flammability limits of fuel gases and vapors in air at 25[degree]C and 1 atm     704
Laminar Flame Speeds     713
Burning velocities of various fuels at 25[degree]C air-fuel temperature (0.31 mol% H[subscript 2]O in air). Burning velocity S as a function of equivalence ratio [phi] in cm/s     714
Burning velocities of various fuels at 100[degree]C air-fuel temperature (0.31 mol% H[subscript 2]O in air). Burning velocity S as a function of equivalence ratio [phi] in cm/s     719
Burning velocities of various fuels in air as a function of pressure for an equivalence ratio of 1 in cm/s     720
Spontaneous Ignition Temperature Data     721
Spontaneous ignition temperature data     722
Minimum Spark Ignition Energies and Quenching Distances     743
Minimum spark ignition energy data for fuels in air at 1 atm pressure     744
Programs for Combustion Kinetics     747
Thermochemical parameters     747
Kinetic parameters     747
Transport parameters     748
Reaction mechanisms     748
Thermodynamic equilibrium     750
Temporal kinetics (Static and flow reactors)     752
Stirred reactors     753
Shock tubes     754
Premixed flames     754
Diffusion flames     756
Boundary layer flow     756
Detonations     756
Model analysis and mechanism reduction     756
Author Index     759
Subject Index     769

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