CompTIA Network+ Exam Cram

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Overview

The new edition of CompTIA Network+ Exam Cram is the first book to cover the Network+ 2009 exam.

Covers the critical information you’ll need to know to score higher on your Network+ exam!

  • Implement proven best practices for managing networks efficiently and reliably
  • Thoroughly understand network hardware ...
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Overview

The new edition of CompTIA Network+ Exam Cram is the first book to cover the Network+ 2009 exam.

Covers the critical information you’ll need to know to score higher on your Network+ exam!

  • Implement proven best practices for managing networks efficiently and reliably
  • Thoroughly understand network hardware components, devices, cabling, and connectors
  • Systematically review TCP/IP, related network protocols, and the OSI model
  • Manage network operating systems and clients
  • Identify network vulnerabilities and configure network security to address them
  • Use security tools such as cryptography and antivirus software
  • Provide reliable, secure Internet access, WAN access, and VLAN support
  • Implement disaster recovery plans that protect business continuity
  • Troubleshoot network and Internet connectivity problems
  • Efficiently document the network and provide high-quality user support

CD Features Test Engine!

  • Detailed explanations of correct and incorrect answers
  • Multiple test modes
  • Random questions and order of answers
  • Coverage of each Network+ exam objective
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780789737960
  • Publisher: Pearson IT Certification
  • Publication date: 3/27/2009
  • Series: Exam Cram Series
  • Edition description: Book and CD
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 648
  • Product dimensions: 5.90 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 1.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Mike Harwood (MCSE, A+, Network+, Server+, Linux+) has more than 10 years of experience in information technology and related fields. He has held a number of roles in the IT field, including network administrator, instructor, technical writer, website designer, consultant, and online marketing strategist. He has been a regular on-air technology contributor for CBC radio and has coauthored numerous computer books, including the Network+ Exam Prep from Que Publishing. When not working, Harwood plans to explore his new hometown of Castlegar in the Kootenays and hopes to one day again fit into the pants he wore before his writing career began.

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Read an Excerpt

IntroductionIntroduction

Welcome to the Network+ Exam Cram. This book is designed to prepare you to take—and pass—the CompTIA Network+ exam. The Network+ exam has become the leading introductory-level network certification available today. It is recognized by both employers and industry giants (such as Microsoft and Novell) as providing candidates with a solid foundation of networking concepts, terminology, and skills. The Network+ exam covers a broad range of networking concepts to prepare candidates for the technologies they are likely to work with in today’s network environments.

About Network+ Exam Cram

Exam Crams are designed to give you the information you need to know to prepare for the Network+ exam. They cut through the extra information, focusing on the areas you need to get through the exam. With this in mind, the elements within the Exam Cram titles are aimed at providing the exam information you need in the most succinct and accessible manner.

In this light, this book is organized to closely follow the actual CompTIA objectives. As such, it is easy to find the information required for each of the specified CompTIA Network+ objectives. The objective focus design used by this Exam Cram is an important feature because the information you need to know is easily identifiable and accessible. To see what we mean, compare the CompTIA objectives to the book’s layout, and you will see that the facts are right where you would expect them to be.

Within the chapters themselves, potential exam hot spots are clearly highlighted with Exam Alerts. They have been carefully placed to let you know that the surrounding discussion is an important area for the exam. To further help you prepare for the exam, a Cram Sheet is included that can be used in the final stages of test preparation. Be sure to pay close attention to the bulleted points on the Cram Sheet, because they pinpoint the technologies and facts you probably will encounter on the test.

Finally, great effort has gone into the end-of-chapter questions and practice tests to ensure that they accurately represent the look and feel of the ones you will see on the real Network+ exam. Be sure, before taking the exam, that you are comfortable with both the format and content of the questions provided in this book.

About the Network+ Exam

The Network+ (2009 Edition) exam is a revised version of the original exam. The new Network+ objectives are aimed toward those who have nine months of experience in network support and administration. CompTIA believes that new Network+ candidates will require more hands-on experience in network administration and troubleshooting, but this should not discourage those who do not. Quite simply, the nature of the questions on the new exam is not dissimilar to the old, and you can get by without actual hands-on experience. Still, a little hands-on experience never hurt anyone and will certainly add to your confidence going into the exam.

You will have a maximum of 90 minutes to answer the 72 questions on the exam. The allotted time is quite generous, so when you are finished, you probably will have time to double-check a few of the answers you were unsure of. By the time the dust settles, you will need a minimum score of 646 to pass the Network+ exam. This is on a scale of 100 to 900.

One of the best things about the Network+ certification is that after you pass the exam, you are certified for life. There is no need to ever recertify. This fact can make the cost of taking the Network+ exam a little easier to swallow. For more information on the specifics of the Network+ exam, refer to CompTIA’s main website at http://www.comptia.org/certification/.

Booking and Taking the Network+ Certification Exam

Unfortunately, testing is not free. You’re charged $239 for each test you take, whether you pass or fail. In the United States and Canada, tests are administered by Sylvan Prometric or VUE testing services. To book a test with Prometric or to locate a Prometric testing center near you, refer to the website at http://securereg3.prometric.com/ or call 1-888-895-6116. To access the VUE contact information and book an exam, refer to the website at http://www.vue.com or call 1-877-551-7587. When booking an exam, you need to provide the following information:

  • Your name as you would like it to appear on your certificate.
  • Your Social Security or Social Insurance number.
  • Contact phone numbers (to be called in case of a problem).
  • Mailing address, which identifies the address to which you want your certificate mailed.
  • Exam number and title.
  • Email address for contact purposes. This often is the fastest and most effective means of contacting you. Many clients require it for registration.
  • Credit-card information so that you can pay online. Vouchers can be redeemed by calling the respective testing center.
What to Expect from the Exam

If you haven’t taken a certification test, the process can be a little unnerving. Even if you’ve taken numerous tests, it is not much better. Mastering the inner mental game often can be as much of a battle as knowing the material. Knowing what to expect before heading in can make the process a little more comfortable.

Certification tests are administered on a computer system at a Prometric or VUE authorized testing center. The format of the exams is straightforward: Each question has several possible answers to choose from. In fact, the questions in this book provide a very good example of the types of questions you can expect on the exam. If you are comfortable with them, the test should hold few surprises. Many of the questions vary in length; some of them are longer scenario questions, whereas others are short and to the point. Read the questions carefully; the longer questions often have a key point that will lead you to the correct answer.

Most of the questions on the Network+ exam require you to choose a single correct answer, but a few require multiple answers. When there are multiple correct answers, a message at the bottom of the screen prompts you to “choose all that apply.” Be sure to read these messages.

A Few Exam Day Details

It is recommended that you arrive at the examination room at least 15 minutes early, although a few minutes earlier certainly would not hurt. This will give you time to prepare and will give the test administrator time to answer any questions you might have before the test begins. Many people suggest that you review the most critical information about the test you’re taking just before the test. (Exam Cram books provide a reference—the Cram Sheet, located inside the front of this book—that lists the essential information from the book in distilled form.) Arriving a few minutes early will give you some time to compose yourself and mentally review this critical information.

You will be asked to provide two forms of ID, one of which must be a photo ID. Both of the identifications you choose should have a signature. You also might need to sign in when you arrive and sign out when you leave.

Be warned: The rules are very clear about what you can and cannot take into the examination room. Books, laptops, note sheets, and so on are not allowed in the examination room. The test administrator will hold these items, to be returned after you complete the exam. You might receive either a wipe board or a pen and a single piece of paper for making notes during the exam. The test administrator will ensure that no paper is removed from the examination room.

After the Test

Whether you want it or not, as soon as you finish your test, your score is displayed on the computer screen. In addition to the results appearing on the computer screen, a hard copy of the report is printed for you. Like the onscreen report, the hard copy displays the results of your exam and provides a summary of how you did on each section and on each technology. If you were unsuccessful, this summary can help you determine the areas you need to brush up on.

When you pass the Network+ exam, you will have earned the Network+ certification, and your certificate will be mailed to you within a few weeks. Should you not receive your certificate and information packet within five weeks of passing your exam, contact CompTIA at fulfillment@comptia.org, or call 1-630-268-1818 and ask for the fulfillment department.

Last-Minute Exam Tips

Studying for a certification exam really is no different from studying for any other exam, but a few hints and tips can give you the edge on exam day:

  • Read all the material: CompTIA has been known to include material not expressly specified in the objectives. This book has included additional information not reflected in the objectives in an effort to give you the best possible preparation for the examination.
  • Watch for the Exam Tips and Notes: The Network+ objectives include a wide range of technologies. Exam Tips and Notes found throughout each chapter are designed to pull out exam-related hot spots. These can be your best friends when preparing for the exam.
  • Use the questions to assess your knowledge: Don’t just read the chapter content; use the exam questions to find out what you know and what you don’t. If you are struggling, study some more, review, and then assess your knowledge again.
  • Review the exam objectives: Develop your own questions and examples for each topic listed. If you can develop and answer several questions for each topic, you should not find it difficult to pass the exam.

Good luck!

© Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents

Introduction... 1

Self-Assessment... 7

Chapter 1:
Introduction to Networking..................................................................... 13

Introduction.............................................................................. 14

LANs, WANs, MANs, and WPANs............................................ 14

LANs........................................................................... 14

WANs......................................................................... 15

Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs)............................... 15

WPANs....................................................................... 15

Network Models....................................................................... 16

Peer-to-Peer Networking Model...................................... 16

Client/Server Networking Model...................................... 16

Comparing Peer-to-Peer and Client/Server Network Models 17

Centralized and Distributed Computing....................................... 18

Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)................................................. 18

Components of the VPN Connection.............................. 19

VPN Pros and Cons..................................................... 20

Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs)......................................... 21

VLAN Membership....................................................... 23

Network Topologies.................................................................. 26

Bus Topology............................................................... 26

Ring Topology.............................................................. 27

Star Topology............................................................... 28

Wired Mesh Topology................................................... 30

Wireless Topologies..................................................... 31

Point-to-Point, Point-to-Multipoint, and Wireless Mesh Topologies 33

Hybrid Topologies......................................................... 36

Review and Test Yourself.......................................................... 37

The Facts.................................................................... 37

Key Terms................................................................... 38

Exam Prep Questions................................................... 39

Answers to Exam Prep Questions................................. 41

Need to Know More?................................................................ 42

Chapter 2:
Cabling, Connectors, and Ethernet Standards......................................... 43

Introduction.............................................................................. 45

General Media Considerations................................................... 45

Broadband Versus Baseband........................................ 46

Simplex, Half Duplex, and Full Duplex............................ 46

Media Interference........................................................ 46

Attenuation.................................................................. 47

Data Transmission Rates.............................................. 48

Network Media......................................................................... 48

Twisted-Pair Cabling..................................................... 49

Coaxial........................................................................ 52

Fiber-Optic Cable......................................................... 53

Plenum Cables............................................................. 56

Media Connectors.................................................................... 56

BNC Connectors.......................................................... 56

RJ-11 Connectors......................................................... 57

RJ-45 Connectors......................................................... 58

F-Type Connectors and RG-59 and RG-6........................ 59

Fiber Connectors.......................................................... 59

RS-232 Standard.......................................................... 61

IEEE 1394................................................................... 62

Universal Serial Bus (USB)............................................ 62

568A and 568B Wiring Standards.............................................. 63

Straight Versus Crossover Cable................................................ 64

Rollover and Loopback Cables................................................... 66

Loopback Cable........................................................... 66

Components of Wiring Distribution............................................. 66

Network Cross-Connects............................................... 67

Horizontal Cabling........................................................ 67

Vertical Cable.............................................................. 69

Patch Panels............................................................... 69

Type 66 and Type 110 Punchdown Blocks...................... 71

MDF and IDF............................................................... 71

Demarc, Demarc Extension, and Smart Jacks................ 72

Verify Wiring Installation and Termination........................ 74

IEEE and Overview of Networking Standards............................... 75

IEEE 802.2 Standard.................................................... 76

IEEE 802.3x Standard Characteristics............................ 76

802.3 Ethernet Standards.......................................................... 81

10BaseT...................................................................... 81

10BaseFL.................................................................... 82

Fast Ethernet............................................................... 82

Gigabit Ethernet: 1000BaseX......................................... 84

1000BaseT.................................................................. 85

10 Gigabit Ethernet....................................................... 86

10GBaseT................................................................... 88

Review and Test Yourself.......................................................... 88

The Facts.................................................................... 89

Key Terms................................................................... 90

Exam Prep Questions................................................... 90

Answers to Exam Prep Questions................................. 93

Need to Know More?................................................................ 94

Chapter 3:
Networking Components and Devices..................................................... 95

Introduction.............................................................................. 96

Hubs....................................................................................... 96

MSAU..................................................................................... 97

Switches................................................................................. 98

Hub and Switch Cabling................................................ 99

Bridges.................................................................................. 100

Bridge Placement and Bridging Loops.......................... 101

Types of Bridges......................................................... 101

Routers.................................................................................. 102

Gateways.............................................................................. 103

Network Cards........................................................................ 104

Types of Network Interfaces......................................... 104

Installing Network Cards.............................................. 105

Media Converters.................................................................... 106

Wireless Access Points.......................................................... 107

Modems................................................................................ 108

Firewalls................................................................................ 110

DHCP Server.......................................................................... 111

Repeaters.............................................................................. 112

Specialized Network Devices................................................... 112

Multilayer and Content Switches.................................. 113

Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems.................. 114

Load Balancer............................................................ 115

Multifunction Network Devices...................................... 115

DNS Server................................................................ 116

Bandwidth Shaper....................................................... 117

Proxy Server.............................................................. 118

CSUs/DSUs............................................................... 120

Network Devices Summary.......................................... 121

Advanced Features of a Switch................................................ 123

Power over Ethernet (PoE)........................................... 123

Spanning Tree............................................................ 124

Trunking..................................................................... 125

Port Mirroring............................................................. 126

Port Authentication..................................................... 126

Review and Test Yourself......................................................... 126

The Facts.................................................................. 126

Key Terms................................................................. 128

Exam Prep Questions................................................. 129

Answers to Exam Prep Questions................................ 131

Need to Know More?............................................................... 132

Chapter 4:
OSI Model and Network Protocols........................................................ 133

Introduction............................................................................ 134

The OSI Seven-Layer Model..................................................... 134

Physical Layer (Layer 1).............................................. 135

Data Link Layer (Layer 2)............................................ 136

Network Layer (Layer 3).............................................. 136

Transport Layer (Layer 4)............................................. 137

Session Layer (Layer 5).............................................. 138

Presentation Layer (Layer 6)........................................ 138

Application Layer (Layer 7).......................................... 138

OSI Model Summary................................................... 139

Identifying the OSI Layers at Which Various Network
Components Operate................................................................ 140

Connectionless and Connection-Oriented Protocols................... 140

Introduction to Protocols.......................................................... 141

Internet Protocol (IP)................................................... 142

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)............................ 142

User Datagram Protocol (UDP).................................... 143

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)......................................... 144

Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP)............................ 146

Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP).............................. 146

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP).......................... 147

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).............................. 147

Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS)................. 148

Post Office Protocol Version 3/Internet Message Access
Protocol Version 4 (POP3/IMAP4)...................................... 148

Telnet........................................................................ 149

Secure Shell (SSH)..................................................... 150

Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)..................... 150

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)/Reverse Address
Resolution Protocol (RARP)............................................... 151

Network Time Protocol (NTP)....................................... 152

Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP)....................... 153

Secure Copy Protocol (SCP)....................................... 153

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP).............. 154

Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)................ 154

Domain Name System (DNS)...................................... 154

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)............. 161

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)................ 164

Transport Layer Security............................................. 166

Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)/Real-Time Transport
Protocol (RTP).................................................................. 166

TCP/IP Protocol Suite Summary.................................. 168

Review and Test Yourself......................................................... 170

The Facts.................................................................. 171

Key Terms................................................................. 172

Exam Prep Questions................................................. 173

Answers to Exam Prep Questions................................ 175

Need to Know More?............................................................... 176

Chapter 5:
TCP/IP Routing and Addressing........................................................... 177

Introduction............................................................................ 179

IP Addressing............................................................. 179

IPv4........................................................................... 180

IP Address Classes.................................................... 180

Subnet Mask Assignment........................................... 181

Subnetting................................................................. 182

Identifying the Differences Between IPv4 Public and
Private Networks....................................................................... 183

Private Address Ranges.............................................. 184

Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR).......................... 185

Default Gateways....................................................... 185

IPv4 Address Types.................................................... 187

IPv6 Addressing.......................................................... 187

Comparing IPv4 and IPv6 Addressing............................ 191

Assigning IP Addresses.......................................................... 191

Static Addressing....................................................... 191

Dynamic Addressing................................................... 192

BOOT Protocol (BOOTP)............................................. 194

APIPA....................................................................... 194

Identifying MAC Addresses...................................................... 195

NAT, PAT, and SNAT.............................................................. 196

Network Address Translation (NAT).............................. 196

PAT and SNAT........................................................... 197

TCP/UDP Port Functions......................................................... 198

Managing TCP/IP Routing........................................................ 200

The Default Gateway................................................... 200

Routing Tables........................................................... 200

Static Routing............................................................ 201

Dynamic Routing........................................................ 202

Review and Test Yourself......................................................... 206

The Facts.................................................................. 206

Key Terms................................................................. 207

Exam Prep Questions................................................. 209

Answers to Exam Prep Questions................................ 211

Need to Know More?............................................................... 212

Chapter 6:
WAN Technologies and Internet Access............................................... 213

WAN Technologies................................................................. 214

Switching Methods..................................................... 214

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN).................... 217

T-carrier Lines............................................................ 218

SONET/OCx Levels.................................................... 220

X.25 and Frame Relay................................................. 222

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)............................. 224

Summary of WAN Technologies................................... 224

Internet Access Technologies.................................................. 226

xDSL Internet Access................................................. 226

Cable Internet Access................................................. 229

Broadband Security Considerations.............................. 232

POTS Internet Access................................................ 232

The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)........... 235

Satellite Internet Access............................................. 235

Wireless Internet Access............................................ 237

MPLS........................................................................ 238

Review and Test Yourself......................................................... 239

The Facts.................................................................. 239

Key Terms................................................................. 240

Exam Prep Questions................................................. 241

Answers to Exam Prep Questions................................ 243

Need to Know More?............................................................... 244

Chapter 7:
Wireless Networking........................................................................... 245

Introduction............................................................................ 246

Wireless Access Points.............................................. 247

Working with APs....................................................... 248

Wireless Antennas..................................................... 249

Antenna Ratings......................................................... 250

Antenna Coverage....................................................... 250

Wireless Radio Channels........................................................ 252

Data Rate Versus Throughput...................................... 254

Factors Affecting Wireless Signals........................................... 255

Interference Types...................................................... 255

Spread-Spectrum Technology...................................... 257

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing................... 258

Beacon Management Frame........................................ 258

802.11 Wireless Standards...................................................... 259

The Magic Behind 802.11n.......................................... 261

Summary of 802.11 Wireless Standards....................... 262

Securing Wireless Networks.................................................... 263

Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP).................................. 263

Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)................................... 264

802.1X....................................................................... 265

Temporal Key Integrity Protocol................................... 266

Establishing Communications Between Wireless Devices.......... 266

Configuring the Wireless Connection........................................ 269

Access Point Coverage........................................................... 271

Wireless Signal Quality........................................................... 273

Wireless Troubleshooting Checklist.......................................... 274

Infrared Wireless Networking.................................................... 275

Bluetooth............................................................................... 276

Review and Test Yourself......................................................... 277

The Facts.................................................................. 277

Key Terms................................................................. 278

Exam Prep Questions................................................. 279

Answers to Exam Prep Questions................................ 281

Need to Know More?............................................................... 282

Chapter 8:
Network Performance Optimization....................................................... 283

Introduction............................................................................ 284

What Is Uptime?..................................................................... 285

The Risks.............................................................................. 287

Fault Tolerance....................................................................... 287

Disk-Level Fault Tolerance........................................... 288

Server and Services Fault Tolerance............................. 293

Link Redundancy........................................................ 295

Using Uninterruptible Power Supplies........................... 296

Disaster Recovery................................................................... 297

Full Backup................................................................ 297

Differential Backup...................................................... 298

Incremental Backup.................................................... 299

Tape Rotations........................................................... 300

Backup Best Practices............................................... 300

Hot and Cold Spares................................................... 301

Hot, Warm, and Cold Sites.......................................... 302

Network Optimization Strategies.............................................. 304

QoS.......................................................................... 304

Traffic Shaping............................................................ 305

Caching Engines........................................................ 306

Working with Command-Line Utilities........................................ 307

Troubleshooting with Diagnostic Utilities....................... 307

The Trace Route Utility (tracert/traceroute).................... 309

ping........................................................................... 312

ARP.......................................................................... 317

The netstat Command................................................. 320

nbtstat....................................................................... 326

The ipconfig Command................................................ 327

ifconfig....................................................................... 329

nslookup.................................................................... 330

dig............................................................................. 331

mtr............................................................................ 333

The host Command..................................................... 333

The route Utility.......................................................... 333

Review and Test Yourself......................................................... 335

The Facts.................................................................. 335

Key Terms................................................................. 337

Exam Prep Questions................................................. 338

Answers to Exam Prep Questions................................ 341

Need to Know More?............................................................... 342

Chapter 9:
Network Security................................................................................ 343

Introduction............................................................................ 345

Firewalls................................................................................ 345

Stateful and Stateless Firewalls................................... 347

Packet-Filtering Firewalls............................................ 348

Circuit-Level Firewalls.................................................. 349

Application Layer Firewalls.......................................... 349

Comparing Firewall Types............................................ 349

Firewall Wrap-up......................................................... 350

Demilitarized Zones (Perimeter Network)....................... 350

Other Security Devices............................................................ 351

Honeypots and Honeynets........................................... 353

Access Control Overview......................................................... 354

Mandatory Access Control (MAC)................................ 354

Discretionary Access Control (DAC)............................. 354

Rule-Based Access Control (RBAC)............................. 355

Role-Based Access Control (RoBAC)........................... 356

MAC Filtering............................................................. 356

TCP/IP Filtering.......................................................... 357

Tunneling and Encryption........................................................ 358

Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)...................... 359

Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP)................................ 359

IPSec........................................................................ 361

Remote-Access Protocols and Services................................... 362

Remote Access Service (RAS).................................... 362

SLIP.......................................................................... 363

PPP.......................................................................... 364

PPPoE...................................................................... 365

Remote-Control Protocols............................................ 365

Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA)................. 366

Passwords and Password Policies............................... 369

Kerberos Authentication.............................................. 371

Public Key Infrastructure............................................. 373

RADIUS and TACACS+............................................... 376

Remote Authentication Protocols............................................. 377

Physical Security................................................................... 378

Server Room Access.................................................. 379

Secured Versus Unsecured Protocols...................................... 381

Managing Common Security Threats........................................ 382

More on Viruses......................................................... 383

More on Worms and Trojan Horses.............................. 384

Denial of Service and Distributed Denial of Service Attacks 385

Other Common Attacks............................................... 386

An Ounce of Prevention............................................... 388

Review and Test Yourself......................................................... 390

The Facts.................................................................. 390

Key Terms................................................................. 391

Exam Prep Questions................................................. 392

Answers to Exam Prep Questions................................ 394

Need to Know More?............................................................... 395

Chapter 10:
Network Management Tools and Documentation.................................... 397

Introduction............................................................................ 398

Documentation Management................................................... 399

Wiring Schematics..................................................... 401

Physical and Logical Network Diagrams....................... 404

Baselines................................................................... 407

Policies, Procedures, Configurations, and Regulations... 409

Monitoring Network Performance.............................................. 413

Common Reasons to Monitor Networks........................ 413

Packet Sniffers........................................................... 415

Throughput Testing..................................................... 415

Port Scanners............................................................ 417

Network Performance, Load, and Stress Testing............ 420

Tracking Event Logs.................................................... 422

Networking Tools.................................................................... 426

Wire Crimpers, Strippers, and Snips............................. 427

Voltage Event Recorder............................................... 428

Temperature Monitors................................................. 429

Toner Probes.............................................................. 430

Protocol Analyzer....................................................... 431

Media/Cable Testers................................................... 432

TDR and OTDR........................................................... 432

Multimeter.................................................................. 433

Network Qualification Tester........................................ 434

Butt Set..................................................................... 434

Wireless Detection..................................................... 434

Review and Test Yourself......................................................... 435

The Facts.................................................................. 435

Key Terms................................................................. 436

Exam Prep Questions................................................. 437

Answers to Exam Questions....................................... 440

Need to Know More?............................................................... 441

Chapter 11:
Troubleshooting and Supporting the Network......................................... 443

Introduction............................................................................ 444

Troubleshooting Steps and Procedures..................................... 445

Information Gathering: Identify Symptoms and Problems 445

Identify the Affected Areas of the Network..................... 446

Determine if Anything Has Changed............................. 446

Establish the Most Probable Cause.............................. 447

Determine if Escalation Is Necessary........................... 447

Create an Action Plan and Solution Identifying Potential
Effects............................................................................. 448

Implement and Test the Solution.................................. 449

Identify the Results and Effects of the Solution.............. 450

Document the Solution and the Entire Process.............. 450

Troubleshooting the Network.................................................... 451

Troubleshooting Wiring................................................ 451

Wiring Issues............................................................. 453

Troubleshooting Infrastructure Hardware........................ 455

Configuring and Troubleshooting Client Connectivity....... 457

Troubleshooting an Incorrect VLAN............................... 462

Topology Errors...................................................................... 463

Star Topology............................................................. 464

Ring Topology............................................................ 465

Bus Network Errors..................................................... 467

Mesh Network Errors.................................................. 468

Issue Escalation..................................................................... 469

Review and Test Yourself......................................................... 471

The Facts.................................................................. 471

Key Terms................................................................. 472

Exam Prep Questions................................................. 473

Answers to Exam Prep Questions................................ 476

Need to Know More?............................................................... 477

Practice Exam 1................................................................................. 479

Answers to Practice Exam 1............................................................... 499

Answers at a Glance............................................................... 499

Answers and Explanations...................................................... 500

Practice Exam 2................................................................................. 515

Answers to Practice Exam 2............................................................... 533

Answers at a Glance............................................................... 533

Answers and Explanations...................................................... 534

Glossary............................................................................................ 553

TOC, 2/13/09, 9780789737960

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Preface

Introduction

Welcome to the Network+ Exam Cram. This book is designed to prepare you to take—and pass—the CompTIA Network+ exam. The Network+ exam has become the leading introductory-level network certification available today. It is recognized by both employers and industry giants (such as Microsoft and Novell) as providing candidates with a solid foundation of networking concepts, terminology, and skills. The Network+ exam covers a broad range of networking concepts to prepare candidates for the technologies they are likely to work with in today’s network environments.

About Network+ Exam Cram

Exam Crams are designed to give you the information you need to know to prepare for the Network+ exam. They cut through the extra information, focusing on the areas you need to get through the exam. With this in mind, the elements within the Exam Cram titles are aimed at providing the exam information you need in the most succinct and accessible manner.

In this light, this book is organized to closely follow the actual CompTIA objectives. As such, it is easy to find the information required for each of the specified CompTIA Network+ objectives. The objective focus design used by this Exam Cram is an important feature because the information you need to know is easily identifiable and accessible. To see what we mean, compare the CompTIA objectives to the book’s layout, and you will see that the facts are right where you would expect them to be.

Within the chapters themselves, potential exam hot spots are clearly highlighted with Exam Alerts. They have been carefully placed to let you know that the surrounding discussion is an important area for the exam. To further help you prepare for the exam, a Cram Sheet is included that can be used in the final stages of test preparation. Be sure to pay close attention to the bulleted points on the Cram Sheet, because they pinpoint the technologies and facts you probably will encounter on the test.

Finally, great effort has gone into the end-of-chapter questions and practice tests to ensure that they accurately represent the look and feel of the ones you will see on the real Network+ exam. Be sure, before taking the exam, that you are comfortable with both the format and content of the questions provided in this book.

About the Network+ Exam

The Network+ (2009 Edition) exam is a revised version of the original exam. The new Network+ objectives are aimed toward those who have nine months of experience in network support and administration. CompTIA believes that new Network+ candidates will require more hands-on experience in network administration and troubleshooting, but this should not discourage those who do not. Quite simply, the nature of the questions on the new exam is not dissimilar to the old, and you can get by without actual hands-on experience. Still, a little hands-on experience never hurt anyone and will certainly add to your confidence going into the exam.

You will have a maximum of 90 minutes to answer the 72 questions on the exam. The allotted time is quite generous, so when you are finished, you probably will have time to double-check a few of the answers you were unsure of. By the time the dust settles, you will need a minimum score of 646 to pass the Network+ exam. This is on a scale of 100 to 900.

One of the best things about the Network+ certification is that after you pass the exam, you are certified for life. There is no need to ever recertify. This fact can make the cost of taking the Network+ exam a little easier to swallow. For more information on the specifics of the Network+ exam, refer to CompTIA’s main website at http://www.comptia.org/certification/.

Booking and Taking the Network+ Certification Exam

Unfortunately, testing is not free. You’re charged $239 for each test you take, whether you pass or fail. In the United States and Canada, tests are administered by Sylvan Prometric or VUE testing services. To book a test with Prometric or to locate a Prometric testing center near you, refer to the website at http://securereg3.prometric.com/ or call 1-888-895-6116. To access the VUE contact information and book an exam, refer to the website at http://www.vue.com or call 1-877-551-7587. When booking an exam, you need to provide the following information:

  • Your name as you would like it to appear on your certificate.
  • Your Social Security or Social Insurance number.
  • Contact phone numbers (to be called in case of a problem).
  • Mailing address, which identifies the address to which you want your certificate mailed.
  • Exam number and title.
  • Email address for contact purposes. This often is the fastest and most effective means of contacting you. Many clients require it for registration.
  • Credit-card information so that you can pay online. Vouchers can be redeemed by calling the respective testing center.

What to Expect from the Exam

If you haven’t taken a certification test, the process can be a little unnerving. Even if you’ve taken numerous tests, it is not much better. Mastering the inner mental game often can be as much of a battle as knowing the material. Knowing what to expect before heading in can make the process a little more comfortable.

Certification tests are administered on a computer system at a Prometric or VUE authorized testing center. The format of the exams is straightforward: Each question has several possible answers to choose from. In fact, the questions in this book provide a very good example of the types of questions you can expect on the exam. If you are comfortable with them, the test should hold few surprises. Many of the questions vary in length; some of them are longer scenario questions, whereas others are short and to the point. Read the questions carefully; the longer questions often have a key point that will lead you to the correct answer.

Most of the questions on the Network+ exam require you to choose a single correct answer, but a few require multiple answers. When there are multiple correct answers, a message at the bottom of the screen prompts you to “choose all that apply.” Be sure to read these messages.

A Few Exam Day Details

It is recommended that you arrive at the examination room at least 15 minutes early, although a few minutes earlier certainly would not hurt. This will give you time to prepare and will give the test administrator time to answer any questions you might have before the test begins. Many people suggest that you review the most critical information about the test you’re taking just before the test. (Exam Cram books provide a reference—the Cram Sheet, located inside the front of this book—that lists the essential information from the book in distilled form.) Arriving a few minutes early will give you some time to compose yourself and mentally review this critical information.

You will be asked to provide two forms of ID, one of which must be a photo ID. Both of the identifications you choose should have a signature. You also might need to sign in when you arrive and sign out when you leave.

Be warned: The rules are very clear about what you can and cannot take into the examination room. Books, laptops, note sheets, and so on are not allowed in the examination room. The test administrator will hold these items, to be returned after you complete the exam. You might receive either a wipe board or a pen and a single piece of paper for making notes during the exam. The test administrator will ensure that no paper is removed from the examination room.

After the Test

Whether you want it or not, as soon as you finish your test, your score is displayed on the computer screen. In addition to the results appearing on the computer screen, a hard copy of the report is printed for you. Like the onscreen report, the hard copy displays the results of your exam and provides a summary of how you did on each section and on each technology. If you were unsuccessful, this summary can help you determine the areas you need to brush up on.

When you pass the Network+ exam, you will have earned the Network+ certification, and your certificate will be mailed to you within a few weeks. Should you not receive your certificate and information packet within five weeks of passing your exam, contact CompTIA at fulfillment@comptia.org, or call 1-630-268-1818 and ask for the fulfillment department.

Last-Minute Exam Tips

Studying for a certification exam really is no different from studying for any other exam, but a few hints and tips can give you the edge on exam day:

  • Read all the material: CompTIA has been known to include material not expressly specified in the objectives. This book has included additional information not reflected in the objectives in an effort to give you the best possible preparation for the examination.
  • Watch for the Exam Tips and Notes: The Network+ objectives include a wide range of technologies. Exam Tips and Notes found throughout each chapter are designed to pull out exam-related hot spots. These can be your best friends when preparing for the exam.
  • Use the questions to assess your knowledge: Don’t just read the chapter content; use the exam questions to find out what you know and what you don’t. If you are struggling, study some more, review, and then assess your knowledge again.
  • Review the exam objectives: Develop your own questions and examples for each topic listed. If you can develop and answer several questions for each topic, you should not find it difficult to pass the exam.

Good luck!

© Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted November 22, 2009

    No Support

    The book comes with a CD of practice test material. My CD didn't work. I contacted the publisher TWICE and did not receive a reply. Like another reviewer said, you get an additional CD of test material when you register the book. I registered the book almost 3 weeks ago and still have not received the CD. I take the test tomorrow. The book is fine if you have several years of networking experience (I have 12) and you need a reminder of obscure specifications that you'll need for the test but never really need on a networking job.

    3 out of 3 people found this review helpful.

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  • Posted August 29, 2009

    Don't buy for the test questions

    I puchased this book to study for the Network+ test however you don't find out until after purchase that you have to register and request the test questions. It comes with a CD with only 30 questions. The book does have some errors however for the things I was having problems understanding in my class it does present another way of explaining it. The book would be great if they fixed the errors and gave the practice test with the book. The material is organized in an easy to understand format. My CD came in the mail 2 weeks AFTER I took my test.

    3 out of 3 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted July 4, 2009

    Easily passed the test

    I used this book as my primary study guide for the Network+ 2009 test. I easily passed the test after reading the text, then highlighting certain areas for extra review.

    1 out of 2 people found this review helpful.

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  • Posted January 16, 2010

    Didn't get to read it

    My house burned down right after I bought this thing. I wanted to read it, do the in book quizzes and planned on already having my Network +, but my house burned down with it inside. fml

    I have read the exam cram A+ back in highschool and can say great things about that, as I passed on my first try.

    0 out of 3 people found this review helpful.

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    Posted June 30, 2009

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