Computer Structure and Logic [NOOK Book]


This is the eBook version of the printed book.

Computer Structure and Logic

Pearson Certification Team

The place to start your computer career!

Learn about computers ...

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Computer Structure and Logic

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This is the eBook version of the printed book.

Computer Structure and Logic

Pearson Certification Team

The place to start your computer career!

Learn about computers and networks from the ground up!

Learn about computers and networks from the ground up!

  • Your first step toward certifications from CompTIA, Microsoft, or Cisco… absolutely no experience necessary!
  • Explains every part of your computer and shows how each part works together
  • Teaches simple troubleshooting and repair techniques
  • Packed with real-world examples and case studies

Master the basics and build your strong foundation for success!

  • I/O: How information gets into and out of computers
  • Motherboards and buses: How your computer’s parts are connected
  • CPU: How your computer’s “brain” works—and how to install and troubleshoot it
  • Memory and storage: The types you need and how to install them
  • Bootup: How your computer starts, what can go wrong, and how to fix it
  • Operating systems: The basics of Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux
  • Basic security: Protecting your data, connections, and computer
  • Troubleshooting: The tools and methods every good PC technician must know
  • Networks and the Internet: How they work, how they communicate, and how to connect to them

Test your knowledge, gain confidence, and succeed!

  • More than 150 questions, with clear explanations of every answer!
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780132682824
  • Publisher: Pearson Education
  • Publication date: 2/8/2011
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 450
  • Sales rank: 895,541
  • File size: 16 MB
  • Note: This product may take a few minutes to download.

Table of Contents

Introduction xix

Chapter 1 Introduction to Computers 3

History of Computers 3

The von Neumann Computer Model 4

Modern Computers 7

From Tubes to Transistors 7

Integrated Circuits 10

History of the PC 11

Birth of the Personal Computer 11

The IBM Personal Computer 13

The PC Industry Nearly 30 Years Later 14

What Is a PC? 17

Who Controls PC Software? 18

Who Controls PC Hardware? 21

White-Box Systems 24

PC Design Guides 25

System Types 26

System Components 26

Chapter Review Questions 28

Case Study 1 31

Case Study 2 31

Answers and Explanations 31

Case Study 1 Solution 33

Case Study 2 Solution 33

Chapter 2 Understanding Computer Math and Measurement 35

Numbering Systems Used in Computers 35

Decimal Numbering System 36

Binary Numbering System 36

Binary Versus Decimal MB/GB 40

Data Storage and Overhead 43

Hexadecimal Numbering System 44

Basic Boolean Operations 45

AND 46

OR 47

NOT 47

Mixed Boolean Operations 48

Measuring Data Transfer and Frequency 48

Bandwidth 49

Parallel Information Transfers 49

Serial Transfers 51

Hertz (Hz) 51

Chapter Review Questions 53

Case Study 1 56

Case Study 2 56

Answers and Explanations 56

Case Study 1 Solution 57

Case Study 2 Solution 58

Chapter 3 I/O Ports and Devices 61

Understanding I/O Ports 61

USB 61

USB Port Types, Speeds, and Technical Details 62

Adding USB Ports 66

Serial (COM) 67

Types of Serial Cables 69

Standard IRQ and I/O Port Addresses 70

Parallel (LPT) 70


Multiple Device Support with SCSI Host Adapters 73

Jumper Block and DIP Switch Settings for Device IDs 74

SCSI Standards 74

IEEE 1394 (FireWire) 75

IEEE 1394 Ports and Cables 75

IEEE 1394–Compatible Devices and Technical Requirements 76

PS/2 (Mini-DIN) 77

Centronics 77

1/8-Inch Audio Mini-Jack 77

SPDIF Digital Audio 78

MIDI Port 79

RG-6 Coaxial 79

Understanding Input Devices 80

Keyboard 80

Mouse and Pointing Devices 81

Game Controllers 82

Bar Code Reader 82

Biometric Devices 82

Voice-Activated Typing 83

Understanding Display Types 83

CRT Monitor 84

LCD Monitor 85

Data Projector 86

Touch Screens 87

Understanding Video Connector Types 88

VGA 88

DVI 89


Component/RGB 91

S-Video 91

Composite 91

Printing Fundamentals 93

Laser Printers 93

Toner Cartridges 94

Laser Printer Paper and Media 95

Inkjet Printers 96

Ink Cartridges 97

Inkjet Printer Paper and Media 98

Thermal Printers 98

Thermal Printer Ribbons 99

Thermal Printer Paper 100

Impact Printers 100

Impact Printer Ribbons 101

Impact Printer Paper and Media 102

Understanding Multimedia Devices 103

Webcam 103

Digital Camera 103

MIDI Music and MIDI Ports 103

Sound Card 103

Microphone 104

Video Capture Card 105

Chapter Review Questions 106

Case Study 1 109

Case Study 2 109

Answers and Explanations 110

Case Study 1 Solution 112

Case Study 2 Solution 112

Chapter 4 Motherboards and Buses 115

Motherboards and Their Components 115

The System Bus and I/O Bus 116

The Chipset 117

Form Factors 118

ATX and Micro ATX 118

BTX 119

NLX 120

Riser Cards and Daughterboards 120

Integrated I/O Ports 122

Memory Slots 124

Expansion Slots 124

PCI Slots 125

AGP 125

PCIe (PCI Express) Slots 126

AMR and CNR Slots 128

Mass Storage Interfaces 129


SATA 131

SCSI 131

Choosing the Best Motherboard for the Job 133

Installing Motherboards 133

Step-by-Step Motherboard Removal (ATX and BTX) 134

Step-by-Step Motherboard Removal (NLX) 136

Preparing the Motherboard for Installation (ATX/BTX) 137

Step-by-Step Motherboard Installation (ATX/Baby-AT) 137

Step-by-Step Motherboard Installation (NLX) 138

Troubleshooting Motherboards 138

System Does Not Start 139

Devices Connected to the Port Cluster Don’t Work 143

Devices Connected to Header Cables Don’t Work 144

Mass Storage Devices Do Not Work Properly 145

Memory Failures 145

Card, Memory, or Heat Sink Blocked by Motherboard Layout 145

Installing Adapter Cards 146

General Installation 146

Display Adapters 149

Sound Cards 150

Video Capture Cards 150

Troubleshooting Adapter Cards 151

Device Connected to Adapter Card Doesn’t Work 151

Performing Driver and Firmware Upgrades 152

Chapter Review Questions 153

Case Study 1 156

Case Study 2 156

Answers and Explanations 157

Case Study 1 Solution 158

Case Study 2 Solution 159

Chapter 5 The CPU 161

Intel and AMD Processors 161

Intel Processors 162

AMD Processors 165

Processor Sockets and Packaging 168

Overview of Processor Differences 168

CPU Technologies 169

CPU Clock Rate 170

Hyperthreading (HT Technology) 171

Dual-Core and Multi-Core 171

Processor Throttling 172

MMX and 3DNow! Instruction Sets 172

Overclocking 173

Cache 174

VRM 175

32-Bit Versus 64-Bit 175

Choosing the Best Processor for the Job 176

Performance 176

Thermal Issues 176

32-Bit Versus 64-Bit (x64) Compatibility 176

Other Processor Features 177

Installing and Upgrading Processors 177

Removing the Heat Sink 178

Removing the Processor 180

Installing a New Processor 181

Slot-Type CPU (Early Pentium III, Early AMD Athlon, and Others) 183

Troubleshooting Processors 185

System Runs Slower Than Rated Speed 185

Causes for Overheating 185

Fan Failure 185

Incorrect Heat Sink for Processor Type/Speed 185

Overheating of the Processor or System 185

Underclocked System 186

Processor Failure 186

Chapter Review Questions 187

Case Study 1 190

Case Study 2 190

Answers and Explanations 190

Case Study 1 Solution 192

Case Study 2 Solution 192

Chapter 6 Memory and Storage 195

RAM Basics 195

RAM Types 198

DRAM 198

SRAM 198




Rambus 199

Comparison of Memory Modules 200

Installing DIMMs and Rambus RDRAM Modules 202

Hard Disk Drives 204

PATA and SATA Data and Power Cables 205

PATA Drive Jumpering and Cable Select 206

ATA Specifications 207

ATA/IDE Drive Physical Installation 209

SATA Hard Drive Physical Installation 211

Installing an SATA Host Adapter 213

Configuring PATA BIOS 214

Configuring SATA BIOS 216

Creating an ATA or SATA RAID Array 218

Optimizing ATA/IDE Performance 221

Selecting the PIO and DMA Transfer Modes 221

Selecting the IDE Block Mode 223

Installing IDE Busmastering Drivers 223

Enabling DMA Transfers for PATA Devices in Windows 223

Adjusting Disk Caching Settings in Windows 225

CD and DVD Optical Drives 226

CD and DVD Drive Interfaces 227

Physical Installation of Optical Drives 227

IDE/ATAPI Optical Drive Installation Issues 228

Chapter Review Questions 229

Case Study 1 232

Case Study 2 232

Answers and Explanations 232

Case Study 1 Solution 234

Case Study 2 Solution 234

Chapter 7 Computer Operation 237

Understanding BIOS, CMOS, and Firmware 237

Configuring the System BIOS 240

Accessing the BIOS Setup Program 241

BIOS Settings Overview 243

Automatic Configuration of BIOS/CMOS Settings 246

Selecting Options 247

Main Menu 247

Standard Features/Settings Menu 248

PATA and SATA BIOS Configuration 249

Floppy Drive BIOS Configuration 249

System Information 249

Advanced BIOS Settings/Features Menu 251

Integrated Peripherals Menu 252

Onboard Devices Submenu 253

I/O Devices Submenu 253

PATA/IDE and SATA Configuration Menus 255

Power Management Menu 256

PnP/PCI Configuration Settings 257

Hardware Monitor 259

Processor and Memory Configuration 260

Security Features 262

Exiting the BIOS and Saving/Discarding Changes 263

Power-On Self-Test and Error Reporting 264

Beep Codes 265

POST Error Messages 266

POST Hex Error Codes 266

BIOS Updates 268

Flash BIOS Update 269

BIOS Chip Replacement 271

Chapter Review Questions 273

Case Study 1 276

Case Study 2 276

Answers and Explanations 276

Case Study 1 Solution 278

Case Study 2 Solution 278

Chapter 8 Operating Systems 281

Types of Operating Systems 281

Mac OS 282

Linux 283

Windows 283

Differences in Windows Versions 284

GUI 284

System Requirements 287

Windows Interfaces 287

Windows Explorer 288

Common Tasks View 289

Windows Vista Additions to Windows Explorer 290

Windows 7 Additions to Windows Explorer 290

My Computer 291

Control Panel 292

Command Prompt 293

Network 294

My Network Places 295

Taskbar/Systray 296

Start Menu 296

Managing Disk Partitions, Files, and Folders 298

Disk Partitions 298

Using Disk Management 299

Mount Points and Mounting a Drive 303

Windows File Systems 304

FAT32 304

NTFS 304

Working with Folders/Directories 305

File Management 306

Creating Files 306

File Types 307

File Names and Extensions 308

Indexing 309

File Permissions 310



Format 313

System Management Tools 314

Device Manager 314

Computer Management and the MMC 317

Task Manager 318

Event Viewer 319

System Restore 321

Chapter Review Questions 323

Case Study 1 326

Case Study 2 326

Answers and Explanations 327

Case Study 1 Solution 328

Case Study 2 Solution 329

Chapter 9 Basic Security 331

Security Fundamentals 331

Secure and Insecure File Systems 331

Authentication Technologies 332

Username/Password/PIN 332

Smart Cards 332

Biometrics 333

Protection Against Viruses and Malware 333

Software Firewalls 334

Hardware Recycling and Deconstruction 335

Data and Physical Security 335

Data Access Local Security Policy 335

Encryption Technologies 336

Encrypting File System 337

BitLocker Encryption 337

Backups 338

Data Migration 338

Data and Data Remnant Removal 339

Password Management 339

Locking a Workstation 340

Incident Reporting 340

Social Engineering 341

Access Control Purposes and Principles 342

Operating System Access Control 342

User, Administration, and Guest Accounts 342

User Account Control (UAC) 343

Groups 343

Permissions Actions, Types, and Levels 344

Permission Inheritance and Propagation 344

Moving and Copying Folders and Files 345

Components 345

Restricted Spaces 345

Auditing and Event Logging 346

Installing, Configuring, and Troubleshooting Security Features 347

BIOS Security Features 347

Software Firewalls 348

Troubleshooting Software Firewalls 349

File Systems (Converting from FAT32 to NTFS) 351

Malicious Software Protection 351

Types of Malware and Infection Methods 351

Training Users in Malware Protection 352

Wireless Security 353

WEP and WPA Encryption 353

Configuring Wireless Clients 354

Troubleshooting Wireless Clients 357

Unused Wireless Connections 359

Chapter Review Questions 361

Case Study 1 364

Case Study 2 364

Answers and Explanations 364

Case Study 1 Solution 366

Case Study 2 Solution 366

Chapter 10 Troubleshooting 369

PC Tools 369

Preventing Electrostatic Discharge 370

Using a Troubleshooting Process 372

Determining Whether a Problem Is Caused by Hardware or Software 374

What Components to Check First 375

Points of Failure on the Outside of the Computer 376

“Known-Working” Doesn’t Mean “New”—Best Sources for Replacement Parts 377

Keeping Track of Your Solutions 378

Troubleshooting Windows 378

Recovering an Operating System 378

Last Known Good Configuration, Safe Mode, and Other Advanced Boot Options 379

Windows Recovery Environment (WinRE) 382

Recovery Console 384

Using System Restore with Advanced Boot Options 386

Using Windows Vista’s Complete PC Backup 386

Using Automated System Recovery (ASR) (Windows XP) 387

Diagnosing and Troubleshooting Other Problems 389

Identifying the Problem: User Interview 389

Analyzing the Problem 390

Identifying the Problem: Logs and Services 390

Recording Symptoms and Error Codes 392

Checking Configurations and Device Manager 393

Common Problems 394

STOP (Blue Screen) Errors 394

Application Troubleshooting 396

Using Task Manager 397

Troubleshooting with Device Manager 398

Where to Go for More Information 401

Chapter Review Questions 404

Case Study 1 407

Case Study 2 407

Answers and Explanations 408

Case Study 1 Solution 409

Case Study 2 Solution 411

Chapter 11 Networks 413

Network Models 414

Client/Server 414

Servers 414

Clients 415

Peer-to-Peer 416

Internet Connectivity Technologies 417

Modems and Dial-Up Internet Connectivity 417

ISDN Internet Connectivity 419

ISDN Hardware 420

Setting Up an ISDN Connection 420

Broadband Internet Services (DSL, Cable, Satellite) 421

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) 421

Cable Internet 423

Satellite 425

LANs and Internet Connectivity 425

TCP/IP Applications and Technologies 426

ISP 426


SSL 427

TLS 427

HTML 427

FTP 428

Telnet 429

SSH 429

DNS 429

Email 430

SMTP 431

POP 431

IMAP 432

Ports 432

Installing Network Interface Cards 433

Cable and Connector Types 433

UTP and STP Cabling 434

Fiber-Optic Cabling 437

Coaxial Cabling 438

Plenum and PVC 439

Connector Types 439

Network Devices 440

Configuring TCP/IP 441

TCP/IP Configuration with a DHCP Server 442

TCP/IP Alternate Configuration 443

TCP/IP User-Configured IP Address, DNS Addresses, and Advanced Settings 444

Understanding IP Addressing, Subnet Masks, and IP Classes 445

WINS Configuration 448

Gateway 448

DNS Configuration 448

Using Network Command-Line Tools 448

Using ipconfig 449

Using ping 450

Using tracert 451

Using the net Command 451

Using nslookup 452

Chapter Review Questions 453

Case Study 1 456

Case Study 2 456

Answers and Explanations 456

Case Study 1 Solution 458

Case Study 2 Solution 459

9780789747938 TOC 1/3/2011

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Customer Reviews

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Sort by: Showing all of 2 Customer Reviews
  • Posted October 27, 2013

    Are you an entry-level IT student? If you are, then this book is

    Are you an entry-level IT student? If you are, then this book is for you! The Pearson Certification Team, has done an outstanding job of writing a book which acts as a stepping stone to certification from organizations such as CompTIA, Microsoft and Cisco.

    The team begins with a basic account of the history of computers through to today’s modern computers. Then, the team discusses the basics of computer math, including the numbering systems used by computers, basic Boolean algebra, and how to measure data transfer. They continue by covering input and output devices; their connections and the ports they connect to; and, how those ports communicate with the central processing unit.  
    Then, the team shows you how to install adapter cards into a motherboard. They then cover the brain of the computer: the CPU. Next, the team delves into random access memory, magnetic hard drives, and optical drives. The team continues by showing you how the computer boots with the help of the BIOS. Then, they examine the various Windows operating systems and their interfaces and tools. Next, the team describes the basic tools that should be part of every PC technician’s toolkit. They also discuss the tools you need, the concepts you should know, and how to troubleshoot in a logical and progressive way. Finally, the team shows you the basics of computer networking, how to connect to networks, Internet technologies, and of course, the all-powerful TCP/IP.

    The number one goal of this excellent book is to establish the groundwork of computer knowledge and hands-on skills for the reader. In fact, this great book is designed in such a way as to offer an easy transition to future certification studies.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Posted February 12, 2011

    more from this reviewer

    quick tour

    The book describes in simple terms for a complete neophyte the hardware and software of a typical computer. The emphasis is on explaining a personal computer, as this is now the most common explicit computing platform that the average person is likely to encounter.

    The text gives a quick history, where we see how rapid progress was made, and how most modern computers use the Neumann architecture. Moore's Law is outlined. You should appreciate how this has come to encapsulate and summarise the last 40 years of hardware improvements.

    Roughly, the first half of the book covers hardware. The basic parts that are on a motherboard are covered, as well as the possible types of buses that might be present. Devices that can be connected to the input/output ports are not neglected. Of these, the most important is clearly the monitor. The different types of monitors are given, like the CRT and the LCD displays. You also need to understand the key role of the CPU, and how clock speeds can vary its performance. The concept of overclocking, where a dedicated gamer might crank up the speed of the computer clock, ties in to this, and is useful to know.

    A chapter goes over the use of memory chips. Here is also where you can drastically affect [hopefully improve] the performance of your machine, by adding more memory. This is more useful than adding more disk, because access times for the latter are in microseconds, while memory access times can be in 10s of nanoseconds. Just understanding at a qualitative level the differences in access times, and how these arise from different underlying physical mechanisms, can be a great help in understanding how to optimise the overall performance.

    Software is the remit of the second half of the book. A relatively large amount of space discusses the low level BIOS. This is at a level below the operating system, and if you are going to administer computers, experience in using and even installing a BIOS is highly recommended.

    Moving upwards, the book strikes an ecumenical tone about the different operating systems that might be present. Three types are talked about - Microsoft Windows, linux and the Mac OS X. Keep in mind that if you understand the linux sections, you now also know [at least at a qualitative level] about the different Unixes. Indeed, the Mac's operating system is a Unix variant.

    The book ends with a chapter on networks. Well nowadays, it's essentially mostly some kind of Internet. Much of the chapter explains common networking hardware. So that, for example, you know the difference between an RJ-45 cable and a USB cable.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
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