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The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing / Edition 9

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Overview

The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature is a best-seller for a reason: it brings literature to life for students — helping to make them lifelong readers and better writers. Classic works from many periods and cultures exist alongside a diverse representation of today's authors. Support for students includes a dozen chapters of critical reading and writing, with plenty of sample close readings, writing assignments, and student papers. And, because everyone teaches a little differently, there are lots of options for working with the literature, including in-depth chapters on major authors and case studies on individual works and themes that everyone can relate to. New to this edition are casebooks on short fiction and the natural world and a chapter created with Billy Collins.
 
This anthology is now available with video! Learn more about VideoCentral for Literature

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780312594343
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
  • Publication date: 1/31/2011
  • Edition description: Ninth Edition
  • Edition number: 9
  • Pages: 1664
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 2.00 (d)

Meet the Author

MICHAEL MEYER (Ph.D., University of Connecticut) has taught writing and literature courses for more than 30 years — since 1981 at the University of Connecticut and before that at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte and the College of William and Mary. His scholarly articles have appeared in distinguished journals such as American Literature, Studies in the American Renaissance, and Virginia Quarterly Review. An internationally recognized authority on Henry David Thoreau, Meyer is a former president of the Thoreau Society and coauthor (with Walter Harding) of The New Thoreau Handbook, a standard reference source. His other books for Bedford/St. Martin's include Literature to Go (2011); The Bedford Introduction to Literature (2011); Poetry: An Introduction (2010); and Thinking and Writing about Literature (2001).

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Table of Contents

Resources for Reading and Writing about Literature
Preface for Instructors
Introduction: Reading Imaginative Literature
The Nature of Literature
  Emily Dickinson, A Narrow Fellow in the Grass
The Value of Literature
The Changing Literary Canon
 
FICTION
 
THE ELEMENTS OF FICTION
 
1. Reading Fiction
Reading Fiction Responsively
  Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour
A SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Section of Kate Chopin's “The Story of an Hour”
A SAMPLE PAPER: Differences in Responses to Kate Chopin's “The Story of an Hour”
Explorations and Formulas
A Comparison of Two Stories
  Karen van der Zee, From A Secret Sorrow
  Gail Godwin, A Sorrowful Woman
PERSPECTIVES
  Kay Mussell, Are Feminism and Romance Novels Mutually Exclusive?
  Thomas Jefferson, On the Dangers of Reading Fiction
Encountering Fiction: Comics and Graphic Stories
* Gene Luen Yang, From American Born Chinese
 
2. Writing about Fiction
From Reading to Writing
QUESTIONS FOR RESPONSIVE READING AND WRITING
A SAMPLE PAPER IN PROGRESS
A First Response to A Secret Sorrow and “A Sorrowful Woman”
A Sample Brainstorming List
A Sample First Draft: Separate Sorrows
A Sample Second Draft: Separate Sorrows
Final Paper: Fulfillment or Failure? Marriage in A Secret Sorrow and “A Sorrowful Woman”
 
3. Plot
  Edgar Rice Burroughs, From Tarzan of the Apes
 
• Alice Walker, The Flowers
  William Faulkner, A Rose for Emily
PERSPECTIVE: William Faulkner, On “A Rose for Emily”
A SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Section of William Faulkner's “A Rose for Emily”
A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Confiict in the Plot of William Faulkner's “A Rose for Emily”
  Andre Dubus, Killings
PERSPECTIVE: A. L. Bader, Nothing Happens in Modern Short Stories
Encountering Fiction: Comics and Graphic Stories
 
• Edward Gorey, From The Hapless Child
 
4. Character
  Charles Dickens, From Hard Times
A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Character Development in Charles Dickens's Hard Times
  Herman Melville, Bartleby, the Scrivener  
PERSPECTIVES
  Nathaniel Hawthorne, On Herman Melville's Philosophic Stance
Dan McCall, On the Lawyer's Character in “Bartleby, the Scrivener”
 
• Junot Diaz, Fiesta, 1980
Encountering Fiction: Comics and Graphic Stories
 
• Lynda Barry, Spelling
 
5. Setting
  Ernest Hemingway, Soldier's Home
PERSPECTIVE: Ernest Hemingway, On What Every Writer Needs
  Fay Weldon, IND AFF, or Out of Love in Sarajevo
PERSPECTIVE: Fay Weldon, On the Importance of Place in “IND AFF”
A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: The Significance of Setting in Fay Weldon's “IND AFF”
 
6. Point of View
Third-Person Narrator
First-Person Narrator
 
• Robert Olen Butler, Jealous Husband Returns in Form of Parrot
  Anton Chekhov, The Lady with the Pet Dog
PERSPECTIVES: Two Additional Translations of the Final Paragraphs of Anton Chekhov's “The Lady with the Pet Dog”
  Anton Chekhov, From “The Lady and the Dog”
  Anton Chekhov, From “A Lady with a Dog”
PERSPECTIVE: Anton Chekhov, On Morality in Fiction
  Joyce Carol Oates, The Lady with the Pet Dog
PERSPECTIVE: Matthew C. Brennan, Point of View and Plotting in Chekhov's and Oates's “The Lady with the Pet Dog”
A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Two Versions of the Same Story: Point of View in Chekhov's and Oates's “The Lady with the Pet Dog”
Encountering Fiction: Comics and Graphic Stories
 
• Marjane Satrapi, “The Trip,” From Persepolis
 
7. Symbolism
  Colette, The Hand
  Ralph Ellison, Battle Royal
PERSPECTIVE: Mordecai Marcus, What Is an Initiation Story?
A SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Section of Ralph Ellison's “Battle Royal”
A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Symbolism in Ralph Ellison's “Battle Royal”
 
• Michael Oppenheimer, The Paring Knife
 
8. Theme
  Stephen Crane, The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky
  Katherine Mansfield, Miss Brill
  Dagoberto Gilb, Love in L.A.
A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: The Theme of Deception in Dagoberto Gilb's “Love in L.A.”
 
9. Style, Tone, and Irony
Style
Tone
Irony
  Raymond Carver, Popular Mechanics
A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: The Terse Style of Raymond Carver's “Popular Mechanics”
  Susan Minot, Lust
  Tim O'Brien, How to Tell a True War Story
 
• Rick Moody, Boys
Encountering Fiction: Comics and Graphic Stories
 
• Matt Groening, Life in Hell
 
10. Combining the Elements of Fiction: A Writing Process
The Elements Together
Mapping the Story
  David Updike, Summer
QUESTIONS FOR WRITING: DEVELOPING A TOPIC INTO A REVISED THESIS
A Sample Brainstorming List
A Sample First Thesis
A Sample Revised Thesis
A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Plot and Setting in David Updike's “Summer”
Approaches to Fiction
 
11. A Study of Nathaniel Hawthorne
A Brief Biography and Introduction
  Nathaniel Hawthorne, Young Goodman Brown
  Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Minister's Black Veil
  Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Birthmark
PERSPECTIVES ON HAWTHORNE
  Nathaniel Hawthorne, On Solitude
  Nathaniel Hawthorne, On the Power of the Writer's Imagination
  Nathaniel Hawthorne, On His Short Stories
  Herman Melville, On Nathaniel Hawthorne's Tragic Vision  
  Gaylord Brewer, “The Joys of Secret Sin”
 
12. A Study of Flannery O'Connor
A Brief Biography and Introduction
  Flannery O'Connor, A Good Man Is Hard to Find
  Flannery O'Connor, Good Country People
  Flannery O'Connor, Revelation
PERSPECTIVES ON O'CONNOR
  Flannery O'Connor, On Faith
  Flannery O'Connor, On the Materials of Fiction
  Flannery O'Connor, On the Use of Exaggeration and Distortion
  Flannery O'Connor, On Theme and Symbol
  Josephine Hendin, On O'Connor's Refusal to “Do Pretty”
  Claire Kahane, The Function of Violence in O'Connor's Fiction
  Edward Kessler, On O'Connor's Use of History
  TIME Magazine, On “A Good Man is Hard to Find”
 
* 13. A Cultural Case Study: James Joyce's “Eveline”
* A Brief Biography and Introduction
 
• James Joyce, Eveline
* Documents
 
• The Alliance Temperance Almanack, On the Resources of Ireland
 
• Bridget Burke, A Letter Home from an Irish Emigrant
* A Plot Synopsis of The Bohemian Girl
 
14. A Thematic Case Study: The Literature of the South
  map: U.S. Bureau of the Census, “The South”
  essay: John Shelton Reed and Dale Volberg Reed, Definitions of the South
  essay: W. J. Cash, The Old and the New South
  movie still: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Gone with the Wind
  etching: Currier and Ives, The Old Plantation Home
  essay: Irving Howe, The Southern Myth
  painting: John Richards, The Battle of Gettysburg, 1863
  essay: Flannery O'Connor, The Regional Writer
  painting: Clyde Broadway, Trinity - Elvis, Jesus, and Robert E. Lee
  photo: Ernest C. Withers, “Bus Station, Colored Waiting Room, Memphis, Tennessee”
  essay: Margaret Walker, The Southern Writer and Race
  photo: Library of Congress, Elizabeth Eckford at Little Rock Central High School
  photo: Ernest C. Withers, “Sanitation Workers' Strike, Memphis, Tennessee”
  collage: Romare Bearden, Watching the Good Trains Go By
  essay: Donald R. Noble, The Future of Southern Writing
  essay: Lee Smith, On Southern Change and Permanence
 
15. A Thematic Case Study: Humor and Satire
  E. Annie Proulx, 55 Miles to the Gas Pump
  T. Coraghessan Boyle, Carnal Knowledge
 
• Ron Hansen, My Kid's Dog
 
• Joyce Carol Oates, Hi Howya Doin'
  Mark Twain, The Story of the Good Little Boy
 
* 16. Remarkably Short-Short Stories
 
• Ron Carlson, Max 
 
• Mark Halliday, Young Man on Sixth Ave
 
• David Foster Wallace, Incarnations of Burned Children
 
• Lydia Davis, Letter to a Funeral Parlor
  Peter Meinke, The Cranes
 
• Terry L. Tilton, That Settles That
 
A Collection of Stories
 
17. An Album of Contemporary Stories
  Amy Bloom, By-and-by
 
• John Updike, Outage
 
• Xu Xi, Famine
 
18. Stories for Further Reading
  Jamaica Kincaid, Girl
 
• Jack London, To Build a Fire
 
• Katherine Mansfield, The Fly
  Edgar Allan Poe, The Cask of Amontillado
  Katherine Anne Porter, The Witness
  John Updike, A & P
 
POETRY
 
THE ELEMENTS OF POETRY
 
19. Reading Poetry
Reading Poetry Responsively
  Marge Piercy, The Secretary Chant
  Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays
  John Updike, Dog's Death
The Pleasure of Words
  William Hathaway, Oh, Oh  
A SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Version of William Hathaway's “Oh, Oh”
  Robert Francis, Catch
A SAMPLE STUDENT ANALYSIS: Tossing Metaphors Together in Robert Francis's “Catch”
  Elizabeth Bishop, The Fish  
  Philip Larkin, A Study of Reading Habits
  Robert Morgan, Mountain Graveyard
  E. E. Cummings, l(a  
  Anonymous, Western Wind
  Regina Barreca, Nighttime Fires
SUGGESTIONS FOR APPROACHING POETRY
  Billy Collins, Introduction to Poetry  
Encountering Poetry: Images of Poetry in Popular Culture
  poster: Dorothy Parker, Unfortunate Coincidence
  photo: Carl Sandburg, Window
  cartoon: Roz Chast, The Love Song of J. Alfred Crew
  photo: Tim Taylor, I shake the delicate apparatus
  poster: Eric Dunn and Mike Wigton, National Poetry Slam
 
• photo: Kevin Fleming, Poetry Reading at Nuyorican Poets Café
  web screen: Poetry-portal.com
  web screen: Ted Kooser, American Life in Poetry
  column: David Allan Evans, Neighbors
Poetry in Popular Forms
  Helen Farries, Magic of Love
  John Frederick Nims, Love Poem
  Bruce Springsteen, You're Missing
  S. Pearl Sharp, It's the Law: A Rap Poem
PERSPECTIVE: Robert Francis, On “Hard” Poetry
Poems for Further Study
 
• Peter Pereira, Anagrammer
 
• Mary Oliver, The Poet with His Face in His Hands
  Alberto Ríos, Seniors
  Alfred Lord Tennyson, Crossing the Bar
 
20. Writing about Poetry
From Reading to Writing
QUESTIONS FOR RESPONSIVE READING AND WRITING
  Elizabeth Bishop, Manners
A SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Version of Elizabeth Bishop's “Manners”  
A SAMPLE STUDENT ANALYSIS: Memory in Elizabeth Bishop's “Manners”
 
21. Word Choice, Word Order, and Tone
Word Choice
  Randall Jarrell, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner
Word Order
Tone
  Judith Ortiz Cofer, Common Ground
  Colette Inez, Back When All Was Continuous Chuckles 
  Kathryn Howd Machan, Hazel Tells LaVerne
SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: The Tone of Kathryn Howd Machan's “Hazel Tells LaVerne”
  Martín Espada, Latin Night at the Pawnshop
  Paul Lawrence Dunbar, To a Captious Critic
Diction and Tone in Four Love Poems
  Robert Herrick, To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time  
  Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress  
  Ann Lauinger, Marvell Noir
  Sharon Olds, Last Night
Poems for Further Study
  Thomas Hardy, The Convergence of the Twain
  David R. Slavitt, Titanic
 
• Mary Oliver, Oxygen
 
• Cathy Song, The Youngest Daughter
  John Keats, Ode on A Grecian Urn
  Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool
  Joan Murray, We Old Dudes
  Louis Simpson, In the Suburbs
 
• Herbert Lomas, The Fly's Poem about Emily
Poets at Play
  Billy Collins, Taking Off Emily Dickinson's Clothes
  Joan Murray, Taking Off Billy Collins's Clothes
  postcard: Billy Collins, To Joan Murray
A Note on Reading Translations
Three Translations of a Poem by Sappho
  Sappho, Immortal Aphrodite of the broidered throne (translated by Henry T. Wharton) 
 Sappho, Beautiful-throned, immortal Aphrodite (translated by T. W. Higginson) 
 Sappho, Prayer to my lady of Paphos (translated by Mary Barnard)
Two Translations of a Poem by Pablo Neruda 
  Pablo Neruda, Verbo (original Spanish version)
  Pablo Neruda, Verbo (translated by Ben Belitt)
  Pablo Neruda, Verbo (translated by Kristin Linklater)
 
22. Images
Poetry's Appeal to the Senses
  William Carlos Williams, Poem
  Walt Whitman, Cavalry Crossing a Ford
  David Solway, Windsurfing
  Theodore Roethke, Root Cellar
  Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach
  Jimmy Santiago Baca, Green Chile
Poems for Further Study
  Amy Lowell, The Pond
 
• Ruth Fainlight, Crocuses
  Mary Robinson, London's Summer Morning
  William Blake, London
A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Imagery in William Blake's “London” and Mary Robinson's “London's Summer Morning”
  Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est
  Rainer Maria Rilke, The Panther
 
• Donna Masini, Slowly
  Sally Croft, Home-Baked Bread
  John Keats, To Autumn
 
• C.K. Williams, Shock
  Ezra Pound, In a Station of the Metro
 
• Cathy Song, The White Porch
PERSPECTIVE: T. E. Hulme, On the Differences between Poetry and Prose
 
23. Figures of Speech
  William Shakespeare, From Macbeth (Act V, Scene V)
Simile and Metaphor
  Margaret Atwood, you fit into me  
  Emily Dickinson, Presentiment-is that long Shadow-on the lawn-
  Anne Bradstreet, The Author to Her Book
 
• Jay Rogoff, Death's Theatre
Other Figures
  Edmund Conti, Pragmatist
  Dylan Thomas, The Hand That Signed the Paper
  Janice Townley Moore, To a Wasp
  J. Patrick Lewis, The Unkindest Cut
Poems for Further Study
  Gary Snyder, How Poetry Comes to Me
A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Metaphor in Gary Snyder's “How Poetry Comes to Me”
  Margaret Atwood, February  
  William Carlos Williams, To Waken an Old Lady
  Ernest Slyman, Lightning Bugs
  Judy Page Heitzman, The Schoolroom on the Second Floor of the Knitting Mill
  William Wordsworth, London, 1802
  Jim Stevens, Schizophrenia
 
• Walt Whitman, A Noiseless Patient Spider
  John Donne, A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning
  Linda Pastan, Marks
 
• Kay Ryan, Hailstorm
 
• Elaine Magarrell, The Joy of Cooking
  Ruth Fainlight, The Clarinettist
PERSPECTIVE: John R. Searle, Figuring Out Metaphors
 
24. Symbol, Allegory, and Irony
Symbol
  Robert Frost, Acquainted with the Night
Allegory
  Edgar Allan Poe, The Haunted Palace
Irony
  Edwin Arlington Robinson, Richard Cory
A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Irony in Edwin Arlington Robinson's “Richard Cory”
  Kenneth Fearing, AD
  E. E. Cummings, next to of course god america i
  Stephen Crane, A Man Said to the Universe
Poems for Further Study
  Bob Hicok, Making it in Poetry
  Jane Kenyon, Surprise
  Martín Espada, Bully
 
• Kevin Pierce, Proof of Origin
  Carl Sandburg, Buttons
  Wallace Stevens, Anecdote of the Jar
 
• May Swenson, All That Time
  William Stafford, Traveling through the Dark
  Julio Marzán, Ethnic Poetry
  Mark Halliday, Graded Paper
 
• Charles Simic, The Storm
  James Merrill, Casual Wear
  Henry Reed, Naming of Parts
  Rachel Hadas, The Compact
 
• Bruce Weigl, Snowy Egret
  Robert Browning, My Last Duchess
  William Blake, The Chimney Sweeper
PERSPECTIVE: Ezra Pound, On Symbols
 
25. Sounds
Listening to Poetry
  Anonymous, Scarborough Fair
  John Updike, Player Piano
  May Swenson, A Nosty Fright
  Emily Dickinson, A Bird came down the Walk-
A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Sound in Emily Dickinson's “A Bird came down the Walk-”
  Galway Kinnell, Blackberry Eating
Rhyme
  Richard Armour, Going to Extremes
  Robert Southey, From “The Cataract of Lodore”
PERSPECTIVE: David Lenson, On the Contemporary Use of Rhyme
Sound and Meaning
  Gerard Manley Hopkins, God's Grandeur
Poems for Further Study
 
• Molly Peacock, Of Night
  Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson), Jabberwocky
 
• Harryette Mullen, Blah-Blah
  William Heyen, The Trains  
  John Donne, Song
  Alexander Pope, From An Essay on Criticism
  Haki R. Madhbuti, The B Network
  
• Andrew Hudgins, The Cow
  Paul Humphrey, Blow
  Robert Francis, The Pitcher
  Helen Chasin, The Word Plum
 
• Richard Wakefield, The Bell Rope
 
• John Keats, Ode to a Nightingale
 
26. Patterns of Rhythm
Some Principles of Meter
  Walt Whitman, From “Song of the Open Road”
  William Wordsworth, My Heart Leaps Up
SUGGESTIONS FOR SCANNING A POEM
  Timothy Steele, Waiting for the Storm
A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: The Rhythm of Anticipation in Timothy Steele's “Waiting for the Storm”
  William Butler Yeats, That the Night Come
Poems for Further Study
 
• Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Break, Break, Break
  Alice Jones, The Foot
  A. E. Housman, When I was one-and-twenty
  Rita Dove, Fox Trot Fridays
  Robert Herrick, Delight in Disorder
  Ben Jonson, Still to Be Neat
 
• Sonia Sanchez, Summer Words of a Sistuh Addict
  William Blake, The Lamb
  William Blake, The Tyger
  Carl Sandburg, Chicago
 
• Mark Doty, Tunnel Music
 
• Mark Turpin, Sledgehammer's Song
  Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The Charge of the Light Brigade
  Theodore Roethke, My Papa's Waltz
PERSPECTIVE: Louise Bogan, On Formal Poetry
 
27. Poetic Forms
Some Common Poetic Forms
  A. E. Housman, Loveliest of trees, the cherry now
  Robert Herrick, Upon Julia's Clothes
Sonnet
  John Keats, On First Looking into Chapman's Homer
  William Wordsworth, The World Is Too Much with Us
  William Shakespeare, Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
  William Shakespeare, My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun
  Edna St. Vincent Millay, I will put Chaos into fourteen lines
A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: The Fixed Form in Edna St. Vincent Millay's “I will put Chaos into fourteen lines”
  Molly Peacock, Desire
  Mark Jarman, Unholy Sonnet
 
• X.J. Kennedy, “The Purpose of Time is to Prevent Everything from Happening at Once”
 
• Jim Tilley, Boys
Villanelle
  Dylan Thomas, Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night  
  Wendy Cope, Lonely Hearts
Sestina
  Algernon Charles Swinburne, Sestina
  Florence Cassen Mayers, All-American Sestina
Epigram
  Samuel Taylor Coleridge, What Is an Epigram?
  A. R. Ammons, Coward
  David McCord, Epitaph on a Waiter
  Paul Lawrence Dunbar, Theology
Limerick
  Anonymous, There was a young lady named Bright
  Laurence Perrine, The limerick's never averse
Haiku
  Matsuo Bash_, Under cherry trees
  Carolyn Kizer, After Bash_
  Sonia Sanchez, c'mon man hold me
Elegy
  Theodore Roethke, Elegy for Jane
 
• Brendan Galvin, An Evel Knievel Elegy
Ode
  Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ode to the West Wind
  * Baron Wormser, Labor
Picture Poem
  Michael McFee, In Medias Res
Parody
  Blanche Farley, The Lover Not Taken
PERSPECTIVE: Elaine Mitchell, Form
 
28. Open Form
  E. E. Cummings, in Just-
  Walt Whitman, From “I Sing the Body Electric”  
PERSPECTIVE: Walt Whitman, On Rhyme and Meter
A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: The Power of Walt Whitman's Open Form Poem “I Sing the Body Electric”
  Louis Jenkins, The Prose Poem
  Richard Hague, Directions for Resisting the SAT
  Galway Kinnell, After Making Love We Hear Footsteps
  Kelly Cherry, Alzheimer's
  William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow
  Marilyn Nelson Waniek, Emily Dickinson's Defunct
 
• Jeffrey Harrison, The Names of Things
  Julio Marzán, The Translator at the Reception for Latin American Writers
 
• Todd Boss, Advance
  Anonymous, The Frog
  Tato Laviera, AmeRícan
  Peter Meinke, The ABC of Aerobics
 
• Sandra M. Gilbert, Chairlift
Found Poem
  Donald Justice, Order in the Streets 
 
29. Combining the Elements of Poetry: A Writing Process
The Elements Together
Mapping the Poem
  John Donne, Death Be Not Proud
Asking Questions about the Elements
A SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Version of John Donne's “Death Be Not Proud”
A SAMPLE FIRST RESPONSE
Organizing Your Thoughts
A SAMPLE INFORMAL OUTLINE
The Elements and Theme
A SAMPLE EXPLICATION: The Use of Conventional Metaphors for Death in John Donne's “Death Be Not Proud”
Approaches to Poetry
 
30. A Study of Emily Dickinson

A Brief Biography
An Introduction to Her Work
Emily Dickinson
  If I can stop one Heart from breaking
  If I shouldn't be alive
  The Thought beneath so slight a film-
  To make a prairie it takes a clover and one bee
  Success is counted sweetest
 
• Some things that fly there be
  Water, is taught by thirst
  Safe in their Alabaster Chambers-(1859 version)
  Safe in their Alabaster Chambers-(1861 version)
  Portraits are to daily faces
 
• My Life had stood-a Loaded Gun
  Some keep the Sabbath going to Church-
  “Heaven”-is what I cannot reach!
  “Hope” is the thing with feathers
 
• The Robin's my Criterion for Tune-
 
• I started Early-Took my Dog
  I like a look of Agony
  Wild Nights-Wild Nights!
  What Soft-Cherubic Creatures-
  The Soul selects her own Society-
  Much Madness is divinest Sense-
  I dwell in Possibility-
  They dropped like Flakes-
  After great pain, a formal feeling comes-
 
• Pain-has an Element of Blank-
 
• The Morning after Wo-
  I heard a Fly buzz-when I died-
  Because I could not stop for Death-
 
• He fumbles at your Soul
  I felt a Cleaving in my Mind-
 
• I felt a Funeral in my Brain
  A Light exists in Spring
  The Bustle in a House
  Tell all the Truth but tell it slant-
  There is no Frigate like a Book
 
• Fame is the one that does not stay-
PERSPECTIVES ON EMILY DICKINSON
  Emily Dickinson, A Description of Herself
  Thomas Wentworth Higginson, On Meeting Dickinson for the First Time
  Mabel Loomis Todd, The Character of Amherst
  Richard Wilbur, On Dickinson's Sense of Privation
  Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar, On Dickinson's White Dress  
  Cynthia Griffin Wolff, On the Many Voices in Dickinson's Poetry
  Paula Bennett, On “I heard a Fly buzz-when I died-”
  Martha Nell Smith, On “Because I could not stop for Death-”
QUESTIONS FOR WRITING ABOUT AN AUTHOR IN DEPTH
A Sample In-Depth Study: Four Poems by Emily Dickinson 
Emily Dickinson
  “Faith” is a fine invention
  I know that He exists
  I never saw a Moor-
  Apparently with no surprise
A SAMPLE STUDENT PAPER: Religious Faith in Four Poems by Emily Dickinson
 
31. A Study of Robert Frost
A Brief Biography
An Introduction to His Work
Robert Frost
  The Road Not Taken
  The Pasture
  Mowing
  My November Guest
  Storm Fear
  Mending Wall
  Home Burial
 
• The Wood-pile
  After Apple-Picking
  Birches
 
• An Old Man's Winter Night
  “Out, Out-”
 
• The Oven Bird
  Fire and Ice
  Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening  
  Nothing Gold Can Stay
  Unharvested
  Neither Out Far nor In Deep
  Design
PERSPECTIVES ON ROBERT FROST
  Robert Frost, “In White,” An Early Version of “Design”
  Robert Frost, On the Living Part of a Poem
  Amy Lowell, On Frost's Realistic Technique
  Robert Frost, On the Figure a Poem Makes
  Robert Frost, On the Way to Read a Poem
  Herbert R. Coursen Jr., A Parodic Interpretation of “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” 
 
32. A Study of Langston Hughes
A Brief Biography 
Langston Hughes
The Negro Speaks of Rivers
An Introduction to His Work
  I, Too
  Negro
  Danse Africaine
  Dream Variations
  Formula
  Esthete in Harlem
  Lenox Avenue: Midnight
  Song for a Dark Girl
  Red Silk Stockings
  Rent-Party Shout: For a Lady Dancer
 
• 50-50
  125th Street
  dream Boogie
  Harlem
 
• Motto
  Old Walt
 
• High to Low
PERSPECTIVES ON LANGSTON HUGHES
  Langston Hughes, On Harlem Rent Parties
  James E. Emanuel, Hughes's Attitudes toward Religion
  David Chinitz, The Romanticization of Africa in the 1920s
 
* 33. A Study of Billy Collins: The Author Reflects on Five Poems 
* A Brief Biography and an Introduction to His Work
* introduction: Billy Collins, “How Do Poems Travel?”
 
• poem: Billy Collins, Osso Buco
 
• essay: Billy Collins, On Writing “Osso Buco”
 
• poem: Billy Collins, Nostalgia
 
• essay: Billy Collins, On Writing “Nostalgia”
 
• poem: Billy Collins, Questions About Angels
 
• essay: Billy Collins, On Writing “Questions About Angels”
 
• poem: Billy Collins, Litany
 
• essay: Billy Collins, On Writing “Litany”
 
• poem: Billy Collins, Building with Its Face Blown Off
* PERSPECTIVE (INTERVIEW): On “Building with Its Face Blown Off”: Michael Meyer Interviews Billy Collins
 
• manuscript: Billy Collins, Draft Manuscript Page of “Busy Day”
 
34. A Study of Julia Alvarez: Five Poems
A Brief Biography  
An Introduction to Her Work 
  essay: Julia Alvarez, A Note to Students On Writing “Queens, 1963”
  poem: Julia Alvarez, Queens, 1963 
PERSPECTIVE (INTERVIEW): Marny Requa, From an Interview with Julia Alvarez
  essay: Julia Alvarez, On Writing “Housekeeping Cages” and Her Housekeeping Poems
  poem: Julia Alvarez, Housekeeping Cages
  essay: Julia Alvarez, A Note to Students On Writing “Dusting”
  poem: Julia Alvarez, Dusting  
  essay: Julia Alvarez, A Note to Students On Writing “Ironing Their Clothes” 
  poem: Julia Alvarez, Ironing Their Clothes
  essay: Julia Alvarez, A Note to Students On Writing “Sometimes the Words Are So Close”
  poem: Julia Alvarez, Sometimes the Words Are So Close
  manuscript: Four Drafts of “Sometimes the Words Are So Close”: A Poet's Writing Process
  essay: Julia Alvarez, A Note to Students On Writing “First Muse”
  poem: Julia Alvarez, First Muse
PERSPECTIVE: Kelli Lyon Johnson, Mapping an Identity
 
35. A Thematic Case Study: Love and Longing
A Brief Introduction
  Christopher Marlowe, The Passionate Shepherd to His Love
  William Shakespeare, Not marble, nor the gilded monuments
  Anne Bradstreet, To My Dear and Loving Husband
  Elizabeth Barrett Browning, How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count The Ways
 
• Edna St. Vincent Millay, Recuerdo
  E. E. Cummings, since feeling is first 
  Mark Doty, The Embrace
 
• Joan Murray, Play by Play
  Billie Bolton, Memorandum
 
• Michael Ryan, Bunny
 
36. A Thematic Case Study: Humor and Satire
A Brief Introduction
  Fleur Adcock, The Video
  John Ciardi, Suburban
  Ronald Wallace, In a Rut
  Howard Nemerov, Walking the Dog
 
• Linda Pastan, Jump Cabling
  Peter Schmitt, Friends with Numbers
  Martín Espada, The Community College Revises its Curriculum in Response to Changing Demographics 
  M. Carl Holman, Mr. Z
  Gary Soto, Mexicans Begin Jogging
  Thomas Lux, Commercial Leech Farming Today
 
• Lee Upton, Dyserotica
 
• X.J. Kennedy, On a Young Man's Remaining an Undergraduate for Twelve Years
 
37. A Thematic Case Study: Milestones
 
• Allen Braden, Sweethearts
 
• Baron Wormser, Shoplifting
 
• Marilyn Nelson, How I Discovered Poetry
 
• Charles Simic, In the Library
 
• Trevor West Knapp, Touch
 
• Sandra M. Gilbert, How We Didn't Tell Her
 
• Anne Carson, Father's Old Blue Cardigan
 
• Barbara Crooker, On the Edge of Adolescence, My Middle Daughter Learns to Play the Saxophone
  Luisa Lopez, Junior Year Abroad
  Yusef Komunyakaa, Slam, Dunk, & Hook
 
38. A Thematic Case Study: The Natural World
 
• Tom Disch, Birdsong Interpreted
 
• Jane Hirschfield, Happiness
 
• Leslie Marmon Silko, Love Poem
 
• Margaret Atwood, A Holiday
 
• Maxine Kumin, Though He Tarry
 
• Gail White, Dead Armadillos
 
• Dave Lucas, November
 
• Walt McDonald, Coming Across It
  Alden Nowlan, The Bull Moose
 
• Robert B. Shaw, Wild Turkeys
 
• Paul Zimmer, What I Know about Owls
 
An Anthology of Poems
 
39. An Album of Contemporary Poems
  Michelle Boisseau, Self-Pity's Closet
 
• Eamon Grennan, Herringbone
 
• Mary Stewart Hammond, High Ground
  Tony Hoagland, America
  Rachel Loden, Locked Ward: Newtown, Connecticut
  Susan Minot, My Husband's Back
  Alberto Ríos, The Gathering Evening
 
• C.K. Williams, The United States
 
40. A Collection of Poems
  Anonymous, Bonny Barbara Allan
  William Blake, Infant Sorrow
  Robert Burns, A Red, Red Rose
  George Gordon, Lord Byron, She Walks in Beauty
  Lucille Clifton, this morning (for the girls of eastern high school)
  Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Kubla Khan: or, a Vision in a Dream
  John Donne, The Apparition
  John Donne, The Flea
 
• George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans), In a London Drawingroom
  T.S. Eliot, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock
  Thomas Hardy, Hap
  Gerard Manley Hopkins, Pied Beauty
  Gerard Manley Hopkins, The Windhover
 
• A. E. Housman, Is my team ploughing
  A. E. Housman, To an Athlete Dying Young
  Julia Ward Howe, Battle-Hymn of the Republic
  Ben Jonson, To Celia
  John Keats, La Belle Dame sans Merci
 
• John Keats, Written in Disgust of Vulgar Superstition
  Emma Lazarus, The New Colossus
 
• Phillis Levin, May Day
 
• Edna St. Vincent Millay, First Fig
  John Milton, When I consider how my light is spent
  Christina Georgina Rossetti, Some Ladies Dress in Muslin Full and White
 
• Sigfried Sassoon, “They”
  William Shakespeare, That time of year thou mayst in me behold
  William Shakespeare, When forty winters shall besiege thy brow
 
• William Shakespeare, When, in disgrace with Fortune and men's eyes
  Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ozymandias
  Lydia Huntley Sigourney, Indian Names
  Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses
 
• Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Tears, Idle Tears
  Walt Whitman, One's-Self I Sing
  Walt Whitman, When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer
  William Carlos Williams, This Is Just to Say
  William Wordsworth, A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal
  William Wordsworth, The Solitary Reaper
  William Wordsworth, Mutability
  William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan
A Thematic Case Study: Crossing Boundaries
Transcendence and Borders
  diagram: An 18th Century Slave Ship
  poem: Phillis Wheatley, On Being Brought from Africa to America
  poster: A 1784 Slave Auction Advertisement  
  Identity and Borders
  poem: Pat Mora, Legal Alien
  collage: Jacalyn López Garcia, I Just Wanted to be Me
  Immigration and Borders
  poem: Sandra M. Gilbert, Mafioso 
  photo: “Baggage Examined Here,” Ellis Island
Expectations and Borders
  poem: Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni, Indian Movie, New Jersey
  album cover: Rawal Films, Ladki Pasano Hai (I Like this Girl)  
Beauty and Borders
  poem: Janice Mirikitani, Recipe
  photo: Chiaki Tsukumo, “Girl with Licca Doll”  
Freedom and Borders
  poem: Thomas Lynch, Liberty
  photo: Alex MacLean, “Somerville, Massachusetts”
 
DRAMA
 
THE STUDY OF DRAMA
 
41. Reading Drama
Reading Drama Responsively
  Susan Glaspell, Trifles
A SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Section of Susan Glaspell's Trifies
* PERSPECTIVE: Susan Glaspell, From the Short Story Version of Trifies
Elements of Drama
  Michael Hollinger, Naked Lunch
 
• Joan Ackermann, Quiet, Torrential Sound
Drama in Popular Forms
  Larry David, “The Pitch,” a Seinfeld Episode
PERSPECTIVE: Geoffrey O'Brien, On Seinfeld as Sitcom Moneymaker
 
42. Writing about Drama
From Reading to Writing
Questions for Responsive Reading and Writing
A SAMPLE STUDENT PAPER: The Feminist Evidence in Trifies
 
43. A Study of Sophocles
Theatrical Conventions of Greek Drama
Tragedy
  Sophocles, Oedipus the King (Translated by Robert Fagles)
PERSPECTIVES ON SOPHOCLES
  Aristotle, On Tragic Character
  Sigmund Freud, On the Oedipus Complex
  Sophocles, Another Translation of a Scene from Oedipus the King
  Muriel Rukeyser, On Oedipus the King
  David Wiles, On Oedipus the King as a Political Play
Plays in Performance
Photos of scenes from:
  Sophocles, Oedipus the King
  William Shakespeare, Othello
  Henrik Ibsen, A Doll House
 
• John Patrick Shanley, Doubt
  Jane Martin, Rodeo
 
• August Wilson, Fences
 
• David Henry Hwang, Trying to Find Chinatown
 
• Nilaja Sun, No Child…
  Rich Orloff, Playwriting 101
 
• Christopher Durang, Wanda's Visit
 
44. A Study of William Shakespeare
Shakespeare's Theater
The Range of Shakespeare's Drama: History, Comedy, and Tragedy
A Note on Reading Shakespeare
  William Shakespeare, Othello The Moor of Venice
PERSPECTIVES ON SHAKESPEARE
  The Mayor of London (1597), Objections to the Elizabethan Theater
  Lisa Jardine, On Boy Actors in Female Roles
  Samuel Johnson, On Shakespeare's Characters
  Jane Adamson, On Desdemona's Role in Othello
  David Bevington, On Othello's Heroic Struggle
  James Kincaid, On the Value of Comedy in the Face of Tragedy
 
45. Modern Drama
Realism
Naturalism
Theatrical Conventions of Modern Drama
  Henrik Ibsen, A Doll House (Translated by Rolf Fjelde)
PERSPECTIVE: Henrik Ibsen, Notes for A Doll House
Beyond Realism
 
46. A Critical Case Study: Henrik Ibsen's A Doll House
PERSPECTIVES
A Nineteenth-Century Husband's Letter to His Wife
  Barry Witham and John Lutterbie, A Marxist Approach to A Doll House
  Carol Strongin Tufts, A Psychoanalytic Reading of Nora
  Joan Templeton, Is A Doll House a Feminist Text?
QUESTIONS FOR WRITING
Applying a Critical Strategy
SAMPLE STUDENT PAPER: On the Other Side of the Slammed Door in Henrik Ibsen's A Doll House
 
47. A Thematic Case Study: An Album of Contemporary Humor and Satire
  Jane Anderson, The Reprimand
 
• Sharon E. Cooper, Mistaken Identity
 
• Christopher Durang, Wanda's Visit
  David Ives, Moby-Dude, Or: The Three-Minute Whale
  Jane Martin, Rodeo
  Rich Orloff, Playwriting 101: The Rooftop Lesson
 
A Collection of Plays
 
48. Plays for Further Reading
  David Henry Hwang, Trying to Find Chinatown
 
• Samuel Beckett, Krapp's Last Tape
 
• John Patrick Shanley, Doubt
 
• Nilaja Sun, No Child…
  August Wilson, Fences
PERSPECTIVE: David Savran, An Interview with August Wilson
CRITICAL THINKING AND WRITING
 
49. Critical Strategies for Reading
Critical Thinking
The Literary Canon: Diversity and Controversy
Formalist Strategies
Biographical Strategies
Psychological Strategies
Historical Strategies
Gender Strategies
Mythological Strategies
Reader-Response Strategies
Deconstructionist Strategies
 
50. Reading and Writing
The Purpose and Value of Writing about Literature
Reading the Work Closely
Annotating the Text and Journal Note Taking
Choosing a Topic
Developing a Thesis
Arguing about Literature
QUESTIONS FOR ARGUING ABOUT LITERATURE
Organizing a Paper
Writing a Draft
Revising and Editing
QUESTIONS FOR WRITING: A REVISION CHECKLIST
Manuscript Form
Types of Writing Assignments
  Emily Dickinson, There's a certain Slant of light
A SAMPLE STUDENT EXPLICATION: A Reading of Emily Dickinson's “There's a certain Slant of light”
A SAMPLE STUDENT ANALYSIS: John Updike's “A & P” as a State of Mind
A SAMPLE STUDENT COMPARISON: The Struggle for Women's Self-Definition in Henrik Ibsen's A Doll House and Colette's “The Hand”
 
51. The Literary Research Paper
Choosing a Topic
Finding Sources
Electronic Sources
Evaluating Sources and Taking Notes
Developing a Thesis and Organizing the Paper
Revising
Documenting Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism
The List of Works Cited
Parenthetical References
A SAMPLE STUDENT RESEARCH PAPER: How William Faulkner's Narrator Cultivates a Rose for Emily
 
52. Taking Essay Examinations
Preparing for an Essay Exam
Types of Exams
Strategies for Writing Essay Exams
QUESTIONS FOR WRITING: A CHECKLIST FOR ESSAY EXAMS

 
Glossary of Literary Terms
Index of First Lines
Index of Authors and Titles
Index of Terms
 
 

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