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The author reads four eighteenth-century satiric novels—Henry Fielding's Joseph Andrews, ...
The author reads four eighteenth-century satiric novels—Henry Fielding's Joseph Andrews, Laurence Sterne's A Sentimental Journey, Tobias Smollett's Humphrey Clinker, and Frances Burney's Cecilia—"from below," exploring the ways in which the gentle authors' experiences of the poor shape the novels both thematically and formally. The author argues that in these novels the mental structures of gentlemen and gentlewomen characters are formed through acts of imitation of and identification with the poor.
The four novels all concern, in varying degrees of explicitness, the ways the poor were despised and denied politically and socially: the curtailing of popular festivity, the shift from a paternalist to a contractual model of service, the social dislocations caused by enclosure, and the commodification of labor. In the novels' representations of gentle consciousness, the author suggests, the gentry mimic and identify with the socially marginal, their imaginary repertoires formed out of such identification.
Claiming that affect is formed in the interrelation of social groups as they react to economic change, this book centers on the conjunction of economic change, novelistic technique, and the constitution of affects. Further, it suggests that satire—which, during this period, was falling into disrepute under the pressure of contemporary attempts to redefine comedy—may be regarded as a generic form that arrests affect, refusing to idealize or cover over the devastating social effects of economic "progress," but at the same time unable to see and say what has been lost. The satiric element in these novels is the moment where anxiety about the gentry's relation to the poor—and hence the gentry's very self-definition—is most richly performed and ritualized.
|Introduction: Gentle and Poor on Common Ground||1|
|Ch. 1||"What You Seek Is Nowhere": The Comic Novel and Lower-Class Literacy||30|
|Ch. 2||"A Man Who Laughs Is Never Dangerous": The Gentleman's Disposition in A Sentimental Journey||63|
|Ch. 3||The Satire of Melancholia: Humphry Clinker and the Agricultural Revolution||90|
|Ch. 4||"This Dream of Fancied Sorrow": Female Affectivity and the Laboring Poor in Frances Burney's Cecilia||127|
|Conclusion: Labor and Satire at the Century's End||165|