Concepts in Wine Technology

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Following up on his bestselling Winery Technology and Operations, physical chemist and winemaker Yair Margalit comes out with the successive, Concepts in Wine Technology, fully updated and revised to meet the advances of modern winemaking. Among the extended topics are fermentation, skin contact, acid balance, phenolics, bottling, the use of oak and quality control. He begins in the vineyard discussing proper maturation, soil and climate, bunch health, vineyard disease states, and grape varieties. Next he tackles the preharvest with a careful look at vineyard management and preparing the winery for harvest. Dr. Margalit then outlines the entire process of harvesting, from destemming, crushing, and skin contact as it applies to both red and white grapes to pressing, must correction, and temperature control. Fermentation is examined fully and includes a lengthy look at the factors affecting malo-lactic fermentation and its pros and cons. There is a chapter on cellar operations that deals with racking, stabilization, fining, filtration, blending, and maintaining winery hardware, followed by sections on barreling and bottling. The final chapter pulls together the more general aspects of wine technology, covering sulphur-dioxides, different forms of wine spoilage and ways to ward them off, legal regulations and, one of the most important and enigmatic compounds in wine, phenolics.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781934259467
  • Publisher: Wine Appreciation Guild, Limited
  • Publication date: 12/28/2009
  • Pages: 263
  • Product dimensions: 7.10 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Yair Margalit, PhD, is a world renowned physical chemist, a practicing winemaker, a university professor, and the author of the bestselling Winery Technology & Operations.
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Table of Contents

Introduction ix

I Pre-Harvest 1

A Grape Ripening 3

1 Sugar 4

2 Acids 7

3 Maturity 12

4 Sampling 14

5 Composition and Yield 16

B Pre-Harvest Operations 17

1 Vineyard Management 17

2 Preparing the Winery for Harvest 19

II Harvest 23

A Destemming and Crushing 25

1 White Grapes 25

2 Red Grapes 26

B Skin Contact 27

1 White Grapes 27

2 Red Grapes 29

C Free Run and Press Run 36

1 General View 36

2 Presses 37

3 Lees 39

D Must Corrections 41

1 Acidity 41

2 Sugar 47

E Cooling and Temperature Control 49

1 Fermentation Temperature 49

2 Temperature Control 50

III Fermentation 53

A General 55

B Wine Yeast 56

C Fermentation 59

1 Alcoholic Fermentation 59

2 Stuck Fermentation 62

3 Fermentation By-Product 66

4 Residual Sugar 73

5 Heat of Fermentation 79

D Malo-Lactic Fermentation 82

1 General Aspects 82

2 Factors Affecting Malo-Lactic Fermentation 84

3 Inoculation of Malo-Lactic Fermentation 86

IV Cellar Operations 91

A Racking 93

B Stabilization 95

1 Tartaric Acid Dissociation 96

2 Potassium-Bitartrate 97

3 Cold Stabilization 98

4 Calcium Tartrate 101

5 Inhibition and Promoting Tartrate Crystallization 101

C Fining 103

1 Protein Stabilization 104

2 Tannin Reduction 108

3 Non-Specific Fining 112

D Filtration 114

1 Pad Filters 115

2 Membrane Filters 117

3 Mechanical Separators 119

E Blending 120

F Maintenance 122

1 Sanitation 122

2 Storage 125

V Barrel Aging 127

A Cooperage 130

1 Barrel Making 130

2 Barrel Evaporation 136

3 Barrel Maintenance 138

B Barrel Aging 143

1 Oak Components and Extraction 143

2 French vs. American Oak 147

3 Oak Alternatives 151

VI Bottling 155

A Wine Containers 157

1 Bottles 157

2 Cork 159

3 Capsule 172

4 Label 172

B Bottling Line 173

VII Specific Subjects 177

A Phenolic Compounds 179

1 Wine Phenolic 179

2 Tannins 187

3 Red Wine Color 190

4 Extraction of Phenolic From Grape Skins 194

B Oxidation and Micro-Oxygenation 199

1 Oxidation 199

2 Micro-Oxygenation 207

C Sulfur-Dioxide 213

1 Sulfur-Dioxide as a Food Product Preservative 213

2 Sulfur-Dioxide Uses in Wine 220

D Wine Spoilage 227

1 Chemical Faults 228

2 Microbial Faults 234

3 Summary of Faults 241

E Legal Regulations 248

1 Definitions 248

2 General Regulations 250

3 Wine Content 251

4 Wine Treatment Additives 252

F Wine Evaluation 255

1 Definitions 255

2 Descriptive Analysis 257

3 Rating Tests 262

Bibliography 273

Index 275

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