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Conceiving a New Republic examines the Republicans' ideological struggle, focusing on how party thought--particularly concerning the concept of republicanism--determined the contours of that effort and was in turn shaped by it. In relating how Republicans strove to fashion a new democratic polity in the face of fierce southern opposition, Charles Calhoun focuses on what they thought about their actions, particularly their beliefs about the meaning and nature of the American Republic.
Calhoun revolutionizes our understanding of this era by showing that although it eventually failed in its lofty purpose, the party set out to reconstruct a nation that would abide by the promises of the Declaration of Independence. While earlier scholars have blamed Republicans for not being more steadfast advocates for blacks, Calhoun shows that southern Democrats so strongly resisted the breakdown of white supremacy that Republicans ultimately could not prevail. He assesses their actions in the election of 1876 and the ensuing electoral crisis less as an abandonment of black rights than as an effort to salvage as much of the republican experiment as possible. He also examines their struggle to revive the experiment with the Lodge Federal Elections bill of 1890--the last serious attempt at civil rights legislation until the 1950s.
Offering new insights into Presidents Grant, Hayes, Harrison, and McKinley, Calhoun shows that even before the latter's administration had begun, a confluence of forces had conspired to defeat the Republicans' attempt to create a new Republic. He spells out the reasons why Republicans, defeated by southern and Democratic intransigence, ultimately abandoned the effort to remake the Republic and found ways to accommodate themselves intellectually and morally to the failure of their earlier ideals.
In showing how Republican leaders envisioned nothing less than an essential reordering of the Republic, Conceiving a New Republic offers a bold reinterpretation of the Gilded Age that reflects a deep understanding of the period and its issues.
This book is part of the American Political Thought series.
|1||Regeneration of a nation||7|
|2||Republicanism contested : the election of 1872||33|
|3||The Republican project under siege : the Grant administration and the trial of enforcement||47|
|4||The Southern question revived : the campaign of 1876||90|
|5||Rescuing the republic : the electoral crisis of 1876-1877||105|
|6||Conciliation is not mutual : Republicanism and the Southern policy of Rutherford B. Hayes||137|
|7||Confrontation with a solid South : new directions under Garfield and Arthur||169|
|8||The fundamental question in a republic : Republicanism, economics, and electoral stalemate in the 1880s||201|
|9||Republicanism defeated : the Lodge Federal Elections Bill||226|
|10||Surrender of the new republic : reconstruction undone and the nationalism of reconciliation||260|