Community-Based Corrections / Edition 5

Community-Based Corrections / Edition 5

by Paul F. Cromwell, Rolando V. del Carmen, Leanne Fiftal Alarid

ISBN-10: 0534559662

ISBN-13: 9780534559663

Pub. Date: 08/28/2001

Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing Company

From probation, parole, electronic monitoring, and house arrest to day-treatment centers, boot camps, restitution, and fines-you'll read about these and other alternatives to incarceration in this clear, up-to-date book. You'll also gain insight into the historical, philosophical, social, and legal underpinnings of each program and why alternatives to prison are


From probation, parole, electronic monitoring, and house arrest to day-treatment centers, boot camps, restitution, and fines-you'll read about these and other alternatives to incarceration in this clear, up-to-date book. You'll also gain insight into the historical, philosophical, social, and legal underpinnings of each program and why alternatives to prison are important to sustain. The authors include many examples throughout to show you the practical side of community-based corrections-as well as Case Studies that give you many opportunities to apply the concepts you'll be learning in each chapter to real-life practice.

This cutting-edge Seventh Edition is filled with new discussion of many topics, such as bail decision, pretrial release and diversion, drug courts, officer stress, private probation, supervision issues, and restorative justice. New Technology in Corrections boxes illustrate how advancements in equipment and knowledge about data are having an impact on all aspects of corrections programs.

Product Details

Wadsworth Publishing Company
Publication date:
Edition description:
Older Edition
Product dimensions:
7.84(w) x 10.58(h) x 0.88(d)

Table of Contents

Preface     xvii
About the Authors     xxi
Overview of Community Corrections     1
The State of Corrections Today: Why Community Corrections Is Important     2
The Correctional Dilemma     3
Change in Sentencing Laws     3
The Toughening of Juvenile Justice     6
The Paradox     6
Public Perceptions of Community Corrections     7
Correctional Budgets     8
The Role of Corrections at Three Major Decision Points     9
Pretrial and the Bail Decision     12
Sentencing Decision     12
Reentry Decision     13
How Community Corrections Fits Correctional Goals     13
Protection of the Public     13
Rehabilitation     14
Community Reintegration     15
Restorative or Community Justice     15
Public Shaming as Punishment     16
What You Should Know about Evaluations of Community-Based Corrections     17
What Works?     17
How Is Effectiveness Measured?     18
Other Outcome Measures for Evaluation     19
Top Things You Should Know     19
Discussion Questions     20
Websites     20
Pretrial Release and Diversion     21
Introduction     22
Pretrial Services     22
The Pretrial Release Decision     22
History of Pretrial Release     22
The Least Restrictive Option     23
Types of Bonds     24
Characteristics of Pretrial Releasees     25
Pretrial Supervision     26
Failure to Appear     26
Reducing Failure to Appear Rates     26
Diversion     28
Candidates for Diversion     28
Drug Courts     29
Assumptions of Drug Courts     29
Gender and Drug Court Treatment Strategies     31
Evaluating Drug Courts     32
Mental Health Courts     34
Criticisms of Diversion Programs     35
Top Things You Should Know     35
Discussion Questions     35
Websites     36
Case Study Exercise     37
Sentencing and the Presentence Investigation Report     39
Introduction     40
Factors That Affect Granting a Community Sentence     40
Eligibility for Community Corrections     40
Conditions of Probation Fixed by Statute      40
Availability and Quality of Intermediate Sanctions and Other Community-based Services     41
Other Factors     41
Sentencing Guidelines     41
Voluntary Sentencing Guidelines     42
Punishment Units     42
Sentencing Commissions     44
Conditions of Community Corrections     44
Standard Conditions     44
Special Conditions     44
Limitations of Special Conditions     45
Supervision Conditions Must Be Constitutional     45
First Amendment Rights     45
Searches and Seizures     46
The Privilege Against Self-Incrimination     47
The Presentence Investigation Report     48
Purposes of the PSI Report     48
Contents of the PSI Report     49
Offender-Based PSI Reports     49
Offense-Based PSI Reports     50
Preparing the PSI Report     52
The Initial Interview     53
Investigation and Verification     54
The Evaluative Summary     54
The Sentence Recommendation     55
Legal Issues Concerning the Presentence Report     56
Disclosure of the PSI Report     56
Inaccuracies in the PSI Report     57
Hearsay in the PSI Report     57
Does the Exclusionary Rule Apply?     58
Miranda Warnings and the PSI Interview     58
Right to a Lawyer during the PSI Interview     58
Top Things You Should Know     59
Discussion Questions     59
Websites     60
Probation Conditions     60
Case Study Exercise 1     62
Case Study Exercise 2     64
Probation     75
History of Probation     76
Introduction     77
Precursors to American Probation     77
Recognizance and Suspended Sentence     78
Two Kinds of Suspended Sentence     78
The Power to Suspend Sentence     78
Early Probation     79
The Role of Volunteers and the Settlement Movement     82
Development of Federal Probation     82
History of Juvenile Probation and Female Probation Officers     83
Early Probation Legislation in Other States     84
Changing Concepts of Supervision     85
The Casework Era: 1900-1970     85
Brokerage of Services Era: 1970-1980     85
Community Resource Management Team      86
Justice Model of Supervision: 1980-1995     86
Top Things You Should Know     87
Discussion Questions     88
Websites     88
Probation Officer Issues     89
Introduction     90
Organization of Probation Services     90
Arguments for and Against State or Executive Branch Administration     92
Community Corrections Acts     93
A Typology of Probation Officer Work Styles     94
Selection and Appointment of Probation Officers     95
Appointment System     96
Merit System     97
Combined System     97
Officer Qualifications, Training, and Salary     98
Education and Experience     98
Adult Preservice Training     98
Juvenile Preservice and Orientation Training     98
In-Service Training     100
Officer Salary     100
Firearms Policies for Probation and Parole Officers     101
Probation Officer Job Stress     102
Sources of Stress     103
Decreasing Stress: Types of Immunity     104
Absolute Immunity     105
Oualified Immunity     105
Private Probation      106
Top Things You Should Know     107
Discussion Questions     107
Websites     107
Classification and Supervision in Probation and Parole     109
Introduction     110
Neighborhood-Based Probation Supervision     110
The Surveillance Function in Supervision     116
Developing Prosocial Behaviors     117
Building on Assets and Strengths     117
Employment Services     117
Using Informal Social Controls     118
Classification: The First Step in Supervision     118
Actuarial Risk Assessment     121
Identifying Treatment Needs     121
Developing the Case Plan     124
Levels of Supervision     124
Caseload and Workload Standards     126
Specialized Caseloads     126
Supervising Offenders Who Are Mentally Ill     127
Supervising Offenders Who Have Abused Drugs and Alcohol     128
Gender-Responsive Strategies     129
Supervising Sex Offenders     130
Polygraph Tests     130
Global Positioning Systems     130
Interstate Compacts on Probation     131
New Interstate Compact for Adult Offender Supervision      132
Revocation and the Interstate Compact     132
Top Things You Should Know     132
Discussion Questions     133
Websites     133
Case Study Exercise     135
Probation Modification and Termination     138
Introduction     139
Modifying Probation Conditions     140
Early Termination of Probation     140
Modifying Conditions before the Revocation Decision     141
The Decision to Revoke     141
Types of Probation Violations     143
Law Violations     143
Technical Violations     144
Probation Absconders     145
Revocation Procedure     145
The Power to Arrest Probationers     146
Time on Probation or Parole Is Usually Not Credited if Revoked     146
Revocation Rights of Probationers and Parolees     147
Gagnon v. Scarpelli-The Facts     148
The Right to a Hearing     148
The Right to a Lawyer     149
Level of Proof and Evidence Required     149
Other Revocation Situations     150
Revocation for an Inability to Pay?     150
Juvenile Probation Revocation      150
Revocation After Probation Term Expires     150
Probation Effectiveness     151
Probation Recidivism Rates     151
Who Is More Likely to Succeed or Fail on Probation?     152
Probationers Compared with Parolees     153
Top Things You Should Know     154
Discussion Questions     154
Websites     154
Case Study Exercise     156
Intermediate Sanctions     159
Residential Intermediate Sanctions     160
Introduction     161
Residential Community Corrections Facilities     162
Halfway Houses     162
History of Halfway Houses in the United States     164
Program Components     166
Levels System: A Form of Behavior Modification     166
Worker Perspectives and Role Orientation     167
Punishment and Treatment Role Orientations     168
Evaluations of RCCFs     168
Shock Incarceration     169
Correctional Boot Camps     170
Prison Boot Camps: The Case of New York State     171
Probation Boot Camps     172
Offender Perspectives     173
Criticisms of Boot Camps     176
Evaluations of Boot Camp Programs     176
Eight Site Study     176
Attitude and Behavoral Change     177
Reduction of Crowding and Costs     177
The Future of Shock Incarceration Programs     177
Other Types of Residential Community Corrections Facilities     177
Restitution Centers     178
Minnesota Restitution     178
Georgia Community Diversion Center     178
Therapeutic Communities     178
The Therapeutic Community Environment     178
Challenges of the TC     180
Types and Uses of Therapeutic Communities     180
Evaluations of Therapeutic Communities     181
Work Release and Work Ethic Camps     181
Work Ethic Camp     182
Combined Work Release and Therapeutic Community     182
Women Offenders Living with Their Children     182
John P. Craine House     183
Top Things You Should Know     184
Discussion Questions     184
Websites     185
Case Study Exercise     186
Nonresidential Intermediate Sanctions     187
Introduction     188
Intensive Supervision Probation     188
ISP Caseloads      189
Attitudes toward ISP     189
Evaluations of ISP     189
Reduction of Prison Beds     190
Cost-Benefit Analyses     190
Treatment Participation     190
Summary of ISP Evaluations     190
House Arrest     191
Purposes of Home Detention     191
Criticisms of House Arrest     191
Effectiveness of House Arrest     192
House Arrest Versus Residential Community Corrections Facilities     192
Pretrial Detainees     193
Electronic Monitoring and Global Positioning Systems     193
History of Electronic Monitoring     194
Problems of Early EM Programs     194
Remote Location Monitoring     195
Officer Carries a Portable Receiver     196
Global Positioning Systems     196
Frequency of Use     197
Attitudes toward EM     198
Attitudes of EM Participants     198
Citizen Attitudes     199
Empirical Evaluations of Home-Based Electronic Monitoring     200
Long-Term Effects     200
Completion Rates     200
Gender Differences     200
Day Reporting Centers      201
Purposes of DRCs     202
Treatment-Oriented versus Supervision-Oriented DRCs     202
Evaluations of DRCs     205
Completion Rates     205
Rate of Rearrest     205
Predictors of DRC Failure     206
Top Things You Should Know     206
Discussion Questions     207
Websites     207
Case Study Exercise     209
Economic and Restorative Justice Reparations     210
Introduction     211
Restorative Justice Principles     211
Forms of Restorative Justice     212
Victim-Offender Mediation     213
Reparation Boards     213
Family Group Conferencing     214
Circle Sentencing     214
Effectiveness of Restorative Justice Methods     214
Restitution     216
Restitution in History     216
Losses Eligible for Compensation     218
Problems Associated with Restitution     218
Indigent Offenders     219
Determining the Restitution Amount     219
Collecting Restitution     219
Increasing Restitution Collection Rates     220
Effectiveness of Restitution      220
Victim and Public Views Toward Restitution     220
Community Service     221
History of Community Service     221
The English Model     221
Purpose of Community Service     221
Prevalence of Community Service     222
Effectiveness of Community Service     222
Fines     224
Prevalence of Fines     224
Revoking Probation for Fine Nonpayment     225
Forfeitures     225
Day Fines     226
Evaluation of Day Fines     226
Fees and Costs     227
Top Things You Should Know     228
Discussion Questions     229
Websites     229
Case Study Exercise     230
Prisoner Reentry     231
The History of Parole: From Its Origin to the Present     232
Introduction     233
The Origins of Parole     233
Manuel Montesinos     234
Georg Michael Obermaier     235
Alexander Maconochie     235
Transportation of English Prisoners to America     235
Transportation of English Prisoners to Australia     236
Marks System     236
Norfolk Island     236
Sir Walter Crofton and the Irish System     237
Development of Parole in the United States     237
Reward for Good Conduct     237
Postrelease Supervision     238
Zebulon R. Brockway and the Indeterminate Sentence     238
Reducing the Cost of Incarceration     238
The Medical Model: 1930-1960     239
Changing Public Opinion     239
A Philosophical Change     240
Origins of Modern Determinate Sentencing     240
The Justice Model     241
Changing of the Guard: From Discretionary Parole to Mandatory Release     242
Parole Today     244
Characteristics of Parolees     246
Functions of Parole     248
Prison Population Control     249
Medical Parole     250
Top Things You Should Know     251
Discussion Questions     252
Websites     252
Case Study Exercise     254
Preparing for Prisoner Reentry: Discretionary Parole and Mandatory Release     258
Introduction     259
Issues in Reentry     259
The Prisoner's Family     260
The Victim's Role in Reentry      261
Reentry and the Community     261
Community-Based Reentry Initiatives     262
Reentry Courts     262
Types of Reentry     263
Eligibility for Parole     263
Time Sheets and Eligibility Dates     264
Prerelease Preparation within the Institution     265
The Parole Board     266
Term and Qualifications of the Parole Board     268
The Parole Hearing     268
Number of Parole Board Members     268
Recommendations and Attendees     269
Victim Participation in Parole Hearings     270
Models of Parole Release Decisions     271
The Surveillance Model     271
The Procedural Justice Model     271
The Risk Prediction Model     271
Due Process During Discretionary Parole Hearings     274
Menechino v. Oswald     274
Greenholtz v. Inmates of the Nebraska Penal and Correctional Complex     274
State-Created Liberty Interest     275
Extending the Time Intervals between Parole Hearings     275
Prisoners' Perceptions of Parole Selection     276
Top Things You Should Know     276
Discussion Questions      277
Websites     277
Case Study Exercise     279
Parole Conditions and Revocation     281
Introduction     282
Prisoner Perspectives on Getting Out     282
California Study     283
Iowa Study     284
The Field Parole Officer     285
The Officer's Perspective     285
Conditions of Parole     286
Legal Issues in Parole Conditions     286
Limited Parolee Rights     288
First Amendment Rights     288
Fourth Amendment Rights     288
Violating Parole     289
Warrants and Citations     289
Due Process Rights under "Preparole"     291
Characteristics of Parole Violators     291
Parole Revocation Rate     291
Reasons for Revocation     292
Why Have Revocation Rates Increased?     293
Attitudes on Revocation     294
Parole Absconders     295
Why Do Parolees Leave?     295
Type I Absconders: Benign     295
Type II Absconders: Menace to Society     295
Locating and Apprehending Fugitives     296
Predicting Absconding Behavior      297
Parole Effectiveness     298
Recidivism Studies     299
Predicting Parole Outcomes     300
Gender Differences     300
Number of Prior Arrests     300
Supervision Versus No Supervision     300
Top Things You Should Know     302
Discussion Questions     303
Websites     303
Case Study Exercise     304
Special Issues in Community Corrections     307
Juvenile Justice, Probation, and Parole     308
Introduction     309
Background and History     309
Mens Rea and Juveniles     309
Parens Patriae and Its Decline     310
Juvenile Justice and Adult Justice Systems Compared     310
Differences     310
Reality     311
Juvenile Courts     311
Created in the U.S.A.     311
Jurisdiction of Juvenile Courts     312
Based on Age     312
Based on Acts Committed     314
Differences from Adult Courts     314
Transfer from Juvenile Courts to Adult Courts     315
An Overview of the Juvenile Justice Process     316
Procedure before Adjudication      317
The Intake Stage     318
The Adjudication Stage     318
The Disposition Stage     319
Blended Sentences     320
Release from an Institution     320
In Re Gault: The Most Important Juvenile Justice Case     320
Juvenile Probation     322
Origin     322
Conditions of Probation     323
Judges Have Much Discretion     323
Types of Conditions     323
Supervision     323
Juvenile Probation Officers     323
Intensive Supervision Probation     325
School-Based Probation     325
Fare v. Michael C.: An Important Case in Juvenile Probation Supervision     326
The Probation Record of Juveniles     327
Juvenile Parole (Or Aftercare)     328
Background     328
Similarities with Probation     328
Differences from Probation     329
Parole Boards     329
Responsibilities of Juvenile Parole Officers     329
Evaluating Juvenile Parole Programs     330
Revocation of Juvenile Probation or Parole     330
No Standards for Revocation     331
Result of Revocation     331
Top Things You Should Know     331
Discussion Questions     332
Websites     332
Case Study Exercise     334
Collateral Consequences of Conviction, Pardon, and Restoration of Rights     336
Introduction     337
Civil and Political Rights Defined     338
Background of Civil Disabilities     338
Civil Disabilities Today     339
Differences by State     339
Other Differences     340
Civil and Political Rights Affected By Conviction     340
Loss of Right to Vote     341
Loss of Right to Serve on a Jury     342
Loss of Credibility As a Witness 343 Loss of the Right to Hold Public Office     343
Employment-Related Rights     343
Public Employment     343
Private Employment     344
Right to an Occupational License     344
Loss of Capacity to be Bonded     345
Loss of Good Moral Character     346
Loss of Right to Own or Possess a Firearm     346
Loss of Welfare Benefits     347
Loss of Parental Rights     347
Problems with Civil Disability Laws     347
Other Effects of Conviction     348
Sex Offender Registration Laws     348
Sex Offender Notification Laws     349
Involuntary Commitment of Sexual Predators     351
Social Stigmatization     353
Pardon     353
Definition and Purpose     353
The Power to Pardon     354
Kinds of Pardon     354
Procedure for Obtaining a Pardon     355
Legal Effects of a Pardon     355
Effects of a Pardon on Occupational Licensing     355
Restoration of Rights     356
Restoration upon Application     356
Automatic Restoration     356
Restoring the Right to Vote     357
Restoring Good Moral Character     357
Expungement of Criminal Records     359
Sealing of Criminal Records     360
Top Things You Should Know     361
Discussion Questions     362
Websites     362
Case Study     364
Glossary     367
References     373
Table of Cases     389
Name Index     391
Subject Index     395

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