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In her previous book, Within Our Reach, renowned Harvard social analyst Lisbeth Schorr examined pilot social programs that were successful in helping disadvantaged youth and families. But as those cutting-edge programs were expanded, the very qualities that had made them initially successful were jettisoned, and less than half of them ultimately survived. As a result, these groundbreaking programs never made a dent on the national or statewide level.
Lisbeth Schorr has spent the past seven years researching and identifying large-scale programs across the country that are promising to reduce, on a community- or citywide level, child abuse, school failure, teenage pregnancy, and welfare dependence. From reformed social service agencies in Missouri, Michigan, and Los Angeles to "idiosyncratic" public schools in New York City, she shows how private and public bureaucracies are successfully nurturing programs that are flexible and responsive to the community, that have set clear, long-term goals, and that permit staff to exercise individual judgment in helping the disadvantaged. She shows how what works in small-scale pilot social programs can be adapted on a large scale to transform whole inner-city neighborhoods and reshape America.
On the heels of the federal government's dismantling of welfare guarantees, Common Purpose offers a welcome antidote to our current sense of national despair, and concrete proof that America's social institutions can be made to work to assure that all the nation's children develop the tools to share in the American dream.
In an earlier work (Within Our Reach, 1988), Schorr (director of the Harvard Project on Effective Intervention) examined small, experimental social programs that successfully made a dent in seemingly intractable problems like teen pregnancy, school dropouts, and unemployment. A decade later, she finds many of the innovations strangled by bureaucracy or still limited to the neighborhoods where they began. But all is not lost, says Schorr. Leading from crowded classrooms and the cubicles that house children's-services and public-assistance workers are threads of insight and ingenuity that can be woven into a tapestry of programs that will serve the poor, the undereducated, and the overwhelmed. With new techniques of measurement, these programs can be realistically evaluated and propagated. What works, she says, are programs that are close enough to their communities to be "comprehensive, flexible, responsive, and persevering." But good intentions are not enough. Such programs must also have clearly defined goals, competent, well-trained staffs—and government money. A chapter titled "Taming Bureaucracies . . ." is one of the most effective in the book, partly because Schorr does not abandon government employees, or even politicians, to the usual charges of apathy and selfishness. Other chapters look closely at productive partnerships among schools, families, and community and government agencies that have effectively reduced child abuse and neglect, drug abuse, illiteracy and unemployment.
"I have tried to paint a picture of the possible," says Schorr—and she has. But the picture also demands hard work, an open mind, and, yes, faith from every citizen who views it.
|Pt. I||Spreading and Sustaining Success|
|1||What Works and Why We Have So Little of It||3|
|2||Spreading What Works Beyond the Hothouse||22|
|3||Taming Bureaucracies to Support What Works||65|
|4||A New Focus on Results||115|
|5||Finding Out What Works||140|
|Pt. II||Reforming Systems|
|6||Beyond Welfare Repeal: Real Welfare Reform||157|
|7||Strengthening a Collapsing Child Protection System||197|
|8||Educating America's Children||232|
|Pt. III||Rebuilding Communities|
|9||Synergy: Putting It All Together to Transform Neighborhoods||301|
|Epilogue: We Can Achieve Our Common Purpose||380|