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Overview

Four-time winner of the best Computer Science and Engineering textbook of the year award from the Textbook and Academic Authors Association, Computer Organization and Architecture: Designing for Performance provides a thorough discussion of the fundamentals of computer organization and architecture, covering not just processor design, but memory, I/O, and parallel systems. Coverage is supported by a wealth of concrete examples emphasizing modern RISC, CISC, and superscalar systems. Undergraduates and professionals in computer science, computer engineering, and electrical engineering courses will learn the fundamentals of processor and computer design from this award-winning text.

The eighth revision has been updated to reflect major advances in computer technology, including multicore processors and embedded processors. Interactive simulations have been expanded and keyed into relevant sections of text.

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Editorial Reviews

From The Critics
This textbook for a CS220 course identifies the function of the primary components of a computer system, then focuses in on the internal architecture of the central processing unit and the control unit. The Pentium 4 and PowerPC processors are highlighted. The sixth edition adds a brief discussion of synchronous DRAM and Rambus DRAM. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
Booknews
Addresses fundamental principles in computer organization and architecture and the critical role of performance in driving computer design, covering superscalar design, IA-64 design features, and parallel processor organization trends. Offers numerous ongoing examples, especially of Pentium, plus detailed treatment of bus organization, ISC, and I/O functions and structures. Pedagogical features include chapter outlines and problems, along with a web site, and projects and assignments available separately. This fifth edition contains expanded treatment of optical memory, superscalar design, and the MMX instruction set. Stallings is an independent consultant who has authored 17 books on computer science. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780136073734
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 4/17/2009
  • Series: Alternative eText Formats Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 8
  • Pages: 792
  • Product dimensions: 7.20 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Meet the Author

William Stallings has made a unique contribution to understanding the broad sweep of technical developments in computer networking and computer architecture. He has authored 18 titles, and counting revised editions, a total of 35 books on various aspects of these subjects. In over 20 years in the field, he has been a technical contributor, technical manager, and an executive with several high-technology firms. Currently he is an independent consultant whose clients have included computer and networking manufacturers and customers, software development firms, and leading-edge government research institutions.

He has six times received the prize for best Computer Science and Engineering textbook of the year from the Textbook and Academic Authors Association.

Bill has designed and implemented both TCP/IP-based and OSI-based protocol suites on a variety of computers and operating systems, ranging from microcomputers to mainframes. As a consultant, he has advised government agencies, computer and software vendors, and major users on the design, selection, and use of networking software and products.

Dr. Stallings holds a Ph.D. from M.I.T. in Computer Science and a B.S. from Notre Dame in Electrical Engineering.

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

PREFACE

OBJECTIVES

This book is about the structure and function of computers. Its purpose is to present, as clearly and completely as possible, the nature and characteristics of modern-day computer systems.

This task is challenging for several reasons. First, there is a tremendous variety of products that can rightly claim the name of "computer", from single-chip microprocessors, costing a few dollars, to supercomputers, costing tens of millions of dollars. Variety is exhibited not only in cost, but in size, performance, and application. Second, the rapid pace of change that has always characterized computer technology continues with no letup. These changes cover all aspects of computer technology, from the underlying integrated circuit technology used to construct computer components, to the increasing use of parallel organization concepts in combining those components.

In spite of the variety and pace of change in the computer field, certain fundamental concepts apply consistently throughout. The application of these concepts depends on the current state of the technology and the price/performance objectives of the designer. The intent of this book is to provide a thorough discussion of the fundamentals of computer organization and architecture and to relate these to contemporary design issues.

The subtitle suggest the theme and the approach taken in this book. It has always been important to design computer systems to achieve high performance, but never has this requirement been stronger or more difficult to satisfy than today. All of the basic performance characteristics of computer systems, including processor speed, memory speed,memory capacity, and interconnection data rates, are increasing rapidly. Moreover, they are increasing at different rates. This makes it difficult to design a balanced system that maximizes the performance and utilization of all elements. Thus, computer design increasingly becomes a game of changing the structure or function in one area to compensate for a performance mismatch in another area. We will see this game played out in numerous design decisions throughout the book.

A computer system, like any system, consists of an interrelated set of components. The system is best characterized in terms of structure-the way in which components are interconnected, and function-the operation of the individual components. Furthermore, a computer's organization is hierarchic. Each major component can be further described by decomposing it into its major subcomponents and describing their structure and function. For clarity and ease of understanding, this hierarchical organization is described in this book from the top down:

  • Computer system: Major components are processor, memory, I/O.
  • Processor: Major components are control unit, registers, ALU, and instruction execution unit.
  • Control unit: Major components are control memory, microinstruction sequencing logic, and registers.
The objective is to present the material in a fashion that keeps new material in a clear context. This should minimize the chance that the reader will get lost and should provide better motivation than a bottom-up approach.

Throughout the discussion, aspects of the system are viewed from the points of view of both architecture (those attributes of a system visible to a machine language programmer) and organization (the operational units and their interconnections that realize the architecture).

EXAMPLE SYSTEMS

Throughout this book, examples from a number of different machines are used to clarify and reinforce the concepts being presented. Many, but by no means all, of the examples are drawn from two computer families: the Intel Pentium II, and the PowerPC. (The recently introduced Pentium III is essentially the same as the Pentium II, with an expanded set of multimedia instructions.) These two systems together encompass most of the current computer design trends. The Pentium II is essentially a complex instruction set computer (CISC) with a RISC core, while the PowerPC is essentially a reduced-instruction set computer (RISC). Both systems make use of superscalar design principles and both support multiple processor configurations.

PLAN OF THE TEXT

The book is organized into five parts:

Part One— Overview: This part provides a preview and context for the remainder of the book.

Part Two-The computer system: A computer system consists of processor, memory, and I/O modules, plus the interconnections among these major components. With the exception of the processor, which is sufficiently complex to be explored in Part Three, this part examines each of these aspects in turn.

Part Three— The central processing unit: The CPU consists of a control unit, registers, the arithmetic and logic unit, the instruction execution unit, and the interconnections among these components. Architectural issues, such as instruction set design and data types, are covered. The part also looks at organizational issues, such as pipelining.

Part Four— The control unit: The control unit is that part of the processor that activates the various components of the processor. This part looks at the functioning of the control unit and its implementation using microprogramming.

Part Five— Parallel organization: This final part looks at some of the issues involved in multiple processor and vector processing organizations.

A more detailed, chapter-by-chapter summary appears at the end of Chapter 1.

INTERNET SERVICES FOR INSTRUCTORS AND STUDENTS

There is a Web site for this book that provides support for students and instructors. The site includes links to other relevant sites, transparency masters of figures in the book in PDF (Adobe Acrobat) format, and sign-up information for the book's Internet mailing list. The Web page is at ...

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

Chapter 0 Reader's Guide

0.1 Outline of the Book

0.2 A Roadmap For Readers and Instructors

0.3 Why Study Computer Organization and Architecture

0.4 Internet and Web ResourcesPART ONE OVERVIEW

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Organization and Architecture

1.2 Structure and Function

1.3 Key Terms and Review QuestionsChapter 2 Computer Evolution and Performance

2.1 A Brief History of Computers

2.2 Designing for Performance

2.3 The Evolution of the Intel x86 Architecture

2.4 Embedded Systems and the ARM

2.5 Performance Assessment

2.6 Recommended Reading and Web Sites

2.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and ProblemsPART TWO THE COMPUTER SYSTEM

Chapter 3 A Top-Level View of Computer Function and Interconnection

3.1 Computer Components

3.2 Computer Function

3.3 Interconnection Structures

3.4 Bus Interconnection

3.5 PCI

3.6 Recommended Reading and Web Sites

3.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

3A Timing Diagrams

Chapter 4 Cache Memory

4.1 Computer Memory System Overview

4.2 Cache Memory Principles

4.3 Elements of Cache Design

4.4 Pentium 4 Cache Organization

4.5 ARM Cache Organization

4.6 Recommended Reading

4.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Appendix 4A Performance Characteristics of Two-Level Memorie

Chapter 5 Internal Memory Technology

5.1 Semiconductor Main Memory

5.2 Error Correction

5.3 Advanced DRAM Organization

5.4 Recommended Reading and Web Sites

5.5 Key Terms, Review Questions, and ProblemsChapter

6 External Memory

6.1 Magnetic Disk

6.2 RAID

6.3 Optical Memory

6.4 Magnetic Tape

6.5 Recommended Reading and Web Sites

6.6 Key Terms, Review Questions, and ProblemsChapter

7 Input/Output

7.1 External Devices

7.2 I/O Modules

7.3 Programmed I/O

7.4 Interrupt-Driven I/O

7.5 Direct Memory Access

7.6 I/O Channels and Processors

7.7 The External Interface: FireWire and Infiniband

7.8 Recommended Reading and Web Sites

7.9 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Chapter 8 Operating System Support

8.1 Operating System Overview

8.2 Scheduling

8.3 Memory Management

8.4 Pentium Memory Management

8.5 ARM Memory Management

8.6 Recommended Reading and Web Sites

8.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Chapter 9 Computer Arithmetic

9.1 The Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU)

9.2 Integer Representation

9.3 Integer Arithmetic

9.4 Floating-Point Representation

9.5 Floating-Point Arithmetic

9.6 Recommended Reading and Web Sites

9.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Chapter 10 Instruction Sets: Characteristics and Functions

10.1 Machine Instruction Characteristics

10.2 Types of Operands

10.3 Intel x86 and ARM Data Types

10.4 Types of Operations

10.5 Intel x86 and ARM Operation Types

10.6 Recommended Reading

10.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Chapter 11 Instruction Sets: Addressing Modes and Formats

11.1 Addressing

11.2 x86 and ARM Addressing Modes

11.3 Instruction Formats

11.4 x86 and ARM Instruction Formats

11.5 Assembly Language

11.6 Recommended Reading

11.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Chapter 12 Processor Structure and Function

12.1 Processor Organization

12.2 Register Organization

12.3 The Instruction Cycle

12.4 Instruction Pipelining

12.5 The x86 Processor Family

12.6 The ARM Processor

12.7 Recommended Reading

12.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Chapter 13 Reduced Instruction Set Computers (RISCs)

13.1 Instruction Execution Characteristics

13.2 The Use of a Large Register File

13.3 Compiler-Based Register Optimization

13.4 Reduced Instruction Set Architecture

13.5 RISC Pipelining

13.6 MIPS R4000

13.7 SPARC

13.8 The RISC versus CISC Controversy

13.9 Recommended Reading

13.10 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Chapter 14 Instruction-Level Parallelism and Superscalar Processors

14.1 Overview

14.2 Design Issues

14.3 Pentium 4

14.4 ARM Cortex-A8

14.5 Recommended Reading

14.6 Key Terms, Review Questions, and ProblemsPART FOUR THE CONTROL UNIT

Chapter 15 Control Unit Operation

15.1 Micro-operations

15.2 Control of the Processor

15.3 Hardwired Implementation

15.4 Recommended Reading

15.5 Key Terms, Review Questions, and ProblemsChapter 16 Microprogrammed Control

16.1 Basic Concepts

16.2 Microinstruction Sequencing

16.3 Microinstruction Execution

16.4 TI 8800

16.5 Recommended Reading

16.6 Key Terms, Review Questions, and ProblemsPART FIVE PARALLEL ORGANIZATION

Chapter 17 Parallel Processing1

7.1 The Use of Multiple Processors

17.2 Symmetric Multiprocessors

17.3 Cache Coherence and the MESI Protocol

17.4 Multithreading and Chip Multiprocessors

17.5 Clusters

17.6 Nonuniform Memory Access Computers

17.7 Vector Computation

17.8 Recommended Reading and Web Sites

17.9 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Chapter 18 Multicore Computers

18.1 HardwarePerformance Issues

18.2 Software Performance Issues

18.3 Multicore Organization

18.4 Intel x86 Multicore Organization

18.5 ARM11 MPCore

18.6 Recommended Reading and Web Sites

18.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and ProblemsAPPENDIX A Projects for Teaching Computer Organization and

Architecture

A.1 Interactive Simulations

A.2 Research Projects

A.3 Simulation Projects

A.4 Reading/Report Assignments

A.5 Writing Assignments

A.6 Test BankAppendix

B Assembly Language, Assemblers, and Compilers

B.1 Assembly Language

B.2 Assemblers

B.3 Loading and Linking

B.4 Recommended Reading and Web Site

B.5 Key Terms, Review Questions, and ProblemsONLINE CHAPTERS

WilliamStallings.com/COA/COA8e.htm

lChapter 19 Number Systems

19.1 The Decimal System

19.2 The Binary System

19.3 Converting between Binary and Decimal

19.4 Hexadecimal Notation

19.5 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems

Chapter 20 Digital Logic

20.1 Boolean Algebra

20.2 Gates

20.3 Combinational Circuits

20.4 Sequential Circuits

20.5 Programmable Logic Devices

20.6 Recommended Reading and Web Site

20.7 Key Terms and Problems

Chapter 21 The IA-64 Architecture

21.1 Motivation

21.2 General Organization

21.3 Predication and Speculation

21.4 IA-64 Instruction Set Architecture

21.5 Itanium Organization

21.6 Recommended Reading and Web Sites

21.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and ProblemsONLINE APPENDICES

WilliamStallings.com/COA/COA8e.htmlAppendix C Hash Tables

Appendix D Victim Cache

Appendix E Interleaved Memory

Appendix F International Reference Alphabet

Appendix G Virtual Memory Page Replacement Algorithms

Appendix H Recursive Procedures

Appendix I Additional Instruction Pipeline TopicsH.1 Pipeline Reservation Tables

H.2 Reorder Buffers

H.3 Scoreboarding

H.4 Tomasulo's AlgorithmReferences

Glossary

Index

Acronyms

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Preface

PREFACE:

PREFACE

OBJECTIVES

This book is about the structure and function of computers. Its purpose is to present, as clearly and completely as possible, the nature and characteristics of modern-day computer systems.

This task is challenging for several reasons. First, there is a tremendous variety of products that can rightly claim the name of "computer", from single-chip microprocessors, costing a few dollars, to supercomputers, costing tens of millions of dollars. Variety is exhibited not only in cost, but in size, performance, and application. Second, the rapid pace of change that has always characterized computer technology continues with no letup. These changes cover all aspects of computer technology, from the underlying integrated circuit technology used to construct computer components, to the increasing use of parallel organization concepts in combining those components.

In spite of the variety and pace of change in the computer field, certain fundamental concepts apply consistently throughout. The application of these concepts depends on the current state of the technology and the price/performance objectives of the designer. The intent of this book is to provide a thorough discussion of the fundamentals of computer organization and architecture and to relate these to contemporary design issues.

The subtitle suggest the theme and the approach taken in this book. It has always been important to design computer systems to achieve high performance, but never has this requirement been stronger or more difficult to satisfy than today. All of the basic performance characteristics of computer systems, including processor speed, memoryspeed,memory capacity, and interconnection data rates, are increasing rapidly. Moreover, they are increasing at different rates. This makes it difficult to design a balanced system that maximizes the performance and utilization of all elements. Thus, computer design increasingly becomes a game of changing the structure or function in one area to compensate for a performance mismatch in another area. We will see this game played out in numerous design decisions throughout the book.

A computer system, like any system, consists of an interrelated set of components. The system is best characterized in terms of structure-the way in which components are interconnected, and function-the operation of the individual components. Furthermore, a computer's organization is hierarchic. Each major component can be further described by decomposing it into its major subcomponents and describing their structure and function. For clarity and ease of understanding, this hierarchical organization is described in this book from the top down:

  • Computer system: Major components are processor, memory, I/O.
  • Processor: Major components are control unit, registers, ALU, and instruction execution unit.
  • Control unit: Major components are control memory, microinstruction sequencing logic, and registers.
The objective is to present the material in a fashion that keeps new material in a clear context. This should minimize the chance that the reader will get lost and should provide better motivation than a bottom-up approach.

Throughout the discussion, aspects of the system are viewed from the points of view of both architecture (those attributes of a system visible to a machine language programmer) and organization (the operational units and their interconnections that realize the architecture).

EXAMPLE SYSTEMS

Throughout this book, examples from a number of different machines are used to clarify and reinforce the concepts being presented. Many, but by no means all, of the examples are drawn from two computer families: the Intel Pentium II, and the PowerPC. (The recently introduced Pentium III is essentially the same as the Pentium II, with an expanded set of multimedia instructions.) These two systems together encompass most of the current computer design trends. The Pentium II is essentially a complex instruction set computer (CISC) with a RISC core, while the PowerPC is essentially a reduced-instruction set computer (RISC). Both systems make use of superscalar design principles and both support multiple processor configurations.

PLAN OF THE TEXT

The book is organized into five parts:

Part One— Overview: This part provides a preview and context for the remainder of the book.

Part Two-The computer system: A computer system consists of processor, memory, and I/O modules, plus the interconnections among these major components. With the exception of the processor, which is sufficiently complex to be explored in Part Three, this part examines each of these aspects in turn.

Part Three— The central processing unit: The CPU consists of a control unit, registers, the arithmetic and logic unit, the instruction execution unit, and the interconnections among these components. Architectural issues, such as instruction set design and data types, are covered. The part also looks at organizational issues, such as pipelining.

Part Four— The control unit: The control unit is that part of the processor that activates the various components of the processor. This part looks at the functioning of the control unit and its implementation using microprogramming.

Part Five— Parallel organization: This final part looks at some of the issues involved in multiple processor and vector processing organizations.

A more detailed, chapter-by-chapter summary appears at the end of Chapter 1.

INTERNET SERVICES FOR INSTRUCTORS AND STUDENTS

There is a Web site for this book that provides support for students and instructors. The site includes links to other relevant sites, transparency masters of figures in the book in PDF (Adobe Acrobat) format, and sign-up information for the book's Internet mailing list. The Web page is at ...

Read More Show Less

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