- Shopping Bag ( 0 items )
Judith E. Favell
"A standard-setting book."
Based on extensive field-testing and the dual principles that problem behavior often serves a purpose for the individual displaying it and that intervention should take place in the community, this user-friendly manual details methods for conducting functional assessments, communication-based intervention strategies, procedures for facilitating generalization and maintenance, and crisis management tactics.
Useful for handling intense behavior problems, this book will be invaluable for educators, supported employment and group home staff, behavior specialists, psychologists, social workers, physical and occupational therapists, medical staff, speech-language pathologists, family members, and others working with people who have developmental disabilities. Also included are case studies and checklists of things to do to ensure success.
Excerpted from Communication-Based Intervention for Problem Behavior: A User's Guide for Producing Positive Change, by Edward G. Carr, Ph.D., Len Levin, M.A., Gene McConnachie, Ph.D., Jane I. Carlson, M.A., Duane C. Kemp, Ph.D., & Christopher E. Smith, M.A.
Copyright © 1994 by Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this book is to describe a communication-based intervention for severe problem behavior in persons with developmental disabilities. We need to be clear about what each of the terms used in the preceding sentence means. "Communication-based intervention" refers to an approach that reduces or eliminates problem behavior by teaching an individual specific forms of communication. Because the communicative forms that are taught are more effective ways of influencing others than the problem behavior, they eventually replace the problem behavior itself. Although the intervention of "communication training" is central to the approach, other interventions are also involved and that is why we use the term "communication-based" rather than simply "communication." By communication training, we mean that individuals are taught specific language forms, including, for example, speech, signing, and gestures that can be used to influence other people in order to achieve important goals. Severe problem behavior includes intense forms of aggression (punching, scratching, biting, and kicking others), self-injury (head-banging, self-biting, and self-slapping), property destruction, and tantrums (prolonged screaming and crying, often accompanied by one or more of the other forms of problem behavior just described). "People with developmental disabilities," in this book, typically refers to those people with mental retardation or autism, although we have also used the intervention approach with people with aphasia , neurological impairments, brain damage, developmental delays, and schizophrenia.
Six major themes recur throughout the book, which we now introduce.
Problem Behavior Usually Serves a Purpose for the Person Displaying It
You are probably used to hearing problem behavior described as "aberrant," "random," "psychotic," or "maladaptive." We think that these terms are misleading. To the contrary, problem behavior can be adaptive and that is why it is displayed so often. If a young girl learns that the only way to get her father's undivided attention is by banging her head against the table, then head-banging becomes a useful and adaptive response because it guarantees that the girl will receive continued contact with and influence over a very important person in her life.
Functional Assessment is Used to Identify the Purpose of Problem Behavior
Because problem behavior is typically purposeful, you cannot change it successfully in the long run without trying to discover what the purpose of the behavior is. This process is referred to in the scientific literature as "functional analysis" or functional assessment." To continue with our example, you may be able to suppress the young girl's head- banging temporarily by shouting at her to stop, but such punishment does not take into consideration why the girl is head-banging in the first place. Sooner or later, she will crave her father's attention again and she will resume head-banging. Therefore, if you want to help her in the long run, you must discover the reason for her head-banging, in this example, attention-seeking. Then you will be in a position to help her by teaching her new ways of getting her father's attention, for example, by talking to him.
The Goal of Intervention is Education, Not Simply Behavior Reduction
The most important implication of functional asses
Appendix: Results of Field Tests