Communication Sciences and Disorders: A Contemporary Perspective / Edition 2

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Overview

Bringing the subject matter to life through comprehensive case studies and multi-media samples, Communication Sciences and Disorders: An Introduction examines the multi-faceted field and the new challenges that have emerged in recent years. The text introduces students to communication sciences, succinctly presenting to readers the most current theories, research, and practices through rich examples, literacy-focused content, and engaging anecdotes.

With an emphasis on thinking critically about functional assessment and outcomes, Communication Sciences and Disorders helps students examine intersections between speaking, listening, reading, and writing within the framework of the ecological impact of communication disorders at home, school, work, and community.

New to the Second Edition

  • A new emphasis on literature draws connections between speaking, listening, reading, and writing, while special boxed features include inserts on a range of literacy-focused topics.
  • A focus on the use of technology in communication sciences and disorders shows students the many ways in which technology is continuously improving our knowledge and practice in the field.
  • A chapter on new research brings the most contemporary findings to reader.

Laura Justice is a professor in the School of Teaching and Learning at The Ohio State University. The author of four books including Language Development: Theory to Practice and Scaffolding with Storybooks, Justice’s research centers on young children who exhibit developmental vulnerabilities in language and literacy acquisition and the effects of teacher- or parent-implemented interventions on children's learning.

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Editorial Reviews

Doody's Review Service
Reviewer: In-sop Kim, Ph.D(Illinois State University)
Description: This book provides a contemporary update on communication disorders in a concise and luminous manner. The first edition was published in 2005.
Purpose: The purpose is to educate students about current theories, research, and latest perspectives in the study of communication sciences and disorders. To this end, the book presents clear descriptions and case examples of various communication disorders.
Audience: Written primarily for speech-language pathology students, the book is updated with the most current information in the field.
Features: The first of the book's two parts has five chapters that set out the theories, principles, and basic information on communication sciences and disorders. The first three chapters include a definition of communication and disorders, the relationship between communication and language, speech and hearing, different types of communication disorders, communication development, and the function and structure of human communication systems. The remaining two chapters discuss required evaluation and treatment for communication disorders and augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The 10 chapters in the second part introduce a variety of disorders of communication and include definitions, classification, main characteristics, etiology, assessment, and intervention. Each chapter discusses general but substantially essential issues of a disorder. The first two chapters focus on children and adults who have language and cognitive disorders. The last eight chapters discuss adolescents and adults who struggle with reading difficulties, children with phonological disorders, children and adults who stutter, different types of voice disorders, acquired neurological speech disorders (motor speech), children and adults with hearing loss, and individuals with dysphagia.
Assessment: This is a well constructed textbook for beginners in the field of speech-language pathology, with abundant resources. The book, along with the CD, supports students in their efforts to understand the concepts in each chapter and learn about diverse communication disorders. The second edition is updated with recent research and theories.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780135022801
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 4/27/2009
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 600
  • Product dimensions: 7.90 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Laura Justice is a professor in the School of Teaching and Learning at The Ohio State University. The author of four books including Language Development: Theory to Practice (Prentice Hall, 2007) and Scaffolding with Storybooks (International Reading Association, 2005), Justice’s research centers on young children who exhibit developmental vulnerabilities in language and literacy acquisition and the effects of teacher- or parent-implemented interventions on children's learning.

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Table of Contents

PART I

I. FOUNDATIONS OF COMMUNICATION SCIENCES AND DISORDERS 1

Fundamentals of Communication Science and Disorders 2

Introduction 3

What Is Communication? 5

Definition 5

The Purpose of Communication 7

How Does Communication Relate to Language, Speech, and Hearing? 9

Language 10

Speech 15

Hearing 19

What Is a Communication Disorder? 21

Normal and Disordered Communication 21

Communication Disorders and Communication Differences 22

Classification of Communication Disorders 25

What Careers Are Available in the Field of Communication Sciences and Disorders? 31

Speech-Language Pathology 32

Audiology 35

Allied Professions 37

Chapter Summary 39

II. AN OVERVIEW OF COMMUNICATION DEVELOPMENT 40

Introduction 41

What Is Communicative Competence? 41

Definition 41

What Is the Foundation for Communicative Competence? 47

Earliest Foundations 47

What Are Major Communicative Milestones in Infancy and Toddlerhood? 50

Infancy 51

Toddlerhood 55

What Are Major Communicative Milestones in Preschool and School-Age Children? 65

Preschool Accomplishments 65

Achievements in Use 67

School-Age Accomplishments 71

Language Diversity Considerations 77

Chapter Summary 79

III. ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL BASED OF COMMUNICATION AND COMMUNICATION DISORDERS 80

Introduction 81

Neuroscience and Human Communication 83

Terminology 83

The Nervous System 83

Anatomy and Physiology of Speech 93

Respiration 94

Phonation 96

Articulation 101

Anatomy and Physiology of Hearing 102

Outer Ear 103

Middle Ear 104

Inner Ear 105

The Auditory Nerve 107

Auditory Brain Center 107

Anatomy and Physiology of Swallowing 107

Three Phases of Swallowing 108

Chapter Summary 110

IV. COMMUNICATION ASSESSMENT AND INTERVENTION: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES 112

Introduction 113

What Is Assessment? 115

Definition 115

Purposes of Assessment 115

The Assessment Process 117

How Are Assessment Instruments Categorized? 125

Validity and Reliability 125

Types of Assessment 127

What Is Intervention? 134

Definition 134

Purposes of Intervention 136

Intervention Planning 138

Intervention Models 139

How Are Interventions Categorized? 140

Behaviorist Approaches 140

Linguistic-Cognitive Approaches 141

Social-Interactionist Approaches 142

Information-Processing Models 143

Family-Centered Intervention 146

Chapter Summary 146

V. AUGMENTATIVE AND ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATION AND COMPLEX COMMUNICATION NEEDS 148

Introduction 151

What Is AAC? 152

What Is an AAC System 153

Symbol 153

Aid 156

Strategy 157

Technique 157

Selection Set 159

What Are Complex Complication Needs? 160

Definintion 160

Multiculturalism and CCNs 162

What Are Some Common Causes of Complex Communication Needs? 164

How Are AAC Systems and Complex Communication Needs Identified? 166

The Assessment Team 166

The Assessment Process 167

How Can People with Complex Communication Needs Benefit from an AAC System? 171

Meeting Unmet Communication Needs 171

Improving Communication Competence 171

Increasing Participation in Society 172

Chapter Summary 174

PART IICOMMUNICATION DISORDERS ACROSS THE LIFESPAN 175

VI. LANGUAGE DISORDERS IN EARLY AND LATER CHILDHOOD 176

Introduction 177

What Is a Language Disorder? 177

Definition 177

Terminology 181

Prevalence and Incidence 182

How Are Language Disorders Classified? 183

Etiology 183

Manifestation 183

Severity 184

Dual Language Learners 185

What Are the Defining Characteristics of Prevalent Types of Language Disorders? 186

Specific Language Impairment 186

Autism Spectrum Disorder 188

Intellectual Disability 192

Brain Injury 195

How Are Language Disorders Identified? 198

The Assessment Process 198

The Importance of Accurate Diagnosis 204

How Are Language Disorders Treated? 206

Targets, Strategies, and Contexts 206

The Treatment Plan 209

Intervention Principles 210

Chapter Summary 216

VII. ADULT LANGUAGE DISORDERS AND COGNITIVE-BASED DYSFUNCTIONS 218

Introduction 219

What Is Aphasia? 220

Definition 220

Prevalence and Incidence 222

Types of Strokes 222

Risk Factors 223

How Is Aphasia Classified? 223

Behavioral Symptoms 224

What Are the Defining Characteristics of Aphasia Syndromes? 228

Broca’s Aphasia 228

Transcortical Motor Aphasia 229

Global Aphasia 230

Wernicke’s Aphasia 230

Transcortical Sensory Aphasia 231

Conduction Aphasia 231

Anomic Aphasia 232

How Is Aphasia Identified and Treated? 232

The Assessment Process 232

Prognostic Indicators 234

Designing Treatment Plans 234

Determining the Treatment Setting 236

Measuring Outcomes 236

What Are Right-Hemisphere Dysfunction, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Dementia? 237

Right-Hemisphere Dysfunction 237

Traumatic Brain Injury 240

Dementia 244

Chapter Summary 247

XII. READING DISABILITIES 248

Introduction 249

What Are the Key Components Involved in Skilled Reading? 251

Simple View of Reading 251

Reading Processes 253

Speech, Language, and Hearing Professionals’ Roles 258

What Is a Reading Disability, and How Are Reading Disabilities Classified? 259

How Are Reading Disabilities Classified? 260

Reading Disabilities: Dyslexia, Specific Comprehension Deficit, and Mixed Reading Deficit 260

What Are the Defining Characteristics of Prevalent Types of Reading Disabilities? 261

Dyslexia 261

Specific Comprehension Disabilities 264

Mixed Reading Disabilities 266

How Are Reading Disabilities Identified? 266

Screening Assessments 267

Diagnosis and Description 269

How Are Reading Disabilities Treated? 272

Treatment Goals and Approaches 272

Chapter Summary 279

IX. PHONOLOGICAL DISORDERS 280

Introduction 281

What Is a Phonological Disorder 283

Definition 283

Prevalence 284

Terminology 284

Describing Phonology and Articulation 286

How Are Phonological Disorders Classified? 292

Differentiating Phonological Disorders from Other Speech-Sound Disorders 292

Types of Speech-Sound Disorders 293

What Are the Defining Characteristics of Phonological Disorders? 295

Phonological Disorder of Unknown Origin 295

Phonological Disorder: Otitis Media with Effusion 297

Special Populations 298

How Are Phonological Disorders Identified and Described? 301

The Assessment Process 301

How Are Phonological Disorders Treated? 308

Intervention Approaches 308

Goals and Targets in Phonological Therapy 312

Discharge 314

Chapter Summary 314

X. FLUENCY DISORDERS 316

Introduction 317

What Is a Fluency Disorder? 319

Definition 319

Terminology 321

Prevalence and Incidence 321

How Are Fluency Disorders Classified? 323

Developmental Fluency Disorders 323

How Are the Defining Characteristics of Fluency Disorders? 328

Core Features 328

Secondary Features 330

Causes and Risk Factors 332

Can Stuttering Be Induced? 337

How Are Fluency Disorders Identified? 338

The Assessment Process 339

How Are Fluency Disorders Treated? 346

Treatment for Children 347

Clinician-Implemented Treatments 349

Treatment for Adolescents 350

Treatment for Adults 352

Chapter Summary 353

XI. VOICE DISORDERS 354

Introduction 355

What Is a Voice Disorder? 356

Definition 356

Terminology 360

Prevalence and Incidence 362

How Are Voice Disorders Classified? 365

Vocal Abuse 364

Neurogenic Disorders 368

Parkinson’s Disease 370

Psychogenic Disorders 371

Alaryngeal Communication 393

What Are the Defining Characteristics of Voice Disorders? 375

Resonance 376

Pitch and Loudness 377

Phonatory Quality 379

How Are Voice Disorders Identified? 380

The Voice Care Team 380

The Assessment Process 380

How Are Voice Disorders Treated? 386

Treatment for Vocal Abuse 388

Treatment for Neurogenic Disorders 389

Treatment for Psychogenic Disorders 389

Alaryngeal Communication 389

Chapter Summary 390

XII. MOTOR SPEECH DISORDERS: APRAXIA AND DYSARTHRIA 392

Introduction 393

What Is a Motor Speech Disorder? 393

Definition 393

Terminology 394

Prevalence and Incidence 401

How Are Motor Speech Disorders Classified? 402

Etiology 402

Manifestation 403

Severity 403

Characterizing Individual Differences 404

What Are the Defining Characteristics of Prevalent Types of Motor Speech Disorders? 404

Motor Programming and Planning Disorders and Acquired Apraxia of Speech (AOS) 405

Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) 407

Acquired Dysarthria 408

Developmental Dysarthria 410

How Are Motor Speech Disorders Identified? 411

The Assessment Process 411

How Are Motor Speech Disorders Treated? 417

Treatment Goals 417

Targets and Strategies 418

Chapter Summary 425

XIII. PEDIATRIC HEARING LOSS 426

Introduction 427

What Is Pediatric Hearing Loss? 427

Definition 427

Terminology 429

Prevalence and Incidence 430

Impact 431

How Is Pediatric Hearing Loss Classified? 435

Etiology 435

Manifestation 438

Severity 438

What Are the Defining Characteristics of Prevalent Types of Pediatric Hearing Loss? 440

Conductive Hearing Loss 440

Sensorineural Hearing Loss 442

Mixed Hearing Loss 443

How Is Pediatric Hearing Loss Identified? 444

The Assessment Process 444

The Importance of Accurate Diagnosis 452

How Is Pediatric Hearing Loss Treated? 453

Communication Choices 453

Amplification and Listening Devices 455

Aural Habilitation 456

Intervention Principles 458

What Is Auditory Processing Disorder, and How Is It Identified and Treated? 460

Defining Characteristics 461

Causes and Risk Factors 462

Assessment 462

Treatment Approaches 462

Chapter Summary 463

XIV.HEARING LOSS IN ADULTS 464

Introduction 465

What Is Adult Hearing Loss? 466

Definition 466

Terminology 470

Prevalence and Incidence 470

How Is Adult Hearing Loss Classified? 471

Etiology 471

Manifestation 472

Severity 473

What Are the Defining Characteristics of Prevalent Types of Hearing Loss? 474

Conductive Hearing Loss 474

Sensorineural Hearing Loss 475

Mixed Hearing Loss 479

How Is Hearing Loss Identified? 479

The Assessment Process 479

The Importance of Accurate Diagnosis 480

How Is Hearing Loss Treated? 481

Limitations of Current Approaches 481

Amplification and Assistive Listening Devices 483

Aural Rehabilitation 485

Chapter Summary 491

XV. FEEDING AND SWALLOWING DISORDERS 492

Introduction 493

What Are Feeding and Swallowing Disorders? 494

Pediatric Feeding Disorders 494

Dysphagia 495

The Normal Swallow 498

The Disordered Swallow: Dysphagia 499

What Are the Defining Characteristics of Pediatric Feeding and Swallowing Disorders? 501

Unsafe Feeding and Swallowing 501

Inadequate Feeding and Swallowing 503

Inappropriate Feeding and Swallowing 506

How Are Pediatric Feeding and Swallowing Disorders Identified and Treated? 506

Early Identification and Referral 506

Comprehensive Assessment 507

Treatment Goals in Pediatric Feeding and Swallowing 508

What Are the Defining Characteristics of Adult Dysphagia? 511

Phase Affected 511

Underlying Pathology of Cause 513

Severity 516

How Is Adult Dysphagia Identified and Treated? 516

Clinical Swallowing Examination 516

Instrumental Dysphagia Examination 518

Treating Dysphagia 519

Nutrition and Dietary Considerations 520

Chapter Summary 523

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