Comparative Criminal Justice Systems: A Topical Approach / Edition 6

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Overview

Designed to effectively explain the complexities of justice systems around the world, COMPARATIVE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEMS: A TOPICAL APPROACH, 6/e makes the comparative approach far more understandable and accessible, helping students recognize the growing importance of an international perspective. It organizes key concepts in a sequence that many students will already find familiar, progressing from issues of law to the agencies of police, courts, and corrections. Students will gain a realistic understanding of the many ways policing, adjudication, and corrections systems can be organized and operated. Unlike most competitive books, it contains coverage of more than 30 countries, offering insights into everything from Islamic legal tradition to recent criminal justice reforms in Japan. This edition’s improvements include new coverage of the Eastern Asia legal tradition (e.g., China and Japan); Learning Objectives utilizing Bloom’s taxonomy phrasing; and more visually appealing images throughout.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780132457521
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 7/13/2012
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 6
  • Pages: 368
  • Sales rank: 269,750
  • Product dimensions: 7.30 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE

Chapter Learning Objective

Countries in Focus

A. WHY STUDY THE LEGAL SYSTEM OF OTHER COUNTRIES?

1. Provincial Benefits of an International Perspective

2. Universal Benefits of an International Perspective

B. APPROACHES TO AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE

1. Historical Approach

2. Political Approach

3. Descriptive Approach

C. STRATEGIES UNDER THE DESCRIPTIVE APPROACH

1. The Functions/Procedures Strategy

2. The Institutions/Actors Strategy

D. COMPARISON THROUGH CLASSIFICATION

1. The Need for Classification

2. Classification Strategies

3. The Role of Classification in This Book

E. THE STRUCTURE OF THIS BOOK

Summary

Discussion Questions

CHAPTER 2: DOMESTIC CRIME, TRANSNATIONAL CRIME, AND JUSTICE

Chapter Learning Objective

Countries in Focus

A. COMPARATIVE CRIMINOLOGY AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE

1. Comparative Criminology Looks at Crime as a Social Phenomenon

2. Comparative Criminology Looks at Crime as Social Behavior

B. TRANSNATIONAL CRIME

1. Transnational Crime Types

C. RESPONSE TO TRANSNATIONAL CRIME

1. National Efforts: United States of America

2. International Efforts

Summary

Discussion Questions

CHAPTER 3: AN AMERICAN PERSPECTIVE ON CRIMINAL LAW

Chapter Learning Objective

Countries in Focus

A. ESSENTIAL INGREDIENTS OF JUSTICE SYSTEMS

1. Substantive Criminal Law

2. Procedural Criminal Law

B. LIBERTY, SAFETY, AND FIGHTING TERRORISM

1. The USA PATRIOT Act—Substantive and Procedural Law Issues

2. Is America's Reaction That Different?

Summary

Discussion Questions

CHAPTER 4: LEGAL TRADITIONS

Chapter Learning Objective

Countries in Focus

A. LEGAL SYSTEMS AND LEGAL TRADITIONS

B. TODAY’S FOUR LEGAL TRADITIONS

1. Common Legal Tradition

2. Civil Legal Tradition

3. Islamic (Religious/Philosophical) Legal Tradition

4. Eastern Asia (Hybrid) Legal Tradition

C. COMPARISON OF THE LEGAL TRADITIONS

1. Cultural Component

2. Substantive Component

3. Procedural Component

Summary

Discussion Questions

CHAPTER 5: SUBSTANTIVE LAW AND PROCEDURAL LAW IN THE FOUR LEGAL TRADITIONS

Chapter Learning Objective

Countries in Focus

A. SUBSTANTIVE CRIMINAL LAW

1. General Characteristics and Major Principles

2. Substantive Law in the Common Legal Tradition

3. Substantive Law in the Civil Legal Tradition

4. Substantive Law in the Islamic Legal Tradition

5. Substantive Law in the Eastern Asia Legal Tradition

B. PROCEDURAL CRIMINAL LAW

1. Adjudicatory Processes

2. Judicial Review

Summary

Discussion Questions

CHAPTER 6: AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE ON POLICING

Chapter Learning Objective

Countries in Focus

A. CLASSIFICATION OF POLICE STRUCTURES

1. Centralized Single Systems: Ghana

2. Decentralized Single Systems: Japan

3. Centralized Multiple Coordinated Systems: France

4. Decentralized Multiple Coordinated Systems: Germany

5. Centralized Multiple Uncoordinated Systems: Spain

6. Decentralized Multiple Uncoordinated Systems: Mexico

B. POLICING ISSUES: POLICE MISCONDUCT

C. POLICING ISSUES: GLOBAL COOPERATION

1. International Criminal Police Organization (ICPO)—Interpol

2. Europol

3. Examples of Harmonization and Approximation in the European Union

Summary

Discussion Questions

CHAPTER 7: AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE ON COURTS

Chapter Learning Objective

Countries in Focus

A. PROFESSIONAL ACTORS IN THE JUDICIARY

1. Variation in Legal Training

2. Variation in Prosecution

3. Variation in Defense

B. THE ADJUDICATORS

1. Presumption of Innocence

2. Professional Judges

3. Lay Judges and Jurors

4. Examples along the Adjudication Continuum

C. VARIATION IN COURT ORGANIZATION

1. France

2. England and Wales

3. Nigeria

4. China

5. Saudi Arabia

Summary

Discussion Questions

CHAPTER 8: AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE ON CORRECTIONS

Chapter Learning Objective

Countries in Focus

A. COMPARATIVE PENOLOGY

1. Typologies for Comparative Penology

B. PUNISHMENT

1. Justifications for Punishment

2. International Standards for Corrections

C. FINANCIAL PENALTIES

1. Fines

2. Compensation to Victims and Community

D. CORPORAL AND CAPITAL PUNISHMENT

1. International Standards

2. Corporal Punishment

3. Capital Punishment

E. NONCUSTODIAL SANCTIONS

1. International Standards

2. Community Corrections

3. Probation

F. CUSTODIAL SANCTIONS

1. International Standards

2. Prison Populations

3. Prison Systems

4. Women in Prison

5. Minorities in Prison

Summary

Discussion Questions

CHAPTER 9: AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE ON JUVENILE JUSTICE

Chapter Learning Objective

Countries in Focus

A. DELINQUENCY AS A WORLDWIDE PROBLEM

1. Setting International Standards

2. Determining Who Are Juveniles

3. Determining the Process

B. MODELS OF JUVENILE JUSTICE

1. The Welfare Model of New Zealand

2. Italy: More Welfare than Justice Model

3. China: More Justice than Welfare Model

4. The Justice Model of England and Wales

Summary

Discussion Questions

CHAPTER 10: JAPAN: EXAMPLES OF EFFECTIVENESS AND BORROWING

Chapter Learning Objective

Countries in Focus

A. WHY STUDY JAPAN?

1. Japan's Effective Criminal Justice System

2. Borrowing in a Cross Cultural Context

B. JAPANESE CULTURAL PATTERNS

1. Homogeneity

2. Contextualism and Harmony

3. Collectivism

4. Hierarchies and Order

C. CRIMINAL LAW

1. Law by Bureaucratic Informalism

D. POLICING

1. Why Are the Japanese Police Effective?

E. JUDICIARY

1. Pretrial Activities

2. Court Structure and Trial Options

3. Judgments

F. CORRECTIONS

1. Community Corrections

G. COMING FULL CIRCLE

H. WHAT MIGHT WORK

Summary

Discussion Questions

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Preface

Since the first edition of this book, the topic of comparative and international criminal justice has enjoyed increased attention by authors, journals, and professional organizations in criminology and criminal justice. Consistent with those changes, more undergraduate and graduate courses are being taught with comparative justice issues as the primary subject matter.

These changes are, of course, to everyone's benefit. Students of criminology and criminal justice have a much better understanding of comparative and international issues than have students of earlier generations. That knowledge is useful when those students become practitioners and increasingly must interact with justice system agents in other countries. In addition, the increased knowledge of different ways that justice is conceived and achieved, gives practitioners and policy makers ideas for improving their own system.

Hopefully the interest in, and perceived importance of, an international perspective is irreversible. This book is designed to encourage continuation of that interest and to provide a knowledge base about justice in countries around the world.

ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK

The text is organized in ten chapters that reflect the material and order of presentation typically found in introductory books on the American system of criminal justice. That is, arrangement proceeds from concern with criminal law through examination of police, courts, and corrections. This organization distinguishes the text from other comparative criminal justice books that present detailed information on five or six specific countries. The result means this text contains less detail on thecriminal justice system of particular countries, but it provides greater appreciation and understanding of the diversity in legal systems around the world.

A benefit of using the same countries for each chapter would be a sense of consistency and depth in the text. However, not every country offers the same level of contrast in all aspects of its criminal justice system. For example, describing German and French policing results in interesting and specific contrasts. But if the same countries are used to contrast the trial procedure, their similarity makes us less aware of the variation occurring in that process when other countries are considered.

Luckily, there is an alternate means for presenting information on law, police, courts, corrections, and juvenile justice. The organization used in this text follows the belief that comparison relies on categorization. That is, to best understand and explain similarities and differences among things, one must start by categorizing them. The first chapter provides the rationale for studying other systems of justice and sets down the specific approach used in this text. The second chapter reviews crime as a world problem and sets the stage for consideration of the different ways justice systems are organized in attempts to respond to the crime problem. Chapter three presents traditional material on American criminal law so the reader has a familiar and common base to use in the following chapters. Chapter four presents the four contemporary legal traditions and outlines the basic features of each. Chapter five continues material in chapters three and four by looking at substantive and procedural criminal law in each of the four legal traditions.

The next four chapters cover the topics of policing (Chapter 6), the judiciary (Chapter 7), corrections (Chapter 8), and juvenile justice (Chapter 9). Countries representing Europe, Asia, North and South America, Latin America, Australia, and Pacific islands are included in the coverage. Some make frequent appearances (e.g., Australia, France, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia) while others are less recurrent (e.g., Canada, Denmark, Mexico, Fiji). The text concludes with a concentrated look at the criminal justice system of Japan. This country was chosen for special consideration since it has a history of borrowing from other countries (a point encouraged by comparative studies) and has what many consider to be a very effective criminal justice system. Also, ending the text with an in-depth look at a particular country provides an opportunity to tie together some of the topics and items presented in earlier chapters.

PEDAGOGICAL FEATURES

  • Impact Sections: Each chapter of the text includes an Impact section where topics mentioned in that chapter will receive greater attention and where questions raised by chapter material can be addressed. These sections should encourage mental gymnastics, suggesting things like links between countries, ideas for improving systems, and ways to encourage more global understanding. Examples include the impact guns may have on a country's crime rate (Chapter 1), how soccer and American football can explain differences between common law and civil law (Chapter 5), and the global aspects of restorative justice (Chapter 8).
  • In The News: New to this edition are "In The News" boxes that highlight current topics relevant to chapter material. Examples include the crime of trafficking in humans (Chapter 1), the use of the death penalty around the world (Chapter 8), and England's new "parenting orders" that allows parents of misbehaving youths to be punished (Chapter 9).
  • You Should Know: Also new in this edition are features that direct the students' attention to items providing helpful background to chapter topics. At least one "You Should Know" box appears in every chapter. Examples include explanations of the European Union (Chapter 1), the European Court of Human Rights (Chapter 5), and a summary of similarities in delinquency around the world (Chapter 9).
  • Web Sites to Visit: An increasing number of governments are providing Internet information about their criminal justice agencies and, in some cases, are making crime and justice statistics available. At the end of each chapter are suggested web sites where students can gather information for class discussion or for preparing term papers.
  • Key Topics and Key Terms: Beginning each chapter is a listing of key topics and terms that students will encounter in that chapter. These have been popular aids in the two previous editions and are retained here to help direct student attention to important concepts as they read the chapter material.
  • Countries Covered: Also continuing from earlier editions is a listing, at the chapter's start, of countries that receive particular attention in that chapter. Because different countries are discussed in each chapter this aid helps orient students about the regions and nations they will encounter during their reading.

KEY CHANGES IN THE THIRD EDITION

Subsequent editions of criminal justice text books are often necessary to update statistics, changes in law, modifications in procedures; and to include, increase, or decrease information about particular topics. All those reasons are relevant to the third edition of this book. There have actually been quite significant changes on the world scene since the second edition of this book. Important new laws and legislation are having significant impact on the way justice is administered in countries like Australia, China, England and Wales. Appropriate sections of the chapters have been modified in this edition to account for those changes.

Pedagogical improvements to the text, as outlined above, are among the more important changes in this edition, but there are also content changes in every chapter. Chapter 1 has a new, more contemporary, introduction. Chapter 2 includes new information on terrorism and cultural heritage crimes and updates both crime and victimization statistics. Chapter 3 explains the importance of the 2000 U.S. Supreme Court decision reaffirming the Miranda warning. The Chapter 4 material on China has been updated to reflect the 1997 revisions of Chinese law. New information on Hong Kong as a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China is incorporated into Chapter 5. The police structures covered in Chapter 6 have all been verified and updated as necessary and new information about Europol and the Schengen Agreement has been added. Chapter 7 information on aspects of courtroom actors and court organization for each country covered in the chapter has been revised where needed. New legislation and procedures in Great Britain have especially required revised presentation. Chapter 8 now includes material on the increasingly popular topic of restorative justice. Juvenile justice procedures have undergone important changes in just about every country mentioned in Chapter 9, and that required new descriptions in Australia and England especially. Chapter 10 now includes information on the growing crime rate in Japan as an appropriate contrast to other material in the chapter that portrays Japan's system in a more glowing light.

Although comparative criminal justice enjoys increased attention, it is still in its infancy as a subject matter. As more and more text books begin to appear, more scholars attempt cross-cultural research, and more practitioners share ideas, comparative criminal justice will grow to levels we cannot yet appreciate. I hope you will find this book to be a positive contribution toward the advancement of this important field of study.

SUPPLEMENTS

  • An Instructor's Manual and Test Bank, both prepared by the author, are available for adopters of this book.
  • The author maintains a web site that provides information on comparative criminal justice studies in general and material related to this book more specifically. Sections at the web site provide students with hints on how to prepare research papers on comparative justice issues and has links to key web sites with additional information about law, police, courts, and corrections in countries around the world. Instructors and students are welcome to visit the site at www.cjed.com/ccjs/ccjhome.htm

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to acknowledge the support I have received from many people in my attempt to provide current and accurate descriptions of the justice agencies and procedures in a variety of countries. This edition has especially benefited from the assistance of several people who were kind enough to review chapter material on their respective country. My heartfelt thanks goes out to: Ursula Smartt of Thames Valley University (England); Bankole Cole of the University of Lincolnshire & Humberside (England); Terry Bishop of the West Sussex Youth Offending Team (England); David Biles, Consultant Criminologist and Professorial Associate, Charles Sturt University (Australia); Johannes Feest of the University of Bremen (Germany); Friedrich Schwindt of the Nordrhein-Westfalen Police (Germany); Andrzej Adamski of the Nicholas Copernicus University (Poland); Paolo Iorio, lecturer in criminal procedure at the National Police School and Advisor in Prison Matters to the Ministry of Justice (Italy); and Takeshi Koyanagi of the Correction Bureau, Ministry of Justice (Japan). Despite the efforts of these colleagues there may still be inaccuracies in my descriptions of justice procedures in each of their countries. I am, of course, responsible for any such misrepresentations.

Opportunities to expand my knowledge and experience in comparative and international criminal justice have been provided by Adam Bouloukos, Frank Hoepfel, Matti Joutsen, and Graeme Newman. I thank them all and can only hope that upon reflection they believe their trust was well placed.

The staff at Prentice Hall have been wonderfully easy to work with. Kim Davies, my new editor, has provided exceptional support and encouragement and I thank her very much for making work on this edition an enjoyable experience. Developmental Editor, Cheryl Adam, provided insightful suggestions that have made this edition a much more attractive package and one that is more pedagogically sound. Her assistance was invaluable.

Finally, acknowledgment also goes to the reviewers who kindly assisted in the evaluation of the manuscript for both the first and second editions. The following people gave their valuable time and assistance in helping the various editions of this book come to publication in a better form than was first submitted. Thank you to:

Dorothy Bracey, Ph.D., City University of New York
Wilson Palacios, Ph.D., University of South Florida
David Neubauer, Ph.D., University of New Orleans
Robert J. Homant, Ph.D., University of Detroit
Joan Luxenburg, Ed.D., University of Central Oklahoma
Joseph W. Lipchitz, Ph.D., University of Massachusetts at Lowell
Jan K. Dargel, M.A., J.D., University of Tampa
William D. Hyatt, J.D., LL.M., Western Carolina University
C. Ray Jeffery, Ph.D., Florida State University

<%END%>
Read More Show Less

Introduction

Since the first edition of this book, the topic of comparative and international criminal justice has enjoyed increased attention by authors, journals, and professional organizations in criminology and criminal justice. Consistent with those changes, more undergraduate and graduate courses are being taught with comparative justice issues as the primary subject matter.

These changes are, of course, to everyone's benefit. Students of criminology and criminal justice have a much better understanding of comparative and international issues than have students of earlier generations. That knowledge is useful when those students become practitioners and increasingly must interact with justice system agents in other countries. In addition, the increased knowledge of different ways that justice is conceived and achieved, gives practitioners and policy makers ideas for improving their own system.

Hopefully the interest in, and perceived importance of, an international perspective is irreversible. This book is designed to encourage continuation of that interest and to provide a knowledge base about justice in countries around the world.

ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK

The text is organized in ten chapters that reflect the material and order of presentation typically found in introductory books on the American system of criminal justice. That is, arrangement proceeds from concern with criminal law through examination of police, courts, and corrections. This organization distinguishes the text from other comparative criminal justice books that present detailed information on five or six specific countries. The result means this text contains less detail on thecriminal justice system of particular countries, but it provides greater appreciation and understanding of the diversity in legal systems around the world.

A benefit of using the same countries for each chapter would be a sense of consistency and depth in the text. However, not every country offers the same level of contrast in all aspects of its criminal justice system. For example, describing German and French policing results in interesting and specific contrasts. But if the same countries are used to contrast the trial procedure, their similarity makes us less aware of the variation occurring in that process when other countries are considered.

Luckily, there is an alternate means for presenting information on law, police, courts, corrections, and juvenile justice. The organization used in this text follows the belief that comparison relies on categorization. That is, to best understand and explain similarities and differences among things, one must start by categorizing them. The first chapter provides the rationale for studying other systems of justice and sets down the specific approach used in this text. The second chapter reviews crime as a world problem and sets the stage for consideration of the different ways justice systems are organized in attempts to respond to the crime problem. Chapter three presents traditional material on American criminal law so the reader has a familiar and common base to use in the following chapters. Chapter four presents the four contemporary legal traditions and outlines the basic features of each. Chapter five continues material in chapters three and four by looking at substantive and procedural criminal law in each of the four legal traditions.

The next four chapters cover the topics of policing (Chapter 6), the judiciary (Chapter 7), corrections (Chapter 8), and juvenile justice (Chapter 9). Countries representing Europe, Asia, North and South America, Latin America, Australia, and Pacific islands are included in the coverage. Some make frequent appearances (e.g., Australia, France, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia) while others are less recurrent (e.g., Canada, Denmark, Mexico, Fiji). The text concludes with a concentrated look at the criminal justice system of Japan. This country was chosen for special consideration since it has a history of borrowing from other countries (a point encouraged by comparative studies) and has what many consider to be a very effective criminal justice system. Also, ending the text with an in-depth look at a particular country provides an opportunity to tie together some of the topics and items presented in earlier chapters.

PEDAGOGICAL FEATURES

  • Impact Sections: Each chapter of the text includes an Impact section where topics mentioned in that chapter will receive greater attention and where questions raised by chapter material can be addressed. These sections should encourage mental gymnastics, suggesting things like links between countries, ideas for improving systems, and ways to encourage more global understanding. Examples include the impact guns may have on a country's crime rate (Chapter 1), how soccer and American football can explain differences between common law and civil law (Chapter 5), and the global aspects of restorative justice (Chapter 8).
  • In The News: New to this edition are "In The News" boxes that highlight current topics relevant to chapter material. Examples include the crime of trafficking in humans (Chapter 1), the use of the death penalty around the world (Chapter 8), and England's new "parenting orders" that allows parents of misbehaving youths to be punished (Chapter 9).
  • You Should Know: Also new in this edition are features that direct the students' attention to items providing helpful background to chapter topics. At least one "You Should Know" box appears in every chapter. Examples include explanations of the European Union (Chapter 1), the European Court of Human Rights (Chapter 5), and a summary of similarities in delinquency around the world (Chapter 9).
  • Web Sites to Visit: An increasing number of governments are providing Internet information about their criminal justice agencies and, in some cases, are making crime and justice statistics available. At the end of each chapter are suggested web sites where students can gather information for class discussion or for preparing term papers.
  • Key Topics and Key Terms: Beginning each chapter is a listing of key topics and terms that students will encounter in that chapter. These have been popular aids in the two previous editions and are retained here to help direct student attention to important concepts as they read the chapter material.
  • Countries Covered: Also continuing from earlier editions is a listing, at the chapter's start, of countries that receive particular attention in that chapter. Because different countries are discussed in each chapter this aid helps orient students about the regions and nations they will encounter during their reading.

KEY CHANGES IN THE THIRD EDITION

Subsequent editions of criminal justice text books are often necessary to update statistics, changes in law, modifications in procedures; and to include, increase, or decrease information about particular topics. All those reasons are relevant to the third edition of this book. There have actually been quite significant changes on the world scene since the second edition of this book. Important new laws and legislation are having significant impact on the way justice is administered in countries like Australia, China, England and Wales. Appropriate sections of the chapters have been modified in this edition to account for those changes.

Pedagogical improvements to the text, as outlined above, are among the more important changes in this edition, but there are also content changes in every chapter. Chapter 1 has a new, more contemporary, introduction. Chapter 2 includes new information on terrorism and cultural heritage crimes and updates both crime and victimization statistics. Chapter 3 explains the importance of the 2000 U.S. Supreme Court decision reaffirming the Miranda warning. The Chapter 4 material on China has been updated to reflect the 1997 revisions of Chinese law. New information on Hong Kong as a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China is incorporated into Chapter 5. The police structures covered in Chapter 6 have all been verified and updated as necessary and new information about Europol and the Schengen Agreement has been added. Chapter 7 information on aspects of courtroom actors and court organization for each country covered in the chapter has been revised where needed. New legislation and procedures in Great Britain have especially required revised presentation. Chapter 8 now includes material on the increasingly popular topic of restorative justice. Juvenile justice procedures have undergone important changes in just about every country mentioned in Chapter 9, and that required new descriptions in Australia and England especially. Chapter 10 now includes information on the growing crime rate in Japan as an appropriate contrast to other material in the chapter that portrays Japan's system in a more glowing light.

Although comparative criminal justice enjoys increased attention, it is still in its infancy as a subject matter. As more and more text books begin to appear, more scholars attempt cross-cultural research, and more practitioners share ideas, comparative criminal justice will grow to levels we cannot yet appreciate. I hope you will find this book to be a positive contribution toward the advancement of this important field of study.

SUPPLEMENTS

  • An Instructor's Manual and Test Bank, both prepared by the author, are available for adopters of this book.
  • The author maintains a web site that provides information on comparative criminal justice studies in general and material related to this book more specifically. Sections at the web site provide students with hints on how to prepare research papers on comparative justice issues and has links to key web sites with additional information about law, police, courts, and corrections in countries around the world. Instructors and students are welcome to visit the site at www.cjed.com/ccjs/ccjhome.htm

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to acknowledge the support I have received from many people in my attempt to provide current and accurate descriptions of the justice agencies and procedures in a variety of countries. This edition has especially benefited from the assistance of several people who were kind enough to review chapter material on their respective country. My heartfelt thanks goes out to: Ursula Smartt of Thames Valley University (England); Bankole Cole of the University of Lincolnshire & Humberside (England); Terry Bishop of the West Sussex Youth Offending Team (England); David Biles, Consultant Criminologist and Professorial Associate, Charles Sturt University (Australia); Johannes Feest of the University of Bremen (Germany); Friedrich Schwindt of the Nordrhein-Westfalen Police (Germany); Andrzej Adamski of the Nicholas Copernicus University (Poland); Paolo Iorio, lecturer in criminal procedure at the National Police School and Advisor in Prison Matters to the Ministry of Justice (Italy); and Takeshi Koyanagi of the Correction Bureau, Ministry of Justice (Japan). Despite the efforts of these colleagues there may still be inaccuracies in my descriptions of justice procedures in each of their countries. I am, of course, responsible for any such misrepresentations.

Opportunities to expand my knowledge and experience in comparative and international criminal justice have been provided by Adam Bouloukos, Frank Hoepfel, Matti Joutsen, and Graeme Newman. I thank them all and can only hope that upon reflection they believe their trust was well placed.

The staff at Prentice Hall have been wonderfully easy to work with. Kim Davies, my new editor, has provided exceptional support and encouragement and I thank her very much for making work on this edition an enjoyable experience. Developmental Editor, Cheryl Adam, provided insightful suggestions that have made this edition a much more attractive package and one that is more pedagogically sound. Her assistance was invaluable.

Finally, acknowledgment also goes to the reviewers who kindly assisted in the evaluation of the manuscript for both the first and second editions. The following people gave their valuable time and assistance in helping the various editions of this book come to publication in a better form than was first submitted. Thank you to:

Dorothy Bracey, Ph.D., City University of New York
Wilson Palacios, Ph.D., University of South Florida
David Neubauer, Ph.D., University of New Orleans
Robert J. Homant, Ph.D., University of Detroit
Joan Luxenburg, Ed.D., University of Central Oklahoma
Joseph W. Lipchitz, Ph.D., University of Massachusetts at Lowell
Jan K. Dargel, M.A., J.D., University of Tampa
William D. Hyatt, J.D., LL.M., Western Carolina University
C. Ray Jeffery, Ph.D., Florida State University

Read More Show Less

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