Concise Rules of APA Style / Edition 6

Concise Rules of APA Style / Edition 6

3.4 14
by American Psychological Association

The Concise Rules of APA Style, Sixth Edition offers essential writing and formatting standards for students, teachers, researchers, and clinicians in the social and behavioral sciences. This easy-to-use pocket guide, compiled from the sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, provides complete guidance on the rules of style

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The Concise Rules of APA Style, Sixth Edition offers essential writing and formatting standards for students, teachers, researchers, and clinicians in the social and behavioral sciences. This easy-to-use pocket guide, compiled from the sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, provides complete guidance on the rules of style that are critical for clear communication. Readers will learn how to avoid the grammatical errors most commonly reported by journal editors; how to choose the appropriate format for statistics, figures, and tables; how to credit sources and avoid charges of plagiarism; and how to construct a reference list through a wide variety of examples and sources. In addition to guidance on grammar points that have challenged writers in the social sciences, the Concise Rules provides suggestions for reducing bias in language; reviews the mechanics of style for punctuation, spelling, capitalization, abbreviation, italicization, headings, and quotations; examines the preferred use of numbers as well as standards for metrication and statistics; provides guidance on the construction and formatting of tables, figures, and appendixes; and offers clear examples and models for citing sources and constructing error-free reference lists. How does the Concise Rules differ from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association? The Publication Manual remains the best source for broad background information about scientific publishing. It provides detailed guidance on publication ethics, journal article reporting standards, and the process of journal publication. The Concise Rules, by comparison, targets only those rules writers need for choosing the best words and format for their articles. It offers a comprehensive list of essential writing standards in a convenient, easily retrievable format. Available in a light-weight, spiral-bound format, the Concise Rules will travel

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American Psychological Association
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Table of Contents


Introduction: A Pocket Reference for Writers
1. Concise and Bias-Free Writing

General Guidance
  Orderly Presentation of Ideas
  Smoothness of Expression
  Economy of Expression
  Precision and Clarity

  Agreement of Subject and Verb
  Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers and Use of Adverbs
  Relative Pronouns and Subordinate Conjunctions
  Parallel Construction
  Linguistic Devices

Reducing Bias in Language
  Guideline 1:  Describe at an Appropriate Level of Specificity
  Guideline 2:  Be Sensitive to Labels
  Guideline 3:  Acknowledge Participation
  Sexual Orientation
  Racial and Ethnic Identity

Organizing Ideas
  Organizing a Manuscript With Headings
  Levels of Heading
  Selecting the Levels of Heading

2. Punctuation, Spelling, and Capitalization

  Quotation Marks

  Preferred Spelling

  Words Beginning a Sentence
  Major Words in Titles and Headings
  Proper Nouns and Trade Names
  Nouns Followed by Numerals or Letters
  Titles of Tests
  Names of Conditions or Groups in an Experiment
  Names of Factors, Variables, and Effects

3. Italicizing and Abbreviating

  Italicizing Words

  Use of Abbreviations
  Explanation of Abbreviations
  Abbreviations Accepted as Words
  Abbreviations Used Often in APA Journals
  Latin Abbreviations
  Scientific Abbreviations
  Other Abbreviations
  Use of Periods With Abbreviations
  Plurals of Abbreviations
  Abbreviations Beginning a Sentence
4. Numbers, Metrication, and Statistics

  Numbers Expressed in Figures
  Numbers Expressed in Words
  Combining Figures and Words to Express Numbers
  Ordinal Numbers
  Decimal Fractions
  Roman Numerals
  Commas in Numbers
  Plurals of Numbers

  Policy on Metrication
  Style for Metric Units
Statistical and Mathematical Copy
  Selecting the Method of Analysis and Retaining Data
  Selecting Effective Presentation
  References for Statistics
  Statistics in Text
  Statistical Symbols
  Spacing, Alignment, and Punctuation
  Equations in Text
  Displayed Equations

5. Tables
Tabular Versus Textual Presentation
 Relation of Tables and Text
 Relation Between Tables
 Table Numbers
 Table Titles
 Body of a Table
 Presenting Data in Specific Types of Tables
 Notes to a Table
 Ruling of Tables
 Size of Tables
 Tables From Another Source
 Table Checklist

6.  Figures
Deciding to Use Figures
 Standards for Figures
 Types of Figures
 Line Art Versus Halftone
 Overall Size and Proportion
 Preparation of Figures
 Creating Graphs
 Using Photographs
 Identifying and Citing Figures
 Figure Legends and Captions
 Submitting Figures
 Figure Checklist

7.  Footnotes and Appendixes

  Footnotes in Text
  Notes to Tables
  Author Note

  Identifying and Citing Appendixes
  Body and Headings
  Tables as Appendixes
  Tests and Questionnaires

8.  Quotations, Reference Citations in Text, and Reference List

  Quotation of Sources
  Double or Single Quotation Marks
  Changes From the Source Requiring No Explanation
  Changes From the Source Requiring Explanation
  Citation of Sources
  Citations Within Quotations
  Permission to Quote

  Reference Citations in Text
  Agreement of Text and Reference List
  One Work by One Author
  One Work by Multiple Authors
  Groups as Authors
    Works With No Author (Including Legal Material) or With an
     Anonymous Author
  Authors With the Same Surname
  Two or More Works Within the Same Parentheses
  Classical Works
  Specific Parts of a Source
  Personal Communications
  Citations in Parenthetical Material

Reference List
    Construction of an Accurate and Complete Reference List
    APA Reference Style
  Order of References in the Reference List
  References Included in a Meta-Analysis
  Introduction to APA Reference Style
  General Forms
  Publication Date
  Title of Article or Chapter
  Title of Work and Publication Information:  Periodicals
  Title of Work:  Nonperiodicals
  Title of Work:  Part of a Nonperiodical (Book Chapters)
  Publication Information:  Nonperiodicals
  Retrieval Information:  Electronic Sources
9. Reference Examples
 A. Periodicals
 B.  Books, Brochures, and Book Chapters
 C.  Technical and Research Reports
 D.  Proceedings of Meetings and Symposia
 E.  Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses
 F.  Unpublished Work and Publications of Limited Circulation
 G.  Reviews
 H.  Audiovisual Media
 I.  Electronic Media
  Sources on the Internet
  Periodicals on the Internet
   Internet Articles Based on a Print Source
 Article in an Internet-Only Journal
 Article in an Internet-Only Journal, Retrieved Via File Transfer
 Article in an Internet-Only Newsletter
   Nonperiodical Documents on the Internet
    Multipage Document Created by Private Organization, No Date
    Chapter or Section in an Internet Document
    Stand-Alone Document, No Author Identified, No Date
    Document Available on University Program or Department Web
   Technical and Research Reports on the Internet
    Report From a University, Available on Private Organization Web
    U.S. Government Report Available on Government Agency Web
     Site, No Publication Date Indicated
    Report From a Private Organization, Available on Organization
     Web Site
    Abstract of a Technical Report Retrieved From University Web
   Proceedings of Meetings and Symposia on the Internet
    Paper Presented at a Symposium, Abstract Retrieved From
     University Web Site
    Paper Presented at a Virtual Conference
   Newsgroups, Online Forums and Discussion Groups, and Electronic    Mailing Lists
    Message Posted to a Newsgroup
    Message Posted to Online Forum or Discussion Group
    Message Posted to an Electronic Mailing List
   Other Electronic Sources
    Aggregated Databases
     Electronic Copy of a Journal Article, Three to Five
      Authors, Retrieved From Database
     Daily Newspaper Article, Electronic Version Available
      by Search
     Electronic Copy of an Abstract Obtained From a Secondary
     Electronic Version of U.S. Government Report Available
      by Search From GPO Access Database (on the Web)
    Computer Programs, Software, and Programming Languages
     Computer Software
    Computer Software and Manual Available on University
     Web Site
    Raw Data
     Data File, Available From Government Agency
     Data File, Available From NTIS Web Site

Appendix A.  Style Rules Cross-Referenced to the Fifth Edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association

Checklist for Manuscript Submission

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