Communicating in Groups: Applications and Skills / Edition 5

Communicating in Groups: Applications and Skills / Edition 5

by Katherine L. Adams, John K. Brilhart, Gloria J. Galanes, John K. Brilhart
     
 

ISBN-10: 0072483881

ISBN-13: 9780072483888

Pub. Date: 06/13/2002

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The

Communicating in Groups offers a concise, step-by-step introduction to the theory and practice of small group communication and teaches students to develop and apply critical thinking skills in group problem-solving situations. With the firm belief that group participation can be an uplifting, energizing experience, authors Kathy Adams and Gloria Galanes give students

Overview

Communicating in Groups offers a concise, step-by-step introduction to the theory and practice of small group communication and teaches students to develop and apply critical thinking skills in group problem-solving situations. With the firm belief that group participation can be an uplifting, energizing experience, authors Kathy Adams and Gloria Galanes give students the tools they will need to achieve this outcome. Research and theory are presented with a focus on what is important to students-understanding their group experiences and making them effective communicators. The new edition includes updated statistics and figures, new discussions on ethics as applied to the National Communication Association Credo of Ethics, improved coverage of diversity, new discussion of systems theory, and much more.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780072483888
Publisher:
McGraw-Hill Companies, The
Publication date:
06/13/2002
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
368
Product dimensions:
7.40(w) x 9.12(h) x 0.56(d)

Table of Contents


Preface     xiv
Orientation to Small Group Systems     1
Small Groups as the Heart of Society     2
Groups in Your Life     5
Groups as Problem Solvers     6
Participating in Groups     6
Groups versus Individuals as Problem Solvers     8
When a Group Is a Good Choice     9
When a Group Is Not a Good Choice     9
Groups, Small Groups, Teams, and Small Group Communication     11
Groups     11
Small Groups     12
Small Groups versus Teams     13
Small Group Communication     14
Groups and Technology     15
Classifying Groups by Their Major Purpose     16
Primary or Secondary Groups     16
Types of Secondary Groups     17
Being an Ethical Group Member     21
The Participant-Observer Perspective     24
Groups as Structured Open Systems     28
What Is a Theory?     30
Overview of General Systems Theory     30
The Small Group as a System     32
Definition of a System     32
Concepts Vital to Understanding Systems     33
Characteristics of Systems     40
Organizations as Systems of Groups     46
Foundations of Small Group Communicating     51
Communication Principles for Group Members     52
Communication: What's That?     55
Communication Is Symbolic     55
Communication Is Personal     56
Communication Is a Transactional Process     56
Communication Is a Sender and Receiver Phenomenon     58
Communication Involves Content and Relationship Dimensions     60
Implications for Small Group Communication     61
Listening: Receiving, Interpreting, and Responding to Messages from Other Group Members     63
Listening Defined     63
Listening Preferences     64
Habits of Poor Listeners     65
Listening Actively     69
Using Verbal and Nonverbal Messages in Small Group Communication     74
Creating Messages in a Small Group     76
How Communication Structures the Small Group     77
Using Language to Help the Group Progress     78
Following the Rules     79
Adjusting to the Symbolic Nature of Language     80
Using Emotive Words Cautiously     82
Organizing Remarks     83
Making Sure the Discussion Question Is Clear and Appropriate     85
Using Language to Focus a Group's Discussion: An Application     86
Nonverbal Behaviors in Small Group Communication     90
Principles of Nonverbal Communication     90
Functions of Nonverbal Behaviors     91
Categories of Nonverbal Behaviors     94
Nonverbal Behavior in Computer-Mediated Groups     100
From Individuals to Group     103
Becoming a Group     104
The Life Cycle of a Group     106
Challenges in Group Development     107
A Group's Major Functions     107
Social Tensions in Groups     108
Phase Models in Group Development     112
Group Socialization of Members     113
Stages of Group Socialization     115
Group Roles     118
Types of Roles     118
Role Functions in a Small Group     119
The Emergence of Roles in a Group     121
Managing Group Roles     123
Rules and Norms     123
Development of Group Norms     125
Enforcement of Group Norms     126
Changing a Group Norm     128
Development of a Group's Climate     129
Trust      130
Cohesiveness     132
Supportiveness     133
Ethical Behavior during Group Formation     135
Working with Diversity in the Small Group     138
What Is Diversity?     140
Diverse Member Characteristics     142
Differences in Motives for Joining a Group     142
Diversity of Learning Styles     143
Personality Differences     146
Cultural Diversity     150
Dimensions of Culture     150
Racial and Ethnic Differences     155
Gender Differences     159
Generational Differences     161
Working with Diversity/Bridging Differences     167
Creating a Group Identity through Fantasy     168
Using SYMLOG to "Picture" Diversity     169
Understanding and Improving Group Throughput Processes     177
Creative and Critical Thinking in the Small Group     178
What Is Creative Thinking?     180
Enhancing Group Creativity     183
Brainstorming     184
Synectics     185
Mind Mapping     187
What Makes Thinking "Critical"?     189
Enhancing Critical Thinking in a Group     189
Having the Right Attitude     191
Gathering Information     193
Evaluating Information     197
Checking for Errors in Reasoning     203
Avoiding Groupthink     208
Group Problem-Solving Procedures     216
A Systematic Procedure as the Basis for Problem Solving     219
Capturing the Problem in Problem Solving     220
How Do We Know a Problem When We See One?     220
Area of Freedom     221
Characteristics of Problems     222
Identifying Problems with a Problem Census     223
Effective Problem Solving and Decision Making     227
The Procedural Model of Problem Solving (P-MOPS)     228
Applications of P-MOPS     244
Managing Conflicts Productively     250
What Is Conflict?     252
Myths about Conflict     252
Types of Conflict     256
Substantive Conflict     256
Affective Conflict     256
Procedural Conflict     257
Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) and Conflict Types     258
Managing Conflict in the Group     259
Conflict Management Styles     259
Expressing Disagreement Ethically      265
Maximizing Your Chances to Influence the Group     267
The Nominal Group Technique     268
Steps in Principled Negotiation     270
Applying Leadership Principles     276
Leadership and Leaders     278
What Is Leadership?     278
Sources of Power and Influence     278
What Is a Leader?     280
Myths about Leadership     283
Current Ideas about Leadership     286
The Functional Concept of Group Leadership     286
The Contingency Concept of Group Leadership     287
What Good Leaders Do     290
What Group Members Expect Leaders to Do     291
Performing Administrative Duties     292
Leading Group Discussions     297
Developing the Group     303
Encouraging Distributed Leadership     306
Ethical Guidelines for Group Leaders     309
Small Group Public Presentations     313
Planning, Organizing, and Presenting Small Group Oral Presentations     314
The Planning Stage     316
Your Audience     316
Your Occasion     317
Your Purpose     317
Your Subject or Topic     318
Member Strengths and Fears     318
Supplemental Logistics     319
Types of Group Oral Presentations     319
The Organizing Stage     322
Delegating Duties     323
Gathering Verbal and Visual Materials     323
Organizing Materials and the Presentation     326
The Presenting Stage     330
Checking Your Language     330
Practice Aloud     331
What Makes a Good Oral Presentation?     332
Techniques for Observing Problem-Solving Groups     A-1
References     R-1
Bibliography     B-1
Index     I-1

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