Conifer Reproductive Biology / Edition 1

Conifer Reproductive Biology / Edition 1

by Claire G. Williams
     
 

ISBN-10: 9048181674

ISBN-13: 9789048181674

Pub. Date: 12/08/2010

Publisher: Springer Netherlands

This compendium on conifer reproductive biology is intended as a text supplement for plant biology courses. Such a volume seems timely because knowledge of model flowering plants is expanding so fast that each new plant biology text has less written on conifers than the last. Conifer Reproductive Biology seems needed as a specialized botany reference for life

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Overview

This compendium on conifer reproductive biology is intended as a text supplement for plant biology courses. Such a volume seems timely because knowledge of model flowering plants is expanding so fast that each new plant biology text has less written on conifers than the last. Conifer Reproductive Biology seems needed as a specialized botany reference for life science professionals, graduate students and advanced undergraduates. Its content was chosen for its relevance to those working in life sciences: ecology, evolution, genomics, environmental sciences, genetics, forestry, conservation and even immunology. Its content has also been shaped by a trend towards the integrative study of conifer reproduction.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9789048181674
Publisher:
Springer Netherlands
Publication date:
12/08/2010
Edition description:
Softcover reprint of hardcover 1st ed. 2009
Pages:
172
Product dimensions:
6.14(w) x 9.21(h) x 0.40(d)

Table of Contents

Foreword v

Prologue ix

Section I Conifer Reproductive Biology Overview

1 Introducing Conifers 3

1.1 Gymnosperms 4

1.2 Conifer Families: Classification and Geographic Distribution 4

1.3 Fossil Record for Early Seed Plants 7

1.3.1 Terrestrial Invasion of Land Plants 9

1.3.2 Heterospory 9

1.3.3 The Concept of Hydrasperman Reproduction 9

1.3.4 Cordaites: Tree-Like Gymnosperms 10

1.3.5 Walchian Gymnosperms as Transition Conifers 10

1.3.6 Rapid Conifer Diversification in the Mesozoic Era 11

1.3.7 Rise and Spread of Angiosperms 12

1.3.8 Modern Conifer Reproduction Evolved by the Mesozoic Era 12

1.3.9 Distribution of Modern Conifers 12

1.4 Fossil Record for the Pinaceae 13

1.5 Examples of Other Conifers as Living Fossils 15

1.5.1 The Metasequoia-Dominated Forest in Canadian High Arctic 15

1.5.2 Pinus krempfii in the Da Lat Plateau of Vietnam 16

1.6 Closing 18

References 19

2 The Diplohaplontic Life Cycle 23

2.1 An Overview of the Conifer Life Cycle 25

2.2 Juvenility 26

2.3 Reproductive Onset Versus Reproductive Competence 26

2.4 Apical Meristem Organization for Reproductive Initials 27

2.5 Female and Male Strobilus Development 28

2.6 Female Meiosis 31

2.7 Monospory: From Female Megaspore to Gametophyte 31

2.8 Male Meiosis, Microspores and Male Gametophytes 32

2.9 Syngamy, Fertilization and Seed Maturation 34

2.10 Closing 34

References 35

Section II Consequences of Heterospory

3 Separate Female and Male Meioses 39

3.1 Taxon-Specific Recombination Modification Systems 40

3.2 Strict Diploidy in the Pinaceae Family 40

3.3 Rare Polyploid Exceptions in Other Conifer Families 42

3.4 Conifer Have Large StableGenomes 42

3.5 Supernumerary Chromosomes 43

3.6 Stages of Meiosis 44

3.7 Chromosomal Segregation as a Source of Variation 45

3.8 Reciprocal DNA Exchange During Prophase I 45

3.8.1 Female Meiosis: A Case of Monospory 47

3.8.2 Male Meiosis Produces Four Microspores 48

3.9 From Sex-Specific Meiotic Events to Genetic Mapping 48

3.10 Closing 51

References 51

4 The Female Gametophyte Inside the Ovule 55

4.1 Female Strobilus 56

4.2 Ovular Anatomy 59

4.3 Female Meiosis Takes Place Inside the Nucellus 60

4.4 From Megaspore and Monospory to Haploid Female Gametophyte 61

4.4.1 Free Nuclei Stage 62

4.4.2 Cellularization Stage 62

4.4.3 Cellular Growth Stage 63

4.5 Variations in Female Gametophyte Development 63

4.6 Ploidy Levels for the Female Gametophyte in Conifers 64

4.7 Variants in Microspore and Pollen Morphology for Conifers 65

4.8 Closing 67

References 67

5 The Male Gametophyte Enclosed in a Pollen Wall 69

5.1 Male Strobilus 71

5.2 Sporangial Sacs Attached to Each Microsporophyll 73

5.3 Microspore Polarity Determined During Male Meiosis 73

5.4 Male Gametophyte Enclosed in Pollen Wall 74

5.4.1 Exine Formation 74

5.4.2 Intine Formation 74

5.5 From Microspore to Male Gametophyte 75

5.6 Predicting Time of Pollen Grain Release 76

5.7 Quantity of Pollen Released 77

5.8 Persistent Pollen Germination Under Laboratory Conditions 78

5.9 Long-Distance Travel for Pine Pollen 78

5.9.1 Measuring Terminal Velocity 80

5.9.2 The Open Question of Long-Distance Pollen Germination 84

5.10 Variants in Microspore and Pollen Morphology for Conifers 85

5.11 Closing 86

References 87

6 Pollination and Fertilization 91

6.1 Female Strobilus Receptivity 93

6.2 Pollination Drop: Localized Exudation from Each Ovule 95

6.3 Pollen Capture and the Role of the Micropyle 95

6.4 Composition and Function of the Pollination Drop 97

6.5 Pollen Germination into the Nucellus 99

6.6 Pollen Tube Dormancy 100

6.7 Female Gametophyte Development After Pollination 101

6.8 Fertilization 101

6.9 Different Female Reproductive Cycles 101

6.9.1 One-Year Reproductive Cycle 102

6.9.2 Two-Year Reproductive Cycle 102

6.9.3 Three-Year Reproductive Cycle 102

6.10 Closing 103

References 104

7 Syngamy, Embryo Development and Seed Dispersal 107

7.1 Syngamy and Organelle Sorting 108

7.1.1 Inheritance of Maternal Mitochrondria (M) and Paternal Plastids (P) for the Pinaceae and the Taxaceae 109

7.1.2 Inheritance of Paternal Mitochrondria (M) and Paternal Plastids (P) for the Cupressaceae and the Araucariaceae 109

7.2 Two Types of Polyembryony 110

7.3 Four Patterns of Polyembryony 110

7.3.1 Pattern of Both Simple (S) and Cleavage (C) Polyembrony 110

7.3.2 Pattern of Simple Polyembryony (S) 111

7.3.3 Pattern of Cleavage Polyembryony (C) 111

7.3.4 Pattern of No Polyembrony (NP) 111

7.4 From Many to One: The Story of a Single Dominant Embryo 112

7.5 Stage of Embryo Development 112

7.5.1 Proembryo Formation 113

7.5.2 Early Embryogeny 114

7.5.3 Late Embryogeny 115

7.6 Seed Dispersal 117

7.6.1 Windborne Dispersal 117

7.6.2 Bird-Mediated Dispersal 118

7.7 Closing 119

References 119

Section III Mating System Dynamics: Form Versus Chance

8 The Dynamic Wind-Pollinated Mating System 125

8.1 Wind-Pollinated Mating System: Outcrossing or Mixed Selfing/Outcrossing 126

8.2 Selfing 127

8.2.1 Selfing Avoidance 128

8.2.2 Selfed Embryo Deaths During Development 128

8.3 Interspecific Hybridization 128

8.4 Reproductive Sterility 132

8.5 Closing 133

References 133

9 The Embryo Lethal System 137

9.1 Moderate Selfing Rates yet Low Selfed Seed Recovery 138

9.2 Simple Polyembryony is not a Barrier Against Selfs 139

9.3 Measures of Selfed Embryo Death 141

9.3.1 Lethal Equivalents 141

9.3.2 Lethal Numbers 143

9.4 The Embryo Lethal System 143

9.5 Deleterious Alleles for Embryo Viability Loci Versus an Embryo Lethal System 144

9.6 Exploring Phylogenetic Limits to the Embryo Lethal System 145

9.7 Studying Selfed Embryo Death using Molecular Dissection 146

9.7.1 Sources of Bias for Molecular Dissection 147

9.7.2 Bias from Gametic or Gametophytic Selection 147

9.7.3 Marker Systems and Map Density Impose Experimental Design Limitations 147

9.8 Genomic Architecture for Zygotic Lethal Factors 149

9.9 Closing 150

References 150

Conclusion 155

Glossary 161

Index 167

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