Conscience and Compromise: Forgotten Evangelicals of Nineteenth-Century Scotland

Overview

The Scottish Episcopal Church in the nineteenth century was dominated by High Churchmen. But by around 1820 Evangelical clergy began to take up posts within its fold, particularly in the major Scottish cities, holiday centres and in places where wealthy patrons could supply funds necessary to sustain a church. The Evangelical newcomers reached a numerical peak from 1842 to 1854 when they accounted for around one in seven of all episcopal clergy in Scotland, They provided some of the most active and vibrant ...
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2006 pp. 415. New reprint edition; previously published by Paternoster, 2006.

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Overview

The Scottish Episcopal Church in the nineteenth century was dominated by High Churchmen. But by around 1820 Evangelical clergy began to take up posts within its fold, particularly in the major Scottish cities, holiday centres and in places where wealthy patrons could supply funds necessary to sustain a church. The Evangelical newcomers reached a numerical peak from 1842 to 1854 when they accounted for around one in seven of all episcopal clergy in Scotland, They provided some of the most active and vibrant ministries in the country, notable for their work among the poor and in Sabbatarian, temperance and missionary endeavours. At the same time their private lives were marked by an attractiveness which belied some contemporary critics of Evangelicalism.

However, many Evangelicals did not find the Scottish Episcopal Church to be their natural home. Disputes with High Churchmen arose in the 1820s concerning, particularly, the doctrine of conversion and were to continue for the rest of the century. When D.T.K. Drummond was censured in 1842 by Bishop C.H. Terrot of Edinburgh for holding evangelistic meetings in the city, he and a large part of his congregation left the Scottish Episcopal Church and founded St. Thomas's Church, loyal to the Church of England. When, subsequently, Drummond found that he had serious doctrinal scruples concerning the Scottish Communion Office, the official liturgy of the Scottish Episcopal Church, others joined his English Episcopal movement which was represented by ninety-one clergy serving twenty-four churches up to 1900. After years of agitation the Scottish Episcopal Church altered its canon law in 1890 to accommodate Evangelical concerns. Some EnglishEpiscopalians accepted the compromise but for some others the terms were still not satisfactorily watertight and as a matter of conscience they chose to remain apart.

About the Author:
Patricia Meldrum worked for the Medical Research Council in Cambridge and as a teacher in Biology at the Cambridgeshire College of Arts and Technology

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Meet the Author

Patricia Meldrum was educated at the Henrietta Barnett School, London, and went on to obtain an honours BSc from London University. She then worked for the Medical Research Council in Cambridge and as a teacher in Biology at the Cambridgeshire College of Arts and Technology. On moving to Edinburgh in 1969 she spent the ensuing years caring for her family and helping with a variety of children's activities, home groups, women's and missionary meetings and Alpha courses at St Thomas's Church in that city. In 1994 she gained an honours degree in Arts from the Open University which led to obtaining a PhD in History at Stirling University, the content of which forms the substance of this book.
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Table of Contents


List of Graphs     xii
List of Maps     xiii
List of Tables     xiv
Foreword   David Bebbington     xvii
Preface     xix
Abbreviations     xxiii
Introduction     1
The Rise of Evangelicalism in Nineteenth-Century Scottish Episcopalianism     6
Scottish Episcopal Evangelicals     15
English Episcopal Evangelicals     22
Early Lay Scottish Evangelical Episcopalianism     22
Strength of Evangelical Episcopalianism in Scotland     23
History of the Scottish Episcopal Church     29
Geographical Distribution     37
Church Missionary Society Visits     45
Conclusion     56
Social Class     67
Choosing the Records     70
Classification Scheme     73
St Paul's, Aberdeen     78
St Peter's, Montrose     79
St James's, Edinburgh     79
St Thomas's, Edinburgh     80
St James's, Aberdeen     81
St Vincent's, Edinburgh     81
St Silas's, Glasgow     82
St Jude's, Glasgow     82
St Silas's Partick Mission, Govan, Glasgow     83
St Paul's, Carrubber's Close, Edinburgh     83
Analysis     83
Skilled Working Class in Evangelical Episcopal Churches     84
Unskilled Working Class in Evangelical Episcopal Churches     87
Upper Middle Class in Evangelical Episcopal Churches     91
Lower Middle Class in Evangelical Episcopal Churches     93
Conclusion     93
Theology     117
Core Theology     117
Conversionism     117
Activism     122
Crucicentrism     129
Biblicism     131
Wider Evangelical Theology     133
Incarnation Theology     133
Sanctification     136
Election     139
Millenarianism     143
Inspiration of Scripture     147
Conclusion     151
Lifestyle     153
Femininity and Masculinity     154
Children     159
Philanthropy     164
Sabbatarianism     170
Temperance     174
Recreation     177
Conclusion     182
Doctrinal and Practical Issues     183
Anti-Catholicism     183
Baptism      193
Architecture     205
Ritualism     210
Conclusion     212
The Doctrine of the Scottish Communion Office     215
The History of the Scottish Communion Office     220
Disputes Over The Scottish Communion Office of 1764     224
The Prayer of Oblation     226
The Prayer of Invocation     228
Minor Points of Difference     232
Bagot's Analysis     232
High Church Response to Craig, Drummond and Bagot     235
Scottish Evangelical Episcopal Response     237
Conclusion     244
Secession     247
Introduction     247
The First Disruptions     258
Arradoul     258
Edinburgh     259
Events     259
Factors Surrounding the Conflict     265
Conclusion     278
Continuing Disruption     281
St Paul's, Aberdeen     284
St Jude's, Glasgow     289
Other English Episcopal Chapels, 1845-1855     293
Internal Disruptions, 1854-1865     302
Later Disruptions, 1861-1887     308
Consolidating Factors, 1845-1887      310
Evangelicalism and English Episcopalianism     314
Conclusion     316
From Secession to Partial Union, 1846-1900     319
Concessions from the Church of England, 1845-1863     320
The Duke of Buccleuch's Bill, 1864     331
Aftermath, 1864-1869     332
Attempt at Reconciliation, 1870-1872     336
Divisions within English Episcopalianism     343
An English Episcopal Bishop     352
Moves to Unite, 1882     354
Revision of Liturgy and Canons, 1890     357
After 1890     360
Conclusion     363
Conclusion     365
Bibliography     385
Index     407
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