Comprehensive Stress Management / Edition 12

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Comprehensive Stress Management helps students identify, understand, and manage the stressors that most affect their lives. Written in an informal, anecdotal style, the text presents the latest research findings on the physical, psychological, sociological, and spiritual aspects of stress. The text also provides an in-depth discussion of a wide variety of coping skills, including relaxation techniques, behavior change interventions, and strategies for defusing physiological arousal. This engaging, easy-to-read text gives students the tools they need to cope with stress in an increasingly stressful world. Accompanying the text are instructor and student resources on the Online Learning Center.

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Editorial Reviews

An undergraduate level text integrating scientific and statistical data with anecdotes and personal experiences to identify stressful situations, understand human responses to them, and choose ways of dealing with the emotional and psychological arousal of stress. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780073380919
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies,Inc.
  • Publication date: 12/10/2010
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 12
  • Pages: 464
  • Sales rank: 497,635
  • Product dimensions: 8.40 (w) x 10.70 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Dr. Jerrold S. Greenberg is a Professor in the Department of Public and Community Health at the University of Maryland. Dr. Greenberg earned his baccalaureate and masters degrees from The City College of New York, and then continued his education at Syracuse University where he earned his doctorate. Dr. Greenberg has taught at Syracuse University, Boston University, and the State University of New York at Buffalo before accepting his current position at the University of Maryland in 1979. Dr. Greenberg has written over 50 books on such topics as elder care, health, stress management, physical fitness, sexuality, and methods of health education. In addition, he has published over 80 articles in professional journals and lay magazines. Among Dr. Greenberg's honors are included: the University of Maryland Service-Learning Advocate of Year Award for 2003-2004; the American School Health Association's Distinguished Service Award; selection as Alliance Scholar by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance; the Presidential Citation, the Certificate of Appreciation, and the Scholar Award of the American Association for Health Education; selection for inclusion in Who's Who in America, Outstanding Young Men of America, and Who's Who in World Jewry. Dr. Greenberg has also served on the Editorial Boards of the professional journals, Health Education and The Journal of School Health; and as a reviewer for other professional journals. In addition, Dr. Greenberg has conducted stress management workshops for professional, business, and lay organizations throughout the United States.

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Table of Contents

Preface     xvi
Scientific Foundations     1
What Is Stress?     2
The Pioneers     3
Stress Theory     6
Life-Events Theory     6
Hardiness Theory     7
Social Support Theory     7
The Stressor     7
Stress Reactivity     8
Gender Differences in Reactivity     10
A Definition of Stress     10
Stress Management Goals     10
The Way to Use This Book     11
Your Personal Stress Profile and Activity Workbook     11
The Stress Portfolio     12
"Getting Involved in Your Community" Boxes     13
Summary     15
Notes     16
Internet Resources     17
Stress Psychophysiology     18
The Brain     18
The Endocrine System     21
The Autonomic Nervous System     24
The Cardiovascular System     26
The Gastrointestinal System     28
The Muscles     28
The Skin     29
Symptoms, Stress, and You     30
Summary     31
Notes     31
Internet Resources     32
How Much Do You Know About Stress Psychophysiology?     33
What Are Your Physiological Reactions to Stress?     34
Stress and Illness/Disease     35
Hot Reactors     35
Psychosomatic Disease     35
Stress and the Immunological System     36
Stress and Serum Cholesterol     38
Specific Conditions     39
Hypertension     39
Stroke     40
Coronary Heart Disease     41
Ulcers     43
Migraine Headaches     43
Tension Headaches     45
Cancer     46
Allergies, Asthma, and Hay Fever     46
Rheumatoid Arthritis     48
Backache     48
TMJ Syndrome     49
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder     49
Stress and Other Conditions     52
Summary     52
Notes     52
Internet Resources     55
General Applications: Life-Situation and Perception Interventions     57
Intervention     58
A Model of Stress     58
Feedback Loops in the Stress Model     60
Setting Up Roadblocks     60
Comprehensive Stress Management     61
Eustress and the Model     62
Taking Control     63
Making a Commitment     65
Summary     67
Internet Resources     67
Life-Situation Interventions Intrapersonal     68
Eliminating Unnecessary Stressors     68
Nutrition and Stress     70
Noise and Stress     77
Life Events and Stress     78
Hassles and Chronic Stress     80
Success Analysis     81
Summary     83
Notes     83
Internet Resources     84
What Is Your Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)?     85
What Stressful Events Do You Experience?     86
Are Your Life Events Unhealthy?     87
What Hassles Do You Encounter?     88
Life-Situation Interventions Interpersonal     89
Asserting Yourself     89
Nonverbal Assertiveness     90
Verbal Assertiveness     91
Conflict Resolution     92
Communication     95
Nonverbal Communication     95
Verbal Communication     96
Time Management     97
Assessing How You Spend Time      97
Setting Goals     98
Prioritizing     98
Scheduling     99
Maximizing Your Rewards     99
Saying No     99
Delegating     99
Evaluating Tasks Once     99
Using the Circular File     100
Limiting Interruptions     100
Investing Time     100
Social Support Networking     100
Summary     103
Notes     103
Internet Resources     104
How Assertive Are You?     105
How Do You Resolve Conflicts?     106
How is Your Social Support?     107
Perception Interventions     109
Selective Awareness     109
Stop to Smell the Roses     111
Perspective and Selective Awareness     112
An Attitude of Gratitude     113
Humor and Stress     114
Type A Behavior Pattern     115
Self-Esteem     118
Locus of Control     119
Anxiety Management     120
Test Anxiety     121
Trait and State Anxiety     121
Panic Disorder     121
Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder)      122
Specific Phobias     123
Coping Techniques     123
Hardiness     127
Summary     128
Notes     128
Internet Resources     132
Are You a Type A?     133
How Is Your Self-Esteem?     134
How Is Your Physical Self-Esteem?     135
What Is Your Locus of Control?     136
What Is Your Level of Anxiety?     138
What Is Your Level of Test Anxiety?     139
What Is Your Level of Social Physique Anxiety?     140
Do You have Irrational Beliefs?     141
Spirituality and Stress     143
Spiritual Health     143
Religion and Spirituality     144
Spirituality and Health     144
How Spirituality and Religion Affect Health     145
Control Theory     146
Social Support Theory     147
Spirituality, Social Support, and Terrorism     147
Placebo Theory     148
Forgiveness and Health     148
Volunteerism as a Spiritual and Healthy Activity     149
Service-Learning: A Spiritual and Academic Activity     149
Closing Thoughts on Spirituality, Health, and Managing Stress      151
Summary     153
Notes     153
Internet Resources     155
General Applications: Relaxation Techniques     157
Meditation     158
What Is Meditation?     158
Types of Meditation     158
Benefits of Meditation     160
Physiological Effects     160
Psychological Effects     161
How to Meditate     161
Making Time for Meditation     163
Summary     164
Notes     164
Internet Resources     166
Is Meditation for You?     167
Autogenic Training and Imagery     169
What Is Autogenic Training?     169
Benefits of Autogenic Training     170
Physiological Effects     170
Psychological Effects     170
How to Do Autogenic Training     171
Prerequisites     171
Body Position     171
Six Initial Stages of Autogenic Training     172
Imagery     173
An Autogenic Training Experience     174
Summary     176
Notes     177
Internet Resources     178
Is Autogenic Training for You?     179
Progressive Relaxation     181
Bracing     181
What Is Progressive Relaxation?     182
Benefits of Progressive Relaxation     183
Physiological Effects     183
Psychological Effects     183
How to Do Progressive Relaxation     183
Cues Identifying Tension     184
Prerequisites     184
Body Position     184
Exercises     185
Other Short Exercises     189
Summary     189
Notes     190
Internet Resources     191
Is Progressive Relaxation for You?     193
Other Relaxation Techniques     195
Biofeedback     195
Benefits of Biofeedback     196
How to Relax Using Biofeedback     198
How to Arrange for Biofeedback Training     199
Diaphragmatic Breathing     199
Body Scanning     200
Massage and Acupressure     201
Yoga and Stretching     201
Repetitive Prayer     202
Quieting Reflex     202
Instant Calming Sequence     202
Mindfulness     203
Music and Relaxation      203
Tai Chi     204
Pets and Stress     205
Summary     207
Notes     207
Internet Resources     211
General Applications: Physiological Arousal and Behavior Change Interventions     213
Physiological Arousal Interventions Exercise     214
Exercise and Health     215
Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise     215
Physical Health     216
Psychological Health     217
Can Physical Fitness and Exercise Make You Smarter?     219
The Healthy Way to Exercise     220
Principles of Exercise     221
Intensity, Frequency, and Duration     222
Assessing Your Cardiorespiratory Fitness     222
Starting an Exercise Program     222
How to Exercise     223
Do's and Don'ts     223
Competition and Enjoyment     224
Choosing an Exercise Program     225
Swimming     225
Rope Jumping     226
Bicycling     226
Walking     226
Jogging     227
Aerobic Dance     228
Low-Impact Aerobic Dance     229
Stretching      230
Weight Training     230
Exercise and the Elderly     230
Where to Get More Information     231
Exercise-Keeping It Going     235
Summary     235
Notes     236
Internet Resources     237
Strategies for Decreasing Stressful Behaviors     238
Health and Lifestyle Behaviors     238
Health-Related Behavior Assessment     238
Selected Lifestyle Behaviors     238
Barriers to Action     239
Locus of Control     239
Methods for Decreasing Stressful Behaviors     240
Self-Monitoring     240
Tailoring     240
Material Reinforcement     241
Social Reinforcement     241
Social Support     242
Self-Contracting     242
Contracting with a Significant Other     242
Shaping     243
Reminders     243
Self-Help Groups     243
Professional Help     243
Application of Behavior Change Techniques     244
Example: Exercise     244
Behavior Change Theories and Stress     244
Stages of Change Theory      245
Self-Efficacy Theory     246
The Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behavior     247
Summary     248
Notes     249
Internet Resources     250
Are Your Behaviors Healthy?     251
Are Your Lifestyle Behaviors Healthy?     253
What Are Your Barriers to Behaving Healthfully?     254
How Much Control Do You Have?     255
Diversity and Stress     257
"Minority" Defined     257
Positive Aspects of Minority Status     258
An Introduction to the Descriptions of Problems Paced by Minorities     259
Stressors Challenging Minorities     260
Health Status     261
National Health Objectives and Diversity     262
Infant Mortality     263
Life Expectancy     264
Years of Potential Life Lost     264
High Blood Pressure     264
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)     265
Cancer     266
Mental Health     266
Poverty and Educational Level     266
Family Life     267
Homelessness     268
Family Structure     268
Age and Physical Disability      269
Elders     269
People with Disabilities     270
Summary     271
Notes     271
Internet Resources     273
Specific Applications     275
Occupational Stress     276
Occupational Stress Cycle     276
What Is Occupational Stress?     277
Why Is Occupational Stress of Concern?     278
Gender and Occupational Stress     282
Disease and Occupational Stress     282
Physiological Effects     283
Disease States     283
Psychological Effects     283
Occupational Stressors     284
Lack of Participation     284
Role Problems     284
Job Dissatisfaction     286
The Work Environment     286
The Workaholic     286
Burnout     289
Women and Work Outside the Home     290
Sexual Harassment at Work     292
Working in the Home     294
Interventions     295
Life-Situation Interventions     295
Perception Interventions     295
Emotional Arousal Interventions     296
Physiological Arousal Interventions     296
Managing Occupational Stress     296
Summary     297
Notes     298
Internet Resources     301
Do You Have Occupational Stress?     303
Are You a Workaholic?     304
Do You Have Burnout or Brownout?     305
Stress and the College Student     307
The Younger College Student     308
Lifestyle Change     308
Grades     309
Course Overload     309
Finances     310
Friendship     311
Love     312
Sex     312
HIV/AIDS     314
Other Sexually Transmitted Infections     316
Date Rape     316
Shyness     317
Jealousy     318
Breakups     318
The Older College Student     318
Career and School     319
Family and School     319
Self-Doubt     319
The Minority College Student     320
Interventions     321
Life-Situation Interventions     321
Perception Interventions     324
Emotional Arousal Interventions      325
Physiological Arousal Interventions     325
Summary     326
Notes     326
Internet Resources     327
How Intimate Are Your Friendships?     329
What Type of Lover Are You?     331
Family Stress     333
The Family     333
Needs Satisfied by the Family     333
The Effective Family     334
The Changing Family     335
Marriage     336
Cohabitation     337
Divorce     337
Single-Parent Families     339
Gay and Lesbian Families     339
Family Stressors     340
The Dual-Career Family     341
Children     341
Family Planning     342
Adoption     343
Mobility     346
Violence: A Family Matter     346
Financial Stressors     348
Other Stressors     349
A Model of Family Stress     350
Interventions     350
Life-Situation Interventions     350
Financial Stress Interventions     353
Perception Interventions     354
Emotional Arousal Interventions      356
Physiological Arousal Interventions     356
Summary     356
Notes     357
Internet Resources     358
Are You Ready for Marriage?     359
How Do You View Abortion?     360
Stress and the Elderly     361
The Elderly: A Description     362
Test of Knowledge About the Elderly     362
Adjustment in the Later Years     363
Erik Erikson: Life Crises     363
Robert Havighurst: Developmental Tasks     363
Positive Change     363
Exercise and the Elderly     364
Retirement     365
Caregiving     366
Death and Dying     368
Death     368
Dying     368
Grief     370
Interventions     371
Life-Situation Interventions     371
Perception Interventions     373
Emotional Arousal Interventions     375
Physiological Arousal Interventions     376
Summary     376
Notes     377
Internet Resources     378
What Are Your Attitudes Toward Death?     379
What Are Your Feelings About Death?      380
Epilogue     381
Appendix     A-1
Stress Information Resources
Glossary     G-1
Selected Bibliography     B-1
Credits     C-1
Index     I-1
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