Computers in Music Education: Amplifying Musicality

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Overview

Computers in Music Education addresses the question of how computer technologies might best assist music education. For current and preservice music teachers and designed as a development tool, reference resource, and basic teaching text, it addresses pedagogical issues and the use of computers to aid production and presentation of students’ musical works.

Written by a music educator and digital media specialist, it cuts through the jargon to present a concise, easy-to-digest overview of the field, covering:

  • notation software
  • MIDI sound creation
  • downloading music
  • posting personal MP3s for mass distribution.

While there are many more technical books, few offer a comprehensive, understandable overview of the field. Computers in Music Education is an important text for the growing number of courses in this area.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"Computers in Music Education is a welcome addition to the literature on music and technology. The book is admirable in its clarity and extensive coverage of a domain that extends beyond the experience and expertise of many music educators." --Music Forum

'Computers in Music Education is a helpful book for the music education seeking to extend thei knowledge of all types of technology in instructional settings, and extends beyond the narrow focus implied by the title... As a practical guide it has many strengths, not least in its breadth of coverage, and it is likely to promote thinking about key issues for music educators.' - The British Journal of Music

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780415978514
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • Publication date: 8/1/2006
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 360
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Andrew Brown is Program Manager for Digital Media and a lecturer in computer music at the Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. He previously taught music education at the University of Melbourne. He is President of the Australasian Computer Music Association, and has served as an educational consultant to The Learning Federation for the development of online materials to teach creativity. He is also a performer and composer of electronic music.
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Table of Contents


Figures     xvii
Preface     xxi
Context     1
Ways of making music with technology     3
Changing technologies     4
Changing minds     4
The computer as a musical tool     6
The computer as a musical medium     8
The computer as a musical instrument     10
Learning to use the computer for music making     12
Conclusion     13
Chapter summary     14
Notes     15
Philosophical considerations     17
Amplification     17
Invisibility     18
Context     20
Metaphor     20
Musicianship     22
Scaffolding     22
Intention     23
Engagement     24
Meaning     26
Conclusion     27
Chapter summary     29
Notes     29
A brief history of music technology     31
Pre-electronic technologies     31
Automated music     32
Electronic musical technologies     34
Layers of persistence     37
Conclusion     38
Chaptersummary     39
Notes     40
Production     41
Audio recording     43
Sampling     43
Audio file formats     45
Manipulating samples     46
Cutting and pasting     46
Pitch shifting     46
Filtering and equalization     47
Amplitude envelopes     47
Delays and reverb     47
Hard disk recording     48
Signal flow     48
Recording mediums     49
Tape     50
Cassette     50
Reel to reel     50
DAT     50
Disk     51
Hard disk     51
Mini disc     51
Compact disc     51
DVD     51
Memory card     52
Recording production techniques     52
Clarity     52
Tone     52
Balance     53
Spatialization     53
Effects     53
Educational applications of digital recording technologies     54
Music production     54
Recorded portfolios     54
Reflection      55
Assessment     55
Conclusion     56
Chapter summary     58
Notes     58
Music publishing     59
Notation as a representation     59
Learning with computer-based music notation     60
What to look for in a music notation system     63
Print quality     63
Input methods     63
Rhythmic transcription and rendering     64
Staves and articulations     64
Transformation and shifting     65
Text and drawing     65
Playback and audio rendering     65
Priorities for music publishing hardware     66
Conclusion     67
Chapter summary     69
Notes     70
MIDI sequencing     71
Sequencer history     72
Modern sequencers     72
Track view     74
Phrase editor     74
Note editors     74
Waveform view     75
Loops     75
Making music with sequencers     76
Arranging     76
Composing     77
Production     77
Analysis      78
Performance     78
Conclusion     79
Chapter summary     81
Notes     81
Algorithmic music     83
Introducing algorithmic composition     84
Uses of algorithmic composition     85
Inside algorithmic processes     87
Rule-based     87
Probabilistic     87
Connectionist     88
Evolutionist     89
Using commercial systems     90
Exploring further     90
Software for algorithmic composition     90
Simple applications     90
Environments     91
Languages     91
Sequencers with some algorithmic features     91
Conclusion     91
Chapter summary     93
Notes     93
Sound synthesis     95
Oscillator synthesis     97
Additive synthesis     97
Subtractive synthesis     98
Ring modulation     99
Frequency modulation     99
Waveshaping     100
Digital synthesis directions     101
Granular synthesis     101
Physical modeling      102
Experimenting with sound synthesis     103
Plugins and hosts     103
Synthesis toolkits     104
Signal generators     104
Useful links     105
Dedicated plugin hosts     105
Synthesis toolkits (graphical)     105
Synthesis toolkits (textual)     105
Sound editors with tone generators     105
Conclusion     106
Chapter summary     107
Presentation     109
Synthesizer performance     111
What is a synthesizer?     112
Choosing a synthesizer for educational use     113
Sound quality and quantity     113
Ability to edit and create sounds     113
Types of performance controllers     114
Connections     114
Educational applications of synthesizers     114
Individual work     114
Class ensembles     114
Composition     115
The synthesizer for solo performance     115
Performance skills     115
Synthesizer ensemble performance     116
Synthesizer-only ensembles     116
Mixed electroacoustic ensembles     116
Interactive performance     117
Instrumental teaching of synthesizer performance     117
Conclusion     118
Chapter summary     119
Notes     120
Live electronic music     121
Introduction     121
History     122
Early instruments     122
New directions     123
Experimentalists     124
Connecting with rock music     124
Dance music     125
Equipment     126
Hardware synthesizers     126
Samplers     126
Drum machines     127
Turntables and mixers     127
Software     127
Controllers     128
Headphones     129
Performance practices     129
Learning to make live electronic music     130
Conclusion     130
Chapter summary     132
Notes     132
Interactive computer music     133
The interactive experience     134
Computer listening and response     135
Human input     136
Performance partnerships     138
Remote control     139
Useful links     139
Dedicated applications     140
Software environments     140
Multimedia tools     140
Auto-accompaniment software     140
Conclusion     141
Chapter summary     142
Notes     143
Digitizing and visualizing music     145
Introduction     145
Audio formats     147
PCM audio     147
MP3 files     147
AAC     148
Ogg vorbis     148
FLAC     148
Audio visualizations     149
Oscilloscope     149
Waveform display     150
Spectrum analyzer     150
Spectrogram     151
MIDI representation     152
MIDI visualization     153
Textual representation     153
Music fonts     154
Graphical representations     155
Graphic formats     155
Video formats     156
Presenting     156
Word processor     156
Digital slide show     157
HTML     157
PDF     158
Podcasts      158
CDs     158
DVDs     158
Using digital presentations for teaching and learning     159
Chapter summary     160
Notes     161
Music for visual narrative     163
Sound and image     163
Video     166
Structure     166
Synchronization     167
Theater     167
Sound design     168
Audio spatialization     168
Music     168
Dance     169
Collaboration     169
Gesture     170
Experimentation     170
Exhibition     171
Sonification of digital images     171
Mood     172
Temporality     172
Presentation     172
Conclusion     173
Chapter summary     175
Notes     175
Rich media environments     177
Digital media     179
Forms of interactive media     179
Virtual reality simulations     179
Rich media documents     180
Sources of audio content     182
The musical challenge of interactivity      183
Skills of the sound designer     184
Rich media curriculum documents     184
Useful links     185
Document creation tools     185
Interactive Systems     185
Media creation tools     185
Examples     186
Conclusion     186
Chapter summary     188
Notes     188
Music distribution in the age of the Internet     189
Playing music on the Internet     190
Stakeholders and issues     190
Ownership     191
Access     192
Distributing music over the Internet     193
Physical distribution     193
File distribution     194
Internet radio     196
Music commentary on the Internet     197
Promoting music on the Internet     198
Useful Links     200
Music sales and promotion     200
Music promotion     200
Music information     200
Rights and commerce     200
RSS tools     200
Conclusion     201
Chapter summary     202
Note     203
Reflection      205
Computers and music research     207
The place of research in the music curriculum     207
Opportunities on the Internet     208
Searching     208
Convergence of media     209
Forms: online data collection     209
Cooperative projects     210
Access     211
Internet surfing tips     211
Discerning "good" information     211
Censorship     212
Copyright     213
Referencing     214
Sound on the Internet     214
Reporting research as multimedia documents     215
Narrative versus hypertext     215
Music production skills     216
Empowerment over knowledge     216
Conclusion     217
Chapter summary     218
Notes     219
Music and sound analysis     221
Strategies for music analysis     221
Data reduction     222
Pattern matching     222
Statistical analysis     222
Metaphoric description     223
Computer assisted analysis     224
Score analysis     225
Audio analysis      228
Conclusion     229
Chapter summary     231
Notes     231
Aural and musicianship training     233
Software features     235
Interactivity     236
Access     237
Music representations     238
Genre and styles     238
Teaching considerations     239
Useful links     241
Aural training     242
Musicianship     242
Conclusion     243
Chapter summary     244
Notes     245
Assessment     247
What to assess     247
Computers in assessment     249
Production and response     249
Communications     251
Information management     252
Ownership and access     253
Automated assessment     254
Reporting     254
Useful links     255
Tools for assessing     255
Tools for reporting     256
Conclusion     256
Chapter summary     257
Notes     258
Administration     259
Document preparation     259
Word processing     260
Graphic design programs     261
Desktop publishing     261
Presentation programs     262
Audiovisual documents     262
Information management     262
Spreadsheet     263
Database     264
Web sites     265
Learning management systems     266
Planning and scheduling     266
Data management     267
Useful links     267
Documentation and presentation     268
Information management     268
Scheduling     269
Conclusion     269
Chapter summary     271
Implementation     273
Setting up a computer music system     275
Task identification     275
Choosing equipment     276
Digital musical appliances     278
Selecting between alternatives     279
Ancillary equipment     280
Physical set up     280
Location and access     282
Ergonomics     283
Security     283
Maintenance     284
Conclusion     284
Chapter summary      285
Notes     286
Distance education and e-learning     287
E-learning technologies     288
Learning at a distance     289
E-earning design     290
Conclusion     291
Chapter summary     293
Notes     293
Integrating new technologies     295
Understanding and knowledge     296
Skills and techniques     296
Integration prompting change     297
Change as evolution     298
Change as addition     298
Updating curriculum and pedagogy     299
A meaningful engagement with music     299
Teacher as helper     302
Organizing space and time     302
Hardware options     302
Connectivity     303
Ownership     304
Storage and housing     305
Funding     305
Training and professional development     306
Conclusion     306
Chapter summary     308
Notes     308
Possible futures for computers in music education     311
Equipment     312
Connectivity     313
Data mining      314
Information sharing     314
Stylistic diversity and syncretism     315
Legal frameworks     315
Live computational processes     316
Sonic expression     316
Notes     317
Glossary     319
References     323
Webography     323
Books and Articles     328
Index     331
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