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Concise Guide to Jazz / Edition 4

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Overview

This abridged version of Jazz Styles was developed in response to requests for an introductory book offering the clarity and accuracy of Jazz Styles with 1/2 the size, 1/4 the number of names and tune titles, and 1/3 the number of musician profiles. Using a simple, yet lively writing style, and an abundance of illustrations, it is easily accessible to readers with no previous knowledge of music—or any technical sophistication.

KEY TOPICS:
Written by an active jazz musician and eminent jazz historian, this brief yet substantive introduction to jazz examines how jazz originated, how it is made, what to listen for, the major style eras, and the individual styles of 40 historically significant jazz musicians. These styles include early jazz (Dixieland); swing; bebop; cool jazz; hard bop; avant-garde of the 1960s and 70s; and jazz-rock fusion. For music lovers who want to increase their enjoyment of jazz.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131425194
  • Publisher: Pearson Education
  • Publication date: 4/28/2003
  • Edition description: Book with Demonstration CD
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 262
  • Product dimensions: 7.94 (w) x 10.86 (h) x 0.53 (d)

Meet the Author

Dr. Mark C. Gridley is the author of Jazz Styles: History and Analysis, America’s most widely used introduction to jazz. It emerged from the History and Styles of Jazz course that he had developed at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. Jazz Styles has been required for jazz history classes in more than 400 colleges and universities. The book has been translated into 5 foreign languages, and its influence and reference value led to Gridley’s listing in Who’s Who in America. A Cleveland-based jazz flutist-saxophonist-bandleader, Gridley has also conducted field research in Africa and the Caribbean. For his studies of jazz popularity, Gridley earned the Distinguished Achievement Award of the Educational Press Association of America. His articles on jazz styles and teaching jazz appreciation appear in the Grove Dictionaries of Music, Encyclopaedia Britannica, The Black Perspective in Music, Black Music Research Journal, The Musical Quarterly, The Instrumentalist, Current Musicology, College Music Symposium, Popular Music and Society, and Jazz Educator’s Journal. His research on perception and preferences in music and art has been published in several scientific journals.

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

PREFACE

This book is intended as a brief introduction to jazz. It outlines the ways jazz is made and the major jazz styles that have evolved during the twentieth century. It tells why the big names are important and how their styles differ. The Demonstration CD provides examples of the instrument sounds and explains the methods and terminology of jazz. The Elements of Music Appendix explains the basic terms that are used to describe music. Listening guides are provided to accompany selections on the Concise Guide Jazz Classics Cassette/CD, and they give the reader more information about techniques of making jazz by applying the terms learned in the Demo CD and the Elements of Music Appendix. This helps listeners to detect more in each repeated hearing. Chapters end with lists of recordings and books to supplement the information that is introduced in the chapter. Most of the selections on the Concise Guide Jazz Classics Cassette/CD complement those on the Jazz Classics Cassette/CD for the Jazz Styles: History and Analysis textbook by Mark C. Gridley and the Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz rather than duplicating them. They were chosen so that each of the three sources would begin filling the historic and stylistic gaps within each other.

This book originated because professors and students asked for an introduction to jazz that was as clear and accurate as Jazz Styles but without as much detail. (Jazz Styles profiles 148 musicians and mentions about 1200 others.) Many professors also said they wanted a book that was easy to complete in a ten-week college quarter. Somesaid the ideal introductory text would focus on only about ten major figures. Reducing jazz history to a maximum of ten musicians was not feasible, however, because few authorities agree on which ten to discuss. But by increasing the minimum number of musicians to 40, we were able to accommodate the combined preferences from most authorities' "top ten" lists and still not overload students. Though this approach neglects some of the richness of jazz history, it also makes conveniently comprehensible a diversity of styles in a way that provides a basis for further explorations. If students or professors want to begin fleshing out the basic skeleton of styles treated in the present book, they can start with two resources that are already available in most colleges: Jazz Styles: History and Analysis and its Jazz Classics CD and the recordings in the Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz. If your school does not have these resources, contact Prentice Hall (College Marketing, Prentice Hall, Inc., 1 Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458; 800-526-0485) and Smithsonian Press. For more resources, see the Album Buying Strategies and A Small Basic Collection of Jazz Videos, in this book's appendix. Your first purchase might be Listening to Jazz, a one-hour video version of the Demonstration CD of instruments and methods for making jazz, prepared by Steve Gryb. It can be ordered by phoning 800-947-7700 and asking for ISBN 0-13532862-4.

The first two editions of this book have been used successfully at more than one hundred different high schools and colleges in courses about jazz history and appreciation for non-musicians. No technical knowledge of music is required to understand its contents. The optional listening guides are most useful, however, if students first familiarize themselves with instrument sounds on the Demo CD and the terms explained in the Elements of Music Appendix. Students appreciate live demonstrations and instructor assistance with this, also. Repeated listening is the key to familiarizing yourself with the sounds and their names. Appreciation increases with each rehearing of the selections on the Jazz Classics CD. It is not realistic to expect to grasp the subtleties immediately. In fact, for most selections, it is not even realistic to expect to follow all the notes until at least the fourth or fifth hearing. For this reason, most instructors devote the first few weeks of their course to the Elements of Music Appendix and Chapter 2: How to Listen to jazz, with their accompanying illustrations on the Demo CD and the Listening to Jazz video by Steve Gryb. Many instructors base quizzes and exams on the contents of the Demo CD, instrument sounds, blues form, and A-A-B-A form. Some instructors devote the first third of the course to developing these basic listening skills before moving on to comparing different jazz styles. In other words, learning listening skills is essential before learning the style differences that make jazz history interesting. In fact, some students report that without adequate instruction in such skills, they are often clueless when they try to appreciate modern jazz selections.

In designing a semester-long or quarter-long course in jazz appreciation, instructors need to tally their own priorities, not necessarily the same topics that appear in this book. Topics, musicians, and entire chapters can be skipped without doing serious damage to a brief Introduction to jazz or Understanding jazz course. For example, if emphasis is placed on in-depth appreciation of particular recordings and the musicians on them, an entire class period can be devoted to each one. Dissecting a given selection, chorus by chorus, phrase by phrase, and then replaying it five times is not excessive if students are led to focus on a different aspect each time. Therefore, a respectable course could be constructed around only eight to ten major figures, perhaps just Louis Armstrong, Lester Young, Duke Ellington, Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Miles Davis, Ornette Coleman, and John Coltrane, and in-depth appreciation of just ten to fifteen selections from the Jazz Classics Cassette/CD. Alternate ways for organizing jazz survey and jazz history courses are outlined within sample course syllabi in Instructor's Resource Manual for Concise Guide to Jazz (available from Prentice-Hall sales representatives as well as from Prentice-Hall faculty services; phone 800-526-0485). Sample items for listening exams are available in How to Teach Jazz History, a teacher's manual published by the International Association of Jazz Educators (P0. Box 724, Manhattan, Kansas 66502; phone 785-7768744; email info@IAJE.org). Both books outline pitfalls to avoid in teaching jazz history, jazz survey, and jazz appreciation courses. They also offer many lecture-demonstration strategies and teaching tips for first-time instructors.

Instructors may wish to substitute or supplement some of the text coverage and classics recordings with lectures and recordings representing such topics as Latin jazz (Tito Puente, Eddie Palmieri, Cal Tjader, Mongo Santamaria, et al.), the Chicago Avant-Garde of the 1960s and 70s (Sun Ra, The Art Ensemble of Chicago, Anthony Braxton, et al.), the New York AvantGarde of the 1980s and 90s (John Zorn, Bill Frisell, Don Byron, et al.), the Dixieland revival of the 1940s and 50s (Turk Murphy, Dukes of Dixieland, et al.), the hard bop revival of the 1980s and 90s (neoclassicists such as Wynton Marsalis, Roy Hargrove, Benny Green, Cyrus Chestnut, Joey Defrancesco, et al.), the 1980s-90s revivalists of the mid-1960s Miles Davis style (Wynton Marsalis, Wallace Roney, et al.), lightweight jazz of the 1980s and 90s (Yellow Jackets, A1 Jarreau, Spyro Gyra, The Crusaders, Kenny G, Najee, et al.), or regional jazz orchestras (Gerald Wilson, Thad JonesMel Lewis, Maria Schneider, et al.).

CHANGES IN THIS THIRD EDITION

For the convenience of the many professors who have geared their assignments, syllabi, and exams to the second edition of Concise Guide to Jazz, we have retained the organization and facts from it for this new edition. At the request of professors and students, we have also

  1. added coverage of Billie Holiday, Ella Fitzgerald, and Sarah Vaughan
  2. expanded discussion of acid jazz and smooth jazz
  3. updated all references to books and recordings
  4. added 13 new photos of musiciansadded a "For Musicians" Appendix of basic musical foundations of jazz, such as modes, comping, and chord progressions for the 12-bar blues
  5. increased the numbering and italicizing of main points within paragraphs
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Table of Contents

Illustrations
Listening Guides
Preface
Acknowledgements
Ch. 1 What Is Jazz? 1
Ch. 2 How to Listen to Jazz 9
Ch. 3 The Origins of Jazz 19
Ch. 4 Early Jazz 31
Ch. 5 Swing 55
Ch. 6 Bebop 83
Ch. 7 Cool Jazz 105
Ch. 8 Hard Bop 117
Ch. 9 Avant-Garde of the 1960s and 70s 139
Ch. 10 Fusion 155
App Elements of Music 181
Guide to Album Buying 213
A Small Basic Collection of Jazz Videos 222
Glossary 223
Index 229
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Preface

PREFACE:

PREFACE

This book is intended as a brief introduction to jazz. It outlines the ways jazz is made and the major jazz styles that have evolved during the twentieth century. It tells why the big names are important and how their styles differ. The Demonstration CD provides examples of the instrument sounds and explains the methods and terminology of jazz. The Elements of Music Appendix explains the basic terms that are used to describe music. Listening guides are provided to accompany selections on the Concise Guide Jazz Classics Cassette/CD, and they give the reader more information about techniques of making jazz by applying the terms learned in the Demo CD and the Elements of Music Appendix. This helps listeners to detect more in each repeated hearing. Chapters end with lists of recordings and books to supplement the information that is introduced in the chapter. Most of the selections on the Concise Guide Jazz Classics Cassette/CD complement those on the Jazz Classics Cassette/CD for the Jazz Styles: History and Analysis textbook by Mark C. Gridley and the Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz rather than duplicating them. They were chosen so that each of the three sources would begin filling the historic and stylistic gaps within each other.

This book originated because professors and students asked for an introduction to jazz that was as clear and accurate as Jazz Styles but without as much detail. (Jazz Styles profiles 148 musicians and mentions about 1200 others.) Many professors also said they wanted a book that was easy to complete in a ten-week college quarter.Somesaid the ideal introductory text would focus on only about ten major figures. Reducing jazz history to a maximum of ten musicians was not feasible, however, because few authorities agree on which ten to discuss. But by increasing the minimum number of musicians to 40, we were able to accommodate the combined preferences from most authorities' "top ten" lists and still not overload students. Though this approach neglects some of the richness of jazz history, it also makes conveniently comprehensible a diversity of styles in a way that provides a basis for further explorations. If students or professors want to begin fleshing out the basic skeleton of styles treated in the present book, they can start with two resources that are already available in most colleges: Jazz Styles: History and Analysis and its Jazz Classics CD and the recordings in the Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz. If your school does not have these resources, contact Prentice Hall (College Marketing, Prentice Hall, Inc., 1 Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458; 800-526-0485) and Smithsonian Press. For more resources, see the Album Buying Strategies and A Small Basic Collection of Jazz Videos, in this book's appendix. Your first purchase might be Listening to Jazz, a one-hour video version of the Demonstration CD of instruments and methods for making jazz, prepared by Steve Gryb. It can be ordered by phoning 800-947-7700 and asking for ISBN 0-13532862-4.

The first two editions of this book have been used successfully at more than one hundred different high schools and colleges in courses about jazz history and appreciation for non-musicians. No technical knowledge of music is required to understand its contents. The optional listening guides are most useful, however, if students first familiarize themselves with instrument sounds on the Demo CD and the terms explained in the Elements of Music Appendix. Students appreciate live demonstrations and instructor assistance with this, also. Repeated listening is the key to familiarizing yourself with the sounds and their names. Appreciation increases with each rehearing of the selections on the Jazz Classics CD. It is not realistic to expect to grasp the subtleties immediately. In fact, for most selections, it is not even realistic to expect to follow all the notes until at least the fourth or fifth hearing. For this reason, most instructors devote the first few weeks of their course to the Elements of Music Appendix and Chapter 2: How to Listen to jazz, with their accompanying illustrations on the Demo CD and the Listening to Jazz video by Steve Gryb. Many instructors base quizzes and exams on the contents of the Demo CD, instrument sounds, blues form, and A-A-B-A form. Some instructors devote the first third of the course to developing these basic listening skills before moving on to comparing different jazz styles. In other words, learning listening skills is essential before learning the style differences that make jazz history interesting. In fact, some students report that without adequate instruction in such skills, they are often clueless when they try to appreciate modern jazz selections.

In designing a semester-long or quarter-long course in jazz appreciation, instructors need to tally their own priorities, not necessarily the same topics that appear in this book. Topics, musicians, and entire chapters can be skipped without doing serious damage to a brief Introduction to jazz or Understanding jazz course. For example, if emphasis is placed on in-depth appreciation of particular recordings and the musicians on them, an entire class period can be devoted to each one. Dissecting a given selection, chorus by chorus, phrase by phrase, and then replaying it five times is not excessive if students are led to focus on a different aspect each time. Therefore, a respectable course could be constructed around only eight to ten major figures, perhaps just Louis Armstrong, Lester Young, Duke Ellington, Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Miles Davis, Ornette Coleman, and John Coltrane, and in-depth appreciation of just ten to fifteen selections from the Jazz Classics Cassette/CD. Alternate ways for organizing jazz survey and jazz history courses are outlined within sample course syllabi in Instructor's Resource Manual for Concise Guide to Jazz (available from Prentice-Hall sales representatives as well as from Prentice-Hall faculty services; phone 800-526-0485). Sample items for listening exams are available in How to Teach Jazz History, a teacher's manual published by the International Association of Jazz Educators (P0. Box 724, Manhattan, Kansas 66502; phone 785-7768744; email info@IAJE.org). Both books outline pitfalls to avoid in teaching jazz history, jazz survey, and jazz appreciation courses. They also offer many lecture-demonstration strategies and teaching tips for first-time instructors.

Instructors may wish to substitute or supplement some of the text coverage and classics recordings with lectures and recordings representing such topics as Latin jazz (Tito Puente, Eddie Palmieri, Cal Tjader, Mongo Santamaria, et al.), the Chicago Avant-Garde of the 1960s and 70s (Sun Ra, The Art Ensemble of Chicago, Anthony Braxton, et al.), the New York AvantGarde of the 1980s and 90s (John Zorn, Bill Frisell, Don Byron, et al.), the Dixieland revival of the 1940s and 50s (Turk Murphy, Dukes of Dixieland, et al.), the hard bop revival of the 1980s and 90s (neoclassicists such as Wynton Marsalis, Roy Hargrove, Benny Green, Cyrus Chestnut, Joey Defrancesco, et al.), the 1980s-90s revivalists of the mid-1960s Miles Davis style (Wynton Marsalis, Wallace Roney, et al.), lightweight jazz of the 1980s and 90s (Yellow Jackets, A1 Jarreau, Spyro Gyra, The Crusaders, Kenny G, Najee, et al.), or regional jazz orchestras (Gerald Wilson, Thad JonesMel Lewis, Maria Schneider, et al.).

CHANGES IN THIS THIRD EDITION

For the convenience of the many professors who have geared their assignments, syllabi, and exams to the second edition of Concise Guide to Jazz, we have retained the organization and facts from it for this new edition. At the request of professors and students, we have also

  1. added coverage of Billie Holiday, Ella Fitzgerald, and Sarah Vaughan
  2. expanded discussion of acid jazz and smooth jazz
  3. updated all references to books and recordings
  4. added 13 new photos of musiciansadded a "For Musicians" Appendix of basic musical foundations of jazz, such as modes, comping, and chord progressions for the 12-bar blues
  5. increased the numbering and italicizing of main points within paragraphs
Read More Show Less

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