Communicating: A Social and Career Focus / Edition 9

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A mainstay among introductory communication courses for the past thirty years, Communicating: A Social and Career Focus presents comprehensive coverage of basic communication theory, interpersonal and group communication, and public speaking skills in a concise and student-friendly format. Communicating continues truly to integrate culture and diversity and to place special emphasis on active learning, providing ample practice and application with Learn by Doing end-of-chapter exercises and a variety of individual and group activities, class discussions, and student self-assessments in the Instructor's Resource Manual.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780618260157
  • Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
  • Publication date: 8/1/2003
  • Edition number: 9
  • Pages: 416
  • Product dimensions: 8.00 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 0.56 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface     xii
Foundations of Communication     1
The Human Communication Process     2
Communication Defined     4
The Components of Human Communication     5
Communicator Perceptions     7
The Source and the Message     8
The Channel     8
The Receiver and the Message     9
Feedback     9
Noise     10
Dealing with Noise     12
The Context     13
Communication as a System     13
Models of Human Communication     15
Linear Model of Communication     15
Interactional Model of Communication     17
Transactional Model of Communication     18
The Models Compared     19
The Media as Communicator     20
Communication and Culture     21
Intercultural and Intracultural Communication     21
Multiculturalism     23
Ethnocentrism     24
First Amendment Speech     27
Ethics     29
Communication Ethics     29
Ethical Communicators     30
Ethical Business Communicators     31
Foundations of VerbalLanguage     34
Origins of Human Language     35
Selecting Symbols     36
Processing Symbols     36
Learning Symbols     38
The Concept of Meaning     40
The Functions of Language     42
Language Distortion     44
The Languages We Use     45
Standard American English     46
Slang     47
Nonstandard English Dialects     49
Using Verbal Language     52
Nonverbal Communication     56
Sources of Nonverbal Signs     58
Neurological Programs     58
Cultural and Intercultural Behavior     60
Emotional Influences on Nonverbal Communication     61
Verbal and Nonverbal Relationships     62
Substituting Relationship     62
Complementing Relationship     63
Conflicting Relationship     63
Accenting Relationship     64
Categories of Nonverbal Communication     65
Kinesics: Body Communication     65
Physical Characteristics     72
Proxemics: Spatial Communication     74
Paravocalics: Vocal Communication     77
Chronemics: Time as Communication     78
Olfactics: Smell as Communication     79
Aesthetics: Mood and Beauty as Communication     80
Gustorics: Taste as Communication     80
Using Nonverbal Communication     81
Listening     84
The Importance of Listening     85
The Listening Process     86
Reception     86
Attention     88
Perception     90
Assignment of Meaning     91
Response     95
Listening Influencers     97
Purposes of Listening     98
Discriminative Listening     99
Comprehension Listening     99
Therapeutic Listening     101
Critical Listening     102
Appreciative Listening     103
Listening Apprehension     103
Improving Your Listening     104
Intrapersonal Communication     113
Intrapersonal Communication     114
Self-Talk     115
Self-Concept     117
Self-Love     119
Cognitive Processing     119
The Self     120
Understanding Yourself     121
Need Drives Affecting Communication     126
Survival     127
Pleasure Seeking     127
Security     127
Territoriality     128
Anxiety: Communication Apprehension     129
Communication Anxiety Defined     131
The Effects of Communication Anxiety     132
The Causes of Communication Apprehension     132
Help for Communication Apprehension     133
Interpersonal Communication     137
The Concepts of Interpersonal Communication     138
Basic Concepts of Interpersonal Communication     139
Self-Disclosure     142
The Self and Others     142
Seeking Approval     144
Gaining Compliance     145
Emotions     146
Power     147
Male/Masculine-Female/Feminine Communication     149
Sex and Gender     149
How Men and Women Communicate Differently     151
Gender Communication in the Workplace     154
Sexual Harassment and Bullying     154
Responding to Sexual Harassment     155
Bullying     157
Relationships and Their Development     157
Development of a Relationship      157
Continuing a Relationship     159
Positive Relationships     160
Communication in Relationships     162
Relational Conflict     163
Ending Relationships     163
Electronic and Computer-Mediated Interpersonal Communication     164
Interpersonal Uses of the Internet     165
Positive Aspects of Internet Use     165
Negative Aspects of Internet Use     166
Blogging     169
Ways to Be a Better Interpersonal On-line Communicator     171
Cell Phones     173
Interpersonal Skills     178
Participating in Conversations     179
Conversational Presentation Skills     179
Conversational Listening Skills     181
Conversational Nonverbal Skills     182
Giving Directions     182
Giving Details     182
Organizing Ideas     182
Using Understandable Terms     183
Requesting     183
Requesting Information     184
Asking Questions     184
Dealing with Interpersonal Conflict     185
Conflict Defined     186
Causes of Conflict     187
Levels of Conflict      188
Role of Personal Anger in Conflict     190
Dealing with Another Person's Anger in Conflict     192
Fair Fighting     193
Individual Approaches to Dealing with Conflict     194
Apologizing     197
Communication Approaches to Managing Conflict     199
Assertive Communication     199
Negotiation     203
The Principles of Negotiation     204
Negotiating Styles     205
Arbitration     206
Litigation     207
Mediation     207
Handling Criticism     209
The Interview     214
Interviewing Roles     215
Role of the Interviewer     215
Role of the Interviewee     215
Interview Format     216
Opening of the Interview     216
Body of the Interview     216
Sequence of Interview Questions     218
Answering Interview Questions     219
Closing the Interview     220
Types of Interviews     220
Employment Interview     220
Information-Gathering Interview     229
Problem-Solving Interview     231
Oral History Interview      231
Counseling Interview     233
Persuasive Interview     234
Appraisal Interview     236
Reprimanding Interview     238
Interrogation Interview     239
Media Interview     241
The Concepts of Groups     245
Groups Defined     246
Group Versus Individual Actions     146
Advantages of Groups     246
Disadvantages of Groups     247
Types of Groups     249
Work Teams     249
Study Groups     249
Support Groups     249
Committees     250
Focus Groups     252
The Family as a Group     252
Public Meetings     253
Town Meetings     254
Group Operations     254
Group Norming     254
Group Storming     255
Group Conforming     257
Group Performing     257
Group Adjourning     258
Making Group Decisions     258
Formulating an Agenda     258
Voting     260
Decision-Making Techniques     261
Group Setting     264
Seating Choice      264
Table Configuration     266
Effect of the Physical Environment     266
Mediated Meetings     267
Types of Mediated Meetings     267
Positive and Negative Aspects of Mediated Meetings     268
How to Make Mediated Meetings Work     270
Participating in Groups     273
Cultural Differences in Groups     274
Cultures and Groups     274
Contrasts in Cultural Group Decision Making     275
Cultural Contrast of the Role of Information for Groups     277
Male and Female Roles in Groups     278
The Group Participant     278
Responsibilities of Group Members     279
Communicating as a Group Member     281
Roles of Group Members     283
Communication Networks     284
Dealing with Difficult Group Members     286
The Group Leader and Group Leadership     288
Types of Leaders     290
Patterns of Leader/Leadership Emergence     290
Why People Desire to Be Leaders     291
Leader/Leadership: Communicative Perspective     291
Effective Leader Questioning     292
Responsibilities of Leaders      293
Communicating in Public     297
Public Speaking: Planning and Presenting the Message     298
The Listenable Speech     299
Preparing a Speech: An Overview     300
Parameters of Public Speaking     300
The Ethics of Public Speaking     300
Plagiarism     301
Fabrication     302
Prior to the Speech Analysis     302
Demographics     302
Psychographics     304
Rhetorographics     304
Applying the Prior Analysis     305
Process of the Speech Analysis     309
Postspeech Analysis     310
Presenting the Message     310
Modes of Presentation     311
Impromptu or Ad Lib Mode     311
Extemporaneous Mode     312
Manuscript Mode     318
Memorized Mode     320
Oral and Physical Presentation     321
Vocal Delivery     321
Vocal Variety     321
Pronunciation     321
Physical Elements     322
Using PowerPoint     324
Public Speaking Anxiety     326
Conquering Public Speaking Anxiety     326
Rehearsing the Speech     329
Dealing with Difficulties During a Speech     330
Public Speaking: Developing the Speech     333
Sources of Information     334
Books     336
Magazines     336
Newspapers     336
Journals     337
Indexes     337
Government Pamphlets     337
Special-Interest Group Publications     337
Nonprint Media     337
Interviews     337
Computer Searches     337
Computer-Based Retrieval Systems     338
Conducting a Computer Search     338
Use of the Internet     338
Selecting Sources     340
Analyzing Sources     342
Recording Your Research     343
Supporting Material     345
Stories     345
Specific Instances     346
Exposition     346
Statistics     347
Analogies     348
Testimony     348
Vehicles for Presenting Supporting Material     349
Internal Summaries     349
Forecasting     349
Signposting     349
Supplementary Aids      349
Computerized Graphics     352
Public Speaking: Structuring the Message     358
The Basic Elements of a Speech     359
The Introduction     359
Attention Material     359
Orienting Material     363
The Central Idea     365
The Body     365
Role of Culture on Speech Structure     365
Methods of Issue Arrangement     367
The Conclusion     372
Summary     372
Clincher     373
Transition into the Question-and-Answer Session     373
Methods for Formatting a Speech     374
Partitioning Method     374
Unfolding Method     376
Case Method     378
Informative Public Speaking     382
Role of Informative Speaking     383
Concept of Informative Speaking     384
Characteristics of Informative Speaking     385
Classifications of Informative Speaking     385
Speeches About Objects     385
Speeches About Processes     387
Speeches About Events     387
Speeches About Concepts     387
Informative Briefings     387
Team Briefings     388
One-On-One Briefings     388
Technical Reports     388
Professional Papers     389
Lectures     390
Question-and-Answer Sessions     392
Speeches of Introduction     394
Developing the Informative Speech     395
The Informative Process in Action     397
Persuasive Public Speaking     401
Persuasive Speaking     402
Process of Persuasion     402
Persuasive Strategies     404
Role of Influence in Persuasion     405
Components of Persuasive Message     406
Speaker Credibility     407
Logical Arguments     409
Organizing the Persuasive Speech     413
Psychological Appeals     416
The Structure of the Persuasive Message     420
The Persuasive Process in Action     421
The Resume     426
Finding a Job     426
20 Seconds Is All You Get!     426
The Importance of Premium Paper     427
Accomplishment Statements: Selling the Sizzle!     427
The Dos and Don'ts of Resume Preparation     427
Action Verbs Make a Difference      428
Electronic Screening of Resumes     428
Skills-Based Functional Resume Format     429
Chronological Resume: Action Verbs Make a Difference     430
Notes     431
Glossary     447
Photo Credits     459
Index     460
Basic Rules for APA Style     464
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