A Companion to the American Revolution / Edition 1

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A Companion to the American Revolution is an indispensable reference for anyone interested in American political, social, and cultural history. Ninety articles by key historians cover all aspects of the Revolution, providing a detailed chronology of events and analyzing the internal character and consequences of the Revolution both in detail and in depth. Tracing the war's far-reaching repercussions from the Caribbean to Russia, the editors view it as a major event in world history and provide an international perspective on the periods before, during, and after the conflict. Moreover, the Companion provides a unique, cross-cultural picture of revolutionary America, with essays covering the arts, literature, music, religion, and language; contributors also discuss the status and experience of women and African American and Amerindian peoples of the period.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"Professors Greene and Pole have succeeded in gathering a star-studded cast of scholars to interpret and analyze the American Revolution. General readers as well as teachers will find this volume of inestimable value." Joyce Appleby, University of California at Los Angeles

"This immensely helpful guide will be useful for seasoned students of the revolution as well as beginners. Brief bibliographies give quick access to the best current work; the essays provide relevant factual material; and the reader gets the informed judgment of an expert." Richard Lyman Bushman, Columbia University

"The cumulative effect of the contributions is to leave the reader with no doubt of the importance of the American Revolution, not just to the history of the United States and North America, but to the whole Atlantic world and beyond." History

Hugh Brogan
In short, this is a reference work to treasure...With such editors and contributors (eighty men and women of expertise), the level of accuracy, information and sophistication could not be higher...handsomely printed...
Times Literary Supplement
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Jack P. Greene is Andrew W. Mellon Professor in the Humanities at Johns Hopkins University and the author and editor of many books and articles on early modern colonial British America and the American Revolution. Among his recent books are Imperatives, Behaviors, and Identities: Essays in Early American Cultural History (1992), Negotiated Authorities: Essays in Colonial Political and Constitutional History (1994), Understanding the American Revolution: Issues and Actors (1995), and Interpreting Early America: Historiographical Essays (1996).

J. R. Pole is Rhodes Professor Emeritus of American History and Institutions, St. Catherine’s College, Oxford, and a Fellow of the British Academy. His books include Political Representation in England and the Origins of the American Republic (1966), The Pursuit of Equality in American History (1978, second edition 1993), Paths to the American Past (1979), The Gift of Government: Political Responsibility from the English Restoration to American Independence (1983), and The American Constitution: For and Against (ed., 1987).

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Table of Contents

List of maps and map acknowledgements x

List of contributors xi

Introduction xiii


01 The structure of British politics in the mid-eighteenth century 3
W. A. Speck

02 Metropolitan administration of the colonies, 1696–1775 8
Ian K. Steele

03 Intra-imperial communications, 1689–1775 14
Richard R. Johnson

04 The changing socio-economic and strategic importance of the colonies to the empire 19
Alison G. Olson

05 The political development of the colonies after the Glorious Revolution 29
Alan Tully

06 Population and family in early America 39
Robert V. Wells

07 Socio-economic development of the colonies 51
Edwin J. Perkins

08 Religion before the Revolution 60
Edwin S. Gaustad

09 The cultural development of the colonies 65
Michal J. Rozbicki

10 The emergence of civic culture in the colonies to about 1770 82
David Shields

11 Ideological background 88
Isaac Kramnick

12 The Amerindian population in 1763 94
Eric Hinderaker


13 The origins of the new colonial policy, 1748–1763 101
Jack P. Greene

14 The Seven Years’ War and its political legacy 112
Thomas L. Purvis

15 The Grenville program, 1763–1765 118
Peter D. G. Thomas

16 The Stamp Act crisis and its repercussions, including the Quartering Act controversy 123
Peter D. G. Thomas

17 The Townshend Acts crisis, 1767–1770 134
Robert J. Chaffin

18 The British Army in America, before 1775 151
Douglas Edward Leach

19 The West and the Amerindians, 1756–1776 157
Peter Marshall

20 Trade legislation and its enforcement, 1748–1776 165
R. C. Simmons

21 Ongoing disputes over the prerogative, 1763–1776 173
Jack P. Greene

22 Bishops and other ecclesiastical issues, to 1776 179
Frederick V. Mills, Sr.

23 Social protest and the revolutionary movement, 1765–1776 184
Edward Countryman

24 The tea crisis and its consequences, through 1775 195
David L. Ammerman

25 The crisis of Independence 206
David L. Ammerman

26 Development of a revolutionary organization, 1765–1775 216
David W. Conroy

27 Political mobilization, 1765–1776 222
Rebecca Starr

28 Identity and Independence 230
Jack P. Greene

29 Loyalism and neutrality 235
Robert M. Calhoon

30 Opposition in Britain 248
Colin Bonwick

31 Common Sense 254
Jack Fruchtman, Jr.

32 The Declaration of Independence 258
Ronald Hamowy


33 Bills of rights and the first ten amendments to the Constitution 265
Robert A. Rutland

34 State constitution-making, through 1781 269
Donald S. Lutz

35 The Articles of Confederation, 1775–1783 281
Jack N. Rakove

36 The War for Independence, to Saratoga 287
Don Higginbotham

37 The War for Independence, after Saratoga 298
Don Higginbotham

38 The Continental Army 308
Holly A. Mayer

39 Militia, guerrilla warfare, tactics, and weaponry 314
Mark V. Kwasny

40 Naval operations during the War for Independence 320
Clark G. Reynolds

41 The First United States Navy 326
James C. Bradford

42 The home front during the War for Independence: the effect of labor shortages on commercial production in the Mid-Atlantic 332
Michael V. Kennedy

43 Resistance to the American Revolution 342
Michael A. McDonnell

44 Diplomacy of the Revolution, to 1783 352
Jonathan R. Dull

45 Confederation: state governments and their problems 362
Edward Countryman

46 The West: territory, states, and confederation 374
Peter S. Onuf

47 Demobilization and national defense 383
E. Wayne Carp

48 Currency, taxation, and finance, 1775–1787 388
Robert A. Becker

49 Foreign relations, after 1783 398
Jonathan R. Dull

50 Slavery and anti-slavery 402
Sylvia R. Frey

51 Amerindians and the new republic 413
James H. Merrell

52 The impact of the Revolution on the role, status, and experience of women 419
Betty Wood

53 The impact of the Revolution on education 427
Melvin Yazawa

54 The impact of the Revolution on social problems: poverty, insanity, and crime 435
Melvin Yazawa

55 The impact of the Revolution on church and state 444
Robert M. Calhoon

56 Law: continuity and reform 452
J. R. Pole

57 Confederation: movement for a stronger union 458
Mark D. Kaplanoff

58 The Federal Convention and the Constitution 470
Mark D. Kaplanoff

59 The debate over ratification of the Constitution 482
Murray Dry


60 Great Britain in the aftermath of the American Revolution 497
Ian R. Christie

61 The American Revolution in Canada 503
Elizabeth Mancke

62 The American Revolution and Ireland 511
Maurice J. Bric

63 The American Revolution and the sugar colonies, 1775–1783 515
Selwyn H. H. Carrington

64 The effects of the American Revolution on France and its empire 523
David P. Geggus

65 The impact of the American Revolution on Spain and Portugal and their empires 531
Kenneth Maxwell

66 The influence of the American Revolution in the Netherlands 545
Jan Willem Schulte Nordholt and Wim Klooster

67 The influence of the American Revolution in Germany 550
Horst Dippel

68 The influence of the American Revolution in Russia 554
Hans Rogger


69 The economic and demographic consequences of the American Revolution 559
Mary M. Schweitzer

70 The religious consequences of the Revolution 579
Robert M. Calhoon

71 The cultural effects of the Revolution 586
Norman S. Grabo

72 The effects of the Revolution on language 595
John Algeo

73 Medicine before and after the Revolution 600
Mary E. Fissell

74 The construction of gender in a republican world 605
Ruth H. Bloch

75 The construction of race in republican America 610
James Sidbury

76 The construction of social status in revolutionary America 617
Christine Daniels


77 Liberty 627
Elise Marienstras

78 Equality 633
J. R. Pole

79 Property 638
Alan Freeman and Elizabeth Mensch

80 The rule of law 645
John P. Reid

81 Consent 650
Donald S. Lutz

82 Happiness 655
Jan Lewis

83 Suffrage and representation 661
Rosemarie Zagarri

84 Republicanism 668
Robert E. Shalhope

85 Sovereignty 674
Peter S. Onuf

86 Nationality and citizenship 680
Elise Marienstras

87 The separation of powers 686
Maurice J. C. Vile

88 Rights 691
Michael Zuckert

89 Virtue 696
James T. Kloppenberg

90 Interests 701
Cathy Matson

Chronology 707
compiled by Steven J. Sarson

Index 745

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