Connectionism and the Mind: Parallel Processing, Dynamics, and Evolution in Networks / Edition 2

Connectionism and the Mind: Parallel Processing, Dynamics, and Evolution in Networks / Edition 2

by William Bechtel, Adele Abrahamsen
     
 

ISBN-10: 0631207139

ISBN-13: 9780631207139

Pub. Date: 01/28/2002

Publisher: Wiley

Connectionism and the Mind provides a clear and balanced introduction to connectionist networks and explores their theoretical and philosophical implications.

As in the first edition, the first few chapters focus on network architecture and offer an accessible treatment of the equations that govern learning and the propagation of activation, including a

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Overview

Connectionism and the Mind provides a clear and balanced introduction to connectionist networks and explores their theoretical and philosophical implications.

As in the first edition, the first few chapters focus on network architecture and offer an accessible treatment of the equations that govern learning and the propagation of activation, including a glossary for reference. The reader is walked step-by-step through such tasks as memory retrieval and prototype formation. The middle chapters pursue the implications of connectionism's focus on pattern recognition and completion as fundamental to cognition. Some proponents of connectionism have emphasized these functions to the point of rejecting any role for linguistically structured representations and rules, resulting in heated debates with advocates of symbol processing accounts of cognition. The coverage of this controversy has been updated and augmented by a new chapter on modular networks. Finally, three new chapters discuss the relation of connectionism to three emerging research programs: dynamical systems theory, artificial life, and cognitive neuroscience.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780631207139
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
01/28/2002
Edition description:
REV
Pages:
424
Product dimensions:
6.85(w) x 9.75(h) x 1.25(d)

Table of Contents

Preface
1Networks versus Symbol Systems: Two Approaches to Modeling Cognition1
1.1A Revolution in the Making?1
1.2Forerunners of Connectionism: Pandemonium and Perceptrons2
1.3The Allure of Symbol Manipulation7
1.4The Decline and Re-emergence of Network Models12
1.5New Alliances and Unfinished Business15
2Connectionist Architectures19
2.1The Flavor of Connectionist Processing: A Simulation of Memory Retrieval19
2.2The Design Features of a Connectionist Architecture29
2.3The Allure of the Connectionist Approach45
2.4Challenges Facing Connectionist Networks51
3Learning54
3.1Traditional and Contemporary Approaches to Learning54
3.2Connectionist Models of Learning57
3.3Some Issues Regarding Learning82
4Pattern Recognition and Cognition89
4.1Networks as Pattern Recognition Devices90
4.2Extending Pattern Recognition to Higher Cognition102
4.3Logical Inference as Pattern Recognition106
4.4Beyond Pattern Recognition117
5Are Rules Required to Process Representations?120
5.1Is Language Use Governed by Rules?120
5.2Rumelhart and McClelland's Model of Past-tense Acquisition122
5.3Pinker and Prince's Arguments for Rules135
5.4Accounting for the U-shaped Learning Function141
5.5Conclusion152
6Are Syntactically Structured Representations Needed?156
6.1Fodor and Pylyshyn's Critique: The Need for Symbolic Representations with Constituent Structure156
6.2First Connectionist Response: Explicitly Implementing Rules and Representations163
6.3Second Connectionist Response: Implementing Functionally Compositional Representations170
6.4Third Connectionist Response: Employing Procedural Knowledge with External Symbols178
6.5Using External Symbols to Provide Exact Symbol Processing190
6.6Clarifying the Standard: Systematicity and Degree of Generalizability194
6.7Conclusion197
7Simulating Higher Cognition: A Modular Architecture for Processing Scripts200
7.1Overview of Scripts200
7.2Overview of Miikkulainen's DISCERN System201
7.3Modular Connectionist Architectures203
7.4FGREP: An Architecture that Allows the System to Devise Its Own Representations206
7.5A Self-organizing Lexicon Using Kohonen Feature Maps212
7.6Encoding and Decoding Stories as Scripts217
7.7A Connectionist Episodic Memory223
7.8Performance: Paraphrasing Stories and Answering Questions228
7.9Evaluating DISCERN231
7.10Paths Beyond the First Decade of Connectionism233
8Connectionism and the Dynamical Approach to Cognition235
8.1Are We on the Road to a Dynamical Revolution?235
8.2Basic Concepts of DST: The Geometry of Change237
8.3Using Dynamical Systems Tools to Analyze Networks243
8.4Putting Chaos to Work in Networks257
8.5Is Dynamicism a Competitor to Connectionism?264
8.6Is Dynamicism Complementary to Connectionism?276
8.7Conclusion280
9Networks, Robots, and Artificial Life282
9.1Robots and the Genetic Algorithm282
9.2Cellular Automata and the Synthetic Strategy284
9.3Evolution and Learning in Food-seekers291
9.4Evolution and Development in Khepera295
9.5The Computational Neuroethology of Robots300
9.6When Philosophers Encounter Robots301
9.7Conclusion305
10Connectionism and the Brain306
10.1Connectionism Meets Cognitive Neuroscience306
10.2Four Connectionist Models of Brain Processes309
10.3The Neural Implausibility of Many Connectionist Models341
10.4Whither Connectionism?346
App. A: Notation349
App. B: Glossary350
Bibliography363
Name Index384
Subject Index395

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