Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance / Edition 1

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0781745942 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins large paperback; includes CD-ROM

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Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance is an entry-level textbook for use in strength and conditioning courses. This textbook bridges the gap between science and practice, and offers step-by-step instruction on resistance training design needs analysis, data analysis, exercise selection and sequence, and program design and periodization. It focuses on the crucial content for comprehension of the subject area and for passing a certification examination.


Student CD-ROM with:

  • Practical Exam with Video Clips to demonstrate exercises followed by a few multiple choice questions to identify exercises and proper form.
  • Lab Assignments offer suggestions for lab activities for practice and further development of skills.
  • Quiz Tool with multiple choice questions to let students evaluate their grasp of the material.
  • Additional Case Examples
  • Sequence Boxes present step-by-step instruction and illustration of exercises and movements students will use in practice.
  • Real World Application Boxes offer real life examples and demonstrate how to apply the material to real world training situations.
  • Renowned contributors offer their knowledge on their specific areas of expertise.
  • Full color illustrations and photographs created specifically for this book enhance concepts and reinforce learning.
  • Maxing Out boxes at the end of each chapter are case-based activities consisting of questions and answers based on real-life scenarios. They contain challenging content that require students to apply what they have read in order to come up with the answer.
  • Q & A from the Field is a simulated "ask-the-expert" column where each question comes from the point of view of a professional.
  • Case Examples walk students through the design and implementation of a program. They each contain:

  • Background
  • Recommendations/Consideration
  • Implementation
  • Results
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Editorial Reviews

Doody's Review Service
Reviewer: Jessica Jo Groth, MA (Central College)
Description: This book provides a thorough look at strength and conditioning starting from the first section, which covers the basic science of training, through the end of the book with specific drills and lifts to enhance human performance. The detailed pictures, charts, and descriptions make it very reader friendly.
Purpose: The purpose is to provide the strength and conditioning field with up-to-date information from new research and to provide it in a style conducive to many learning types. It is important to stay current as new research becomes available, and these authors make it easier to achieve with this book.
Audience: The author intends this as an entry-level textbook for students in exercise science and preprofessional tracks. Coaches also may find this book valuable in developing programs for their athletes.
Features: The book begins by breaking down the basic sciences and then moves into strength, flexibility, and agility training. It also covers nutritional and safety topics. Many valuable pictures, charts, and tables as well as references for supplementary information, add to the value of the book.
Assessment: This high quality book will be a beneficial resource for those in the exercise science field and, more specifically, those who work with developing athletes. It would be good used in conjunction with Essentials of Strength and Conditioning, 2nd edition, Baechle and Earle (Human Kinetics, 2000), in preparation for the Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist exam.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780781745949
  • Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • Publication date: 3/1/2007
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 488

Table of Contents

Basic Science
Bioenergetics   T. Jeff Chandler   C. Eric Arnold     3
Introduction     3
Enzymes     4
The "Creation" of Chemical Energy     6
Energy Systems     7
The Phosphocreatine System     8
Regulation of Energy Production     9
The Glycolytic System     10
The Oxidative System     11
Lactate     11
Summary of Catabolic Processes in the Production of Cellular Energy     15
Efficiency of the Energy-Producing Pathways     16
Limiting Factors of Performance     16
Oxygen Consumption     17
Metabolic Specificity     18
Summary     18
The Cardiorespiratory System   Jay R. Hoffman     20
Introduction     20
Cardiovascular System     21
Morphology of the Heart     21
Cardiac Cycle     21
Heart Rate and Conduction     22
Cardiac Output     24
Vasculature     24
Blood Pressure     25
Respiratory System     25
Pressure Differentials in Gases     27
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transport     27
Blood     28
Cardiovascular Response to Acute Exercise     28
Cardiac Output     28
Heart Rate     29
Stroke Volume     29
Cardiac Drift     30
a-Vo[subscript 2] Difference     30
Distribution of Cardiac Output     30
Blood Pressure     30
Pulmonary Ventilation During Exercise     31
Cardiovascular Adaptations to Training     31
Cardiac Output and Stroke Volume     31
Heart Rate     32
Blood Pressure     32
Cardiac Morphology     33
Respiratory Adaptations to Training     34
Ventilatory Equivalent and Minute Ventilation     35
Blood Volume Adaptations to Training     35
Environmental Factors Affecting Cardiorespiratory Function     36
Cardiorespiratory Response to Exercise in the Heat     36
Effect of Altitude on the Cardiorespiratory Response     36
Summary     38
The Neuromuscular System: Anatomical and Physiological Bases and Adaptations to Training   Jared W. Coburn   Travis W. Beck   Herbert A. deVries   Terry J. Housh     40
Introduction     40
The Neuron     41
Reflexes and Involuntary Movements     41
Proprioception and Kinesthesis     42
Higher Nerve Centers and Voluntary Muscular Control     43
The Pyramidal System     44
The Extrapyramidal System     44
The Proprioceptive-Cerebellar System     44
Gross Structure of Skeletal Muscle     45
Microscopic Structure of Skeletal Muscle     45
Structure of the Muscle Fiber     45
Muscle Fiber Types     46
Structure of the Myofibril and the Contractile Mechanism     47
The Sliding-Filament Theory of Muscle Contraction     47
Gradation of Force     48
Types of Muscle Actions     49
Isometric Muscle Actions     49
Dynamic Constant External Resistance Muscle Actions     50
Isokinetic Muscle Actions     50
Concentric and Eccentric Muscle Actions     50
Neuromuscular Adaptations to Resistance Training     50
Muscular Strength Adaptations     50
Muscle Fiber Adaptations     52
Nervous System Adaptations     53
Metabolic Adaptations     55
Endocrine Adaptations     55
Summary     56
The Skeletal System   T. Jeff Chandler   Clint Alley     60
Introduction     60
Structure of the Skeletal System     61
Bone Tissue     61
Ligamentous Tissue     64
Cartilage     64
Articulations     65
Functions of the Skeletal System     65
Structure and Protection     65
Movement     65
Blood Cell Production     66
Growth of the Skeletal System     66
Primary Bone Growth in the Epiphysis     67
Adaptations of the Skeletal System to Loading     68
Wolff's Law     68
Minimal Essential Strain     69
Training Adaptations to the Skeletal System     70
The Skeletal System and Health     70
Bone Density and Health     70
Spinal Alignment Maladies     71
Female Athletic Triad     72
Exercise Prescription to Promote Bone Density     72
Loading Speed     73
Rate and Frequency of Loading     73
Direction of Loading and Response     73
Intensity of Exercise     73
Frequency of Training     74
Vibration      74
Summary     75
Biomechanics of Conditioning Exercises   Robert U. Newton     77
Introduction     77
Biomechanical Concepts for Strength and Conditioning     78
Force-Velocity-Power Relationship     80
Musculoskeletal Machines     81
Lever Systems     81
Wheel-Axle Systems     83
Biomechanics of Muscle Function     83
Length-Tension Effect     83
Muscle Angle of Pull     83
Strength Curve     84
Line and Magnitude of Resistance     84
Sticking Region     85
Muscle Architecture, Strength, and Power     85
Multiarticulate Muscles, Active and Passive Insufficiency     86
Body Size and Shape and Power-to-Weight Ratio     87
Balance and Stability     87
Factors Contributing to Stability     87
Initiating Movement or Change of Motion     88
Stretch-Shortening Cycle     88
Biomechanics of Resistance Machines     89
Free Weights     89
Gravity-Based Machines     89
Hydraulic Resistance     91
Pneumatic Resistance     91
Elastic Resistance      91
Machines Versus Free Weights     91
Summary     92
Training Responses and Adaptations of the Endocrine System   Andrew C. Fry   Jay R. Hoffman     94
Introduction     94
The Endocrine System     95
What Are Hormones?     95
Endocrine Tissues     95
Hormone Transportation Routes     95
Types of Hormones     96
Hormone Production     98
Hormonal Transport and Binding Proteins     100
Factors Affecting Circulating Concentrations     101
Trophic Hormones and Pulsatility     102
Hormonal Rhythms     103
Anticipatory Responses     103
Biocompartments     103
Receptors and Cell Signaling     104
Regulating Hormonal Levels     106
Hormones Vital to Exercise     106
Testosterone     106
Cortisol     107
Testosterone/Cortisol Ratio     107
Growth Hormone     107
Insulin and Glucagons     107
Epinephrine     108
Norepinephrine     108
Aldosterone     108
Antidiuretic Hormone     108
Thyroid Hormones      109
Calcium-Regulating Hormones     109
Effects of Exercise on the Endocrine System     109
Acute and Chronic Training Adaptations     109
Responses and Adaptations of Hormones to Endurance Exercise     110
Acute Responses to Resistance Exercise     114
Long-Term Adaptations to Resistance Exercise     117
Overtraining and the Endocrine System     118
Using the Endocrine System to Monitor Training     119
Optimizing the Training Program     120
Goal: Muscle Hypertrophy     120
Goal: No Muscle Hypertrophy     120
Goal: High-Power Performance     120
Goal: Peak Performance     120
Goal: Avoiding Overtraining     120
Summary     121
Nutrition   Jose Antonio   John Berardi   Christopher R. Mohr     123
Introduction     123
Energy Needs     124
Carbohydrate Intake     126
Protein Intake     127
Fat Intake     128
Training Nutrition     129
Nutrient Timing     129
Carbohydrate-Protein Ratio     131
Vitamin and Mineral Intake     131
Vitamin E      131
Vitamin C     132
Minerals     132
Diets     134
Very High Carbohydrate, Very Low Fat Diets     134
High-Carbohydrate, Low-Fat Diets     137
Low-Carbohydrate, High-Protein Diets     138
Low-Carbohydrate, High-Fat, High Protein (Ketogenic) Diets     138
Summary     139
Organization and Administration
Test Administration and Interpretation   Lee E. Brown   Daniel Murray   Patrick Hagerman     147
Introduction     147
Purpose of Testing     148
Test Selection     149
Validity     149
Reliability     150
Assessment     152
Medical History and PAR-Q     152
Physician Release     152
Nutrition     152
Needs Analysis     153
Test Interpretation     159
Order Scales     159
Mathematical Measures     161
Distribution of Scores     161
Variability     162
Standardized Scores     163
Summary     163
Warm-up and Flexibility   Duane V. Knudson     166
Introduction      166
Warm-up     167
Flexibility     167
Normal Static Flexibility     170
Flexibility and Injury Risk     170
Assessing Flexibility     171
Development of Flexibility     172
Biomechanical Effects of Stretching     174
Prophylactic Effects of Stretching     175
Summary     175
Resistance Exercise Techniques and Spotting   John F. Graham     182
Introduction     182
Benefits of Resistance Training     183
Safety     184
Spotting     184
Exercise Apparel     186
Resistance-Training Technique     186
Resistance-Training Exercises     188
Summary     235
Facility Administration and Design   Steven Plisk     237
Introduction     237
Facilities and Equipment     238
Layout and Scheduling     238
Maintenance and Safety     239
Legal Duties and Concepts     240
Types of Standards     241
Applying Standards of Practice to Risk Management     241
Duties and Responsibilities: Liability Exposure      242
Preparticipation Screening and Clearance     243
Personnel Qualifications     244
Program Supervision and Instruction     244
Facility and Equipment Setup, Inspection, Maintenance, Repair, and Signage     245
Emergency Planning and Response     246
Records and Record Keeping     246
Equal Opportunity and Access     247
Participation in Strength and Conditioning Activities by Children     247
Supplements, Ergogenic Aids, and Drugs     247
Policies and Procedures     248
Summary     248
Exercise Prescription
Strength and Conditioning for Sport   Michael H. Stone   Meg E. Stone     257
Introduction     257
Basic Training Principles     258
Specificity and Transfer-of-Training Effect     260
Explosive Strength and Power     260
Program Planning     261
Single Sets Versus Multiple Sets     261
Periodization     261
Training Advanced Athletes     263
Summated Microcycles     267
Summary     270
Resistance Exercise Prescription   Barry A. Spiering   William J. Kraemer     273
Introduction      273
Needs Analysis     274
Acute Program Variables     274
Exercise Selection     274
Exercise Order     275
Loading     275
Volume     276
Rest Intervals     276
Frequency and Workout Structure     276
Muscle Action     277
Repetition Velocity     278
Resistance-Training Prescription     278
Muscular Strength     279
Muscular Power     280
Muscular Hypertrophy     282
Local Muscular Endurance     283
Progression     284
Progressive Overload     284
Variation     284
Specificity     284
Summary     285
Improving Aerobic Performance   John M. Cissik     292
Introduction     292
Factors That Influence Aerobic Exercise Performance     293
Approaches to Aerobic Training     294
Continuous Training     294
Fartlek Training     295
Interval Training     295
Repetitions     298
Organizing Aerobic Exercise Training     298
General Preparation Phase      301
Special Preparation Phase     301
Precompetition Phase     302
Competition Phase     303
Summary     303
Plyometric, Speed, and Agility Exercise Prescription   Jason D. Vescovi     306
Introduction     306
The Stretch-Shortening Cycle     307
Impacting Factors     308
Plyometrics     310
Terminology     310
Developmental Sequence     311
Intended Purpose     312
Acute Training Variables     313
Linear Sprinting     314
Developmental Sequence     314
Sprinting Gait     314
Acute Training Variables     316
Agility     317
Developmental Sequence     318
Impacting Factors     319
Effects of Movement Velocity     319
Effects of Angles     319
Effects of Anticipation     320
Acute Training Variables     320
Speed and Agility Exercises     321
Summary     341
Special Topics
Foundations of Strength Training for Special Populations   Moh H. Malek   Ann M. York   Joseph P. Weir      349
Introduction     349
Geriatrics     351
Normal Aging and Sarcopenia     351
Osteoporosis     352
Arthritis     353
Pediatrics     355
Healthy Children and Adolescents     355
Cerebral Palsy     356
Mental Retardation and Down's Syndrome     357
Muscular Dystrophy     358
Neuromuscular Disease     359
Stroke     359
Fibromyalgia     360
Postpolio Syndrome     361
Multiple Sclerosis     361
Spinal Cord Injury     362
AIDS/HIV     364
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease     364
Cardiovascular Disease     365
Obesity     366
Diabetes Mellitus     367
Cancer     368
Pregnancy     368
Summary     369
Principles of Injury Prevention and Rehabilitation   Todd S. Ellenbecker   Jake Bleacher   Anna Thatcher     376
Introduction     376
Preparticipation Physicals     378
Roles of Health Care Professionals Involved in Injury Prevention and Rehabilitation     378
Injury Classification      380
Phases of Tissue Healing: Clinical Treatment and Exercise Considerations     381
Inflammatory Phase     381
Repair Phase     383
Remodeling Phase     385
Return-to-Activity Phase: The Role of the Interval Program     386
The Interval Sport-Return Program     387
Warm-up     387
Alternate-Day Performance Scheduling     387
Integration with Conditioning     387
Progressive Stages of Intensity     388
Proper Biomechanics and Evaluation of Mechanics     388
Cool-Down or Aftercare     388
Overview of Joint Biomechanics and Exercise Applications     389
Overview of Knee Biomechanics and Exercise Applications     389
Overview of Shoulder Biomechanics and Exercise Applications     392
Overview of Spine Biomechanics and Exercise Applications     394
Summary     401
Ergogenic Aids   Jose Antonio   Tim Ziegenfuss   Ron Mendel     404
Introduction     404
Branched-Chain Amino Acids     405
Caffeine     405
Colostrum     406
Creatine     406
Essential Amino Acids      408
Glucosamine     408
Glutamine     408
Glycerol     410
Green Tea Extract     410
HMB     410
Hydration     411
Pre- and Postworkout Nutrition     412
Other Potential Ergogenic Aids     412
Summary     414
Implement Training   Allen Hedrick     423
Introduction     423
Similarity in Training Programs     424
Relying on Science     424
Lack of Implement-Training Research     424
Training Principles     424
Transferability of Implement Training to Sports Performance     425
Water-Filled Implements     425
Implement Training Should Supplement Traditional Methods     426
Program Design     426
Description of Suggested Training Implements     427
Kegs     428
Logs     430
Water-Filled Dumbbells     430
Tires     430
Kettlebells     430
Chains     431
Sandbags     432
Description of Implement Exercises and Examples of Workouts     432
Summary     451
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