Computers and Creativity

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Overview

Computers, Internet, and Society is a six-volume set that examines the field of computer technology and how its extraordinary development has affected the ways in which the global environment communicates and interacts. The paradox of today's computer technology is that it is both ubiquitous and invisible. The books in this set, designed to complement science curricula, make this technology "visible," so that it can be examined and provide students with the ability to think critically and responsibly about the role it plays in their daily lives.

Computers and Creativity explores the ways in which people use computers to express themselves through words, music, graphic art, and multimedia; create software; and invent new machines. The book illustrates how computers enable people to collaborate not only over space and time on a scale never before possible but also without using professional intermediaries. Computers and Creativity concludes with overviews of the challenges that computers and the Internet pose for intellectual property law and the proposals that the world's leading experts have put forward to amend relevant legal statutes for the computer age.

The volume also includes information on

computer-generated music

eBay, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube

editing and sharing digital photography

evolution of the typewriter and word processor

intellectual property laws

Internet and collaboration

programming and software

publishing and news media

The book contains more than 30 color photographs and four-color line illustrations, sidebars, a chronology, a glossary, a detailed list of print and Internet resources, and an index. Computers, Internet, and Society is essential for high school students, teachers, and general readers who wish to learn about the present and future impact of computer technology on the world around them.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780816077540
  • Publisher: Facts on File, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 6/1/2011
  • Series: Computers, Internet, and Society Series
  • Pages: 208
  • Age range: 14 - 17 Years
  • Product dimensions: 7.60 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 0.60 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xiii

Introduction xv

1 Writing: Farewell to Pen and Paper 1

Evolution of a Typewriter 1

Word Processors: A Different Approach to Writing 3

IBM Magnetic Tape/Selectric Typewriter, the First Modern Word Processor 4

Seymour Rubenstein: Creator of WordStar, One of the First Computer Word Processors 7

Research and Writing in the Computer Age 10

Blogging 12

Tweeting on Twitter 13

Online Collaboration 14

Conclusions 18

2 Music: Personal Computer as Piano 18

Music Recording and Playback Goes Digital 18

A Personal Home Recording Studio 22

Virtual Bands 26

Alvin and the Chipmunks, Grammy-Winning Animated Music Group 27

Computer-Generated Music 28

Douglas Hofstadter: Indiana University Cognitive Science Professor, Creator of Software That Writes Music 31

Conclusions 84

3 Video: Recording, Editing, and Creating Special Effects 36

Digital Photography and Sharing 37

Digital Capturing and Video Editing 39

Digital versus Analog Cameras 40

Digital Video Special Effects, Stunts, and 3D 43

Video Games and Animation 45

Ivan Sutherland: Creator of Sketchpad, One of the First Computer Programs for Creating Artwork 48

Conclusions 50

4 Programming: How Software Is Created 52

Programming, Computers, and Creativity 52

How Computer Software Is Created 56

Augusta Ada Byron Lovelace: Nineteenth-Century Mathematician, Creator of the Foundation for Modern Computer Programming 57

Programming as Writing 60

Programming as Engineering 62

Programming Tools That Facilitate Creativity 66

Conclusions 69

Effect of Computers on Programming Languages 70

5 Inventing: Using Computers to Drive Innovation 72

Origins of Artificial Intelligence 73

Expert Systems 74

Limitations of Early Forms of Artificial Intelligence 76

Creating Software: The Evolution of Computer Programming Languages 78

Designing Microprocessors Using Hardware Description Languages 80

Using Artificial Neural Networks to Dream Up New Products 82

Designing Product Packaging Using Customers Connected by Software 85

Inventing Using Evolutionary Algorithms 86

John Koza: Developer of Genetic Programming Software for Automatically Creating New Inventions 88

Conclusions 92

6 Collaboration: Bringing People Together over the Internet 94

Internet and Collaboration across Space and Time 94

Virtual Bands 96

Open Source Software 98

Connecting on Facebook 100

Linux Operating System 102

Linus Torvaids: Originator of Linux Operating System, Created by Thousands of People around the World in Collaboration 105

Conclusions 108

7 Disintermediation: Cutting Out the Middleman 110

From Human Brokers to Software Search Engines 111

Buying and Selling on eBay 112

The Rise of Travel Web Sites 114

Richard Barton: Founder of Expedia, Online Travel Service 115

Internet and Disintermediation in Publishing and News Media 118

Internet and the Music Industry 123

YouTube 129

Conclusions 130

8 Intellectual Property: Protecting Creativity in the Digital World 132

Copyrights 133

Patents 136

Trademarks and Domain Names 141

Intellectual Property Issues in the Internet World 144

Napster and Music Sharing 146

Should Intellectual Property Be More or Less Protected on the Internet? 148

Pamela Samuelson, University of California at Berkeley Professor of Law, Intellectual Property Law Expert 149

Conclusions 151

Chronology 155

Glossary 161

Further Resources 166

Index 177

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