Common Errors in Statistics (and How to Avoid Them) / Edition 4

Common Errors in Statistics (and How to Avoid Them) / Edition 4

4.3 3
by Phillip I. Good, James W. Hardin
     
 

ISBN-10: 1118294394

ISBN-13: 9781118294390

Pub. Date: 07/31/2012

Publisher: Wiley

Praise for Common Errors in Statistics (and How to Avoid Them)

"A very engaging and valuable book for all who use statistics in any setting."
—CHOICE

"Addresses popular mistakes often made in data collection and provides an indispensable guide to accurate statistical analysis and reporting. The authors' emphasis on careful practice,

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Overview

Praise for Common Errors in Statistics (and How to Avoid Them)

"A very engaging and valuable book for all who use statistics in any setting."
—CHOICE

"Addresses popular mistakes often made in data collection and provides an indispensable guide to accurate statistical analysis and reporting. The authors' emphasis on careful practice, combined with a focus on the development of solutions, reveals the true value of statistics when applied correctly in any area of research."
—MAA Reviews

Common Errors in Statistics (and How to Avoid Them), Fourth Edition provides a mathematically rigorous, yet readily accessible foundation in statistics for experienced readers as well as students learning to design and complete experiments, surveys, and clinical trials.

Providing a consistent level of coherency throughout, the highly readable Fourth Edition focuses on debunking popular myths, analyzing common mistakes, and instructing readers on how to choose the appropriate statistical technique to address their specific task. The authors begin with an introduction to the main sources of error and provide techniques for avoiding them. Subsequent chapters outline key methods and practices for accurate analysis, reporting, and model building. The Fourth Edition features newly added topics, including:

  • Baseline data
  • Detecting fraud
  • Linear regression versus linear behavior
  • Case control studies
  • Minimum reporting requirements
  • Non-random samples

The book concludes with a glossary that outlines key terms, and an extensive bibliography with several hundred citations directing readers to resources for further study.

Presented in an easy-to-follow style, Common Errors in Statistics, Fourth Edition is an excellent book for students and professionals in industry, government, medicine, and the social sciences.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781118294390
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
07/31/2012
Pages:
352
Sales rank:
1,142,646
Product dimensions:
14.00(w) x 8.90(h) x 0.70(d)

Related Subjects

Table of Contents

Preface xi

Part I Foundations 1

1 Sources of Error 3

Prescription 4

Fundamental Concepts 5

Ad Hoc, Post Hoc Hypotheses 7

To Learn More 11

2 Hypotheses: The Why of Your Research 13

Prescription 13

What is a Hypothesis? 14

Found Data 16

Null Hypothesis 16

Neyman-Pearson Theory, 17

Deduction and Induction 21

Losses 22

Decisions 23

To Learn More 25

3 Collecting Data 27

Preparation 27

Response Variables 28

Determining Sample Size 32

Sequential Sampling 36

One-Tail or Two? 37

Fundamental Assumptions 40

Experimental Design 41

Four Guidelines 43

Are Experiments Really Necessary? 46

To Learn More 47

Part II Statistical Analysis 49

4 Data Quality Assessment 51

Objectives 52

Review the Sampling Design 52

Data Review 53

The Four-Plot 55

To Learn More 55

5 Estimation 57

Prevention 57

Desirable and Not-So-Desirable Estimators 57

Interval Estimates 61

Improved Results 65

Summary 66

To Learn More 66

6 Testing Hypotheses: Choosing a Test Statistic 67

First Steps 68

Test Assumptions 70

Binomial Trials 71

Categorical Data 72

Time-to-Event Data (Survival Analysis) 73

Comparing the Means of Two Sets of Measurements 76

Comparing Variances 85

Comparing the Means of k Samples 89

Subjective Data 91

Independence Versus Correlation 91

Higher-Order Experimental Designs 92

Inferior Tests 96

Multiple Tests 97

Before You Draw Conclusions 97

Summary 99

To Learn More 99

7 Miscellaneous Statistical Procedures 101

Bootstrap 102

Bayesian Methodology 103

Meta-Analysis 110

Permutation Tests 112

To Learn More 113

Part III Reports 115

8 Reporting Your Results 117

Fundamentals117

Descriptive Statistics 122

Standard Error 127

p-Values 130

Confidence Intervals 131

Recognizing and Reporting Biases 133

Reporting Power 135

Drawing Conclusions 135

Summary 136

To Learn More 136

9 Interpreting Reports 139

With a Grain of Salt 139

The Analysis 141

Rates and Percentages 145

Interpreting Computer Printouts 146

To Learn More 146

10 Graphics 149

The Soccer Data 150

Five Rules for Avoiding Bad Graphics 150

One Rule for Correct Usage of Three-Dimensional Graphics 159

The Misunderstood and Maligned Pie Chart 161

Two Rules for Effective Display of Subgroup Information 162

Two Rules for Text Elements in Graphics 166

Multidimensional Displays 167

Choosing Graphical Displays 170

Summary 172

To Learn More 172

Part IV Building a model 175

11 Univariate Regression 177

Model Selection 178

Stratification 183

Estimating Coefficients 185

Further Considerations 187

Summary 191

To Learn More 192

12 Alternate Methods of Regression 193

Linear Versus Non-Linear Regression 194

Least Absolute Deviation Regression 194

Errors-in-Variables Regression 196

Quantile Regression 199

The Ecological Fallacy 201

Nonsense Regression 202

Summary 202

To Learn More 203

13 Multivariable Regression 205

Caveats 205

Correcting for Confounding Variables 207

Keep It Simple 207

Dynamic Models 208

Factor Analysis 208

Reporting Your Results 209

A Conjecture 211

Decision Trees 211

Building a Successful Model 214

To Learn More 215

14 Modeling Correlated Data 217

Common Sources of Error 218

Panel Data 218

Fixed-and Random-Effects Models 219

Population-Averaged GEEs 219

Quick Reference for Popular Panel Estimators 221

To Learn More 223

15 Validation 225

Objectives 225

Methods of Validation 226

Measures of Predictive Success 229

Long-Term Stability 231

To Learn More 231

Glossary, Grouped by Related but Distinct Terms 233

Bibliography 237

Author Index 259

Subject Index 267

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