Conspiracy Investigations: Terrorism, Drugs and Gangs / Edition 1

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Overview

Conspiracy Investigations: Terrorism, Drugs and Gangs is written by retired Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Supervisory Special Agent Gregory D. Lee who was an instructor at the DEA's Office of Training at the FBI Academy and specialized in conspiracy investigations. His 30 years of criminal investigative experience provides the reader with a clear understanding of what a conspiracy is, how it is investigated and why it is such an important tool in dismantling entire criminal organizations.

The book provides an overview of the most widely known terrorist organizations throughout the world, the major source countries responsible for illegal drugs found in America, and the most prolific criminal gangs operating in the country. It is a must read for criminal justice students and practitioners to understand how to deal with these three different criminal elements within their communities.

Features include:

  • The many advantages of making the crime of conspiracy the primary focus of a criminal investigation.
  • Timely case law concerning conspiracy investigations.
  • The techniques commonly used to develop and investigate conspiracy cases.
  • Extra-judicial renditions that bring fugitives to American justice from anywhere in the world.
  • Case studies concerning the events of September 11, 2001, a major international drug smuggling organization, and a gang related multiple homicide.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"I am not aware of a textbook currently available which provides this depth and focus on conspiracy investigations. The material is relevant and current. The author obviously has a rich blend of both practical and academic preparation." — Ronald D. Swan, Lincoln College, Normal, IL

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131172289
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 9/16/2004
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 248
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Gregory D. Lee retired as a supervisory special agent for the U.S. Department of justice, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) in late 2003. He is now a criminal justice author and consultant.

Throughout his diverse government career, he has conducted and supervised numerous international drug conspiracy investigations, and at one time he was the resident agent-in-charge of the DEAs Karachi, Pakistan, office. While in Pakistan between 1994 and 1998, Mr. Lee became personally involved in several notable terrorism investigations. He participated in the arrest of Ramzi Ahmed Yousef, the mastermind behind the 1993 World Trade Center bombings who was thought by many to be the architect of the attacks of September 11, 2001. He also later testified at Yousef's trial and was cross-examined by Yousef, who elected to represent himself. Through informants, he also assisted the FBI in locating Amil Kanzi, the terrorist responsible for the murder of two CIA employees outside CIA headquarters in 1993. As a result of his terrorism investigation experiences in Pakistan, he has lectured for and consulted with various agencies within the U.S. intelligence community. He also appeared on an episode of the Discovery Channel's The FBI Files that included information about his actions during the Kanzi investigation.

Mr. Lee taught conspiracy investigations, drug smuggling, informant management, and many other courses as an instructor at the DEAs Office of Training, located at the FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia. He developed and taught weeklong conspiracy-investigation seminars for federal, state, and local law enforcement officers and intelligence community analysts around the country. He spent a year as a member of one of the DEAs international training teams, visiting many countries to provide conspiracy and drug enforcement training to foreign law enforcement officials.

He is the author of the textbook, Global Drug Law Enforcement: Practical Investigative Techniques, published by CRC Press, and he has written several articles on drug enforcement topics for professional publications, including the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin and The Police Chief magazine.

Mr. Lee also served as a counselor for the 160th session of the FBI National Academy in 1990.

Prior to working for DEA, he was a police officer for the cities of Saunas and Pasadena in California.

Mr. Lee has a combination of more than 32 years of active duty and U.S. Army Reserve service, and he is a chief warrant officer 5/special agent with the U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command, better known as CID. As an Army reservist, he is an associate instructor with the U.S. Army Military Police School and is a subject matter expert in counter-drug operations and terrorism.

Shortly after the attacks of September 11, 2001, he was called to active duty and served one year at the U.S. Army Operations Center's Anti-Terrorism Operations and Intelligence Cell at the Pentagon, where he routinely analyzed highly classified intelligence data and briefed the Army's top leadership on terrorism and force-protection issues.

Mr. Lee earned a master of public administration in justice administration degree from Golden Gate University, San Francisco, and a bachelor's of science degree in sociology with dual minors in vocational education and criminology from the University of Maryland. While attending graduate school, he taught a criminal investigation course for Monterey Peninsula College, Monterey, California.

He is a regularly scheduled guest speaker at the Defense Intelligence Agency's Joint Military Intelligence Training Center in Washington, D.C. Mr. Lee has been a guest lecturer for the International Law Enforcement Academy in Bangkok, Thailand, the California Narcotic Officers' Association, and the International Narcotic Interdiction Association. He is a frequent radio talk show guest concerning his DEA assignment in Pakistan.

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Read an Excerpt

Terrorists, drug traffickers, and street gangs increase their likelihood of success when they organize. Someone acting alone is more likely to change his mind about committing a crime than someone who is involved with others in a criminal conspiracy. Because of their far-reaching effects, conspiracy investigations have been proven to be some of the most effective means to dismantle entire criminal organizations.

Arresting individual low-level terrorists, drug dealers, and street gang members does little to stop their supervisors, managers, organizers, and facilitators from continuing their criminal enterprises. However, these criminal organizations are especially vulnerable to comprehensive conspiracy investigations. Thanks to judicial Interpertation of existing conspiracy laws, these groups can be dismantled by making all members of a criminal conspiracy subject to indictment, arrest, and conviction for the crimes each member of the organization commits in furtherance of the conspiracy.

Conspiracy Investigations: Terrorism, Drugs, and Gangs explains in detail what a conspiracy is, what the elements of the crime are, how the law allows prosecutors to attach criminal liability to all members of a conspiracy, and the many other advantages of charging defendants with these statutes. The book guides the reader through a series of realistic examples to reinforce important teaching points that focus on how to investigate and successfully prosecute these cases. It also discusses the techniques used by federal agencies to perform extrajudicial renditions to bring international conspirators to the United States to face justice, regardless of whether an extraditiontreaty exists.

While an instructor at the Office of Training for the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), I taught new special agents, intelligence analysts, diversion investigators, state and local police officers, and members of the intelligence community how to conduct comprehensive conspiracy investigations. As a member of a DEA international training team, I also taught many foreign law enforcement officials how to apply their newly ratified conspiracy laws against organized drug criminals.

Conspiracy Investigations: Terrorism, Drugs, and Gangs takes the mystery out of the law and explores the many investigative techniques that can be used to expand criminal investigations to their fullest potential, so criminal organizations can be dismantled. This book also describes how to develop successful investigative and prosecution strategies against organized criminals. Along the way, it introduces the reader to the world of terrorism, drug, and gang organizations and how they operate.

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Table of Contents

(NOTE: Each chapter ends with a Summary.)

1. Introduction to Conspiracy Law.

Definition of Conspiracy. The Wharton Rule. Punishment for Conspiracy. Elements of the Crime of Conspiracy. Plurality Requirement. The Agreement. Overt Acts. Pinkerton Theory of Vicarious Liability. Withdrawal from the Conspiracy. Termination of the Conspiracy. Venue. Duration of the Conspiracy. Statute of Limitations.

2. Types of Criminal Conspiracies.

Ongoing Conspiracies. Historical Conspiracies. Dry Conspiracies. Chain Conspiracies. Cell Conspiracies. Wheel Conspiracies. Combination Wheel and Cell Conspiracies.

3. Advantages of Conducting Conspiracy Investigations.

Simplicity. Crime Prevention. Leverage. Exception to the Hearsay Rule of Evidence. Asset Forfeiture. Evidence Can Be Used in Multiple Trials.

4. Difficulties of Conducting Conspiracy Investigations.

Protracted in Nature. Manpower Intensity. Verification and Corroboration. “No Dope” Drug Conspiracies.

5. Developing Conspiracy Cases.

Confidential Informants. Undercover Agents. Asset Forfeiture Inquiries. Fixed and Mobile Surveillance. Pen Registers. Wiretaps and Technical Listening Equipment. Surveillance Cases. The Grand Jury. Coordination with Other Law Enforcement Agencies. Analytical Investigative Support. Public, Private, and Government Records. Polygraph Examinations. Mail Covers. Trash Runs. Photo Lineups. Search Warrants.

6. Drug Interdiction Conspiracy Cases.

Introduction. Courier Profiling. Approaching the Passenger. Hotel Profiling. Expanding the Initial Investigation. Other Considerations. Suggested Reading.

7. Coordination with the Prosecutor.

Charging All Crimes Committed by Conspirators. Sealed Indictments. Arrest Warrants. Material Witness Warrants. Grand Jury Proceedings. Immunity. Multiple Venues. Asset Forfeiture Procedures.

8. Defense Attorney Tactics.

Defendant Withdrew from the Conspiracy. Outrageous Government Conduct. Multiple Defendants. Entrapment. Mistaken Identity. Fabrication of Exculpatory Evidence. Placing the Investigator on Trial. Defendant Was Involved in an Entirely Different Conspiracy. The Blind Mule.

9. Extra-Judicial Renditions.

Introduction. The Formal Extradition Process. Setting the Trap. International Criminal Police Organization.

10. Overview of Terrorist Organizations.

Introduction. Motivation for Terrorism. Transnational Terrorist Organizations. The al-Qaida Network. Sub-National Terrorist Organizations. Combating Terrorism.

11. Overview of Drug Trafficking.

Introduction. Source Countries of Popular Illegal Drugs. Use of Confidential Informants in Drug Conspiracies. Covert Operations. Controlled Deliveries. Other Considerations. Suggested Reading.

12. Gang Profiles: Crips and Bloods.

Introduction. Gang Indentifiers. Friends and Enemies. Structure of the Organizations. Recruitment and Initiation. Violent Prison Behavior.

13. Terrorism Conspiracy Case Study.

Introduction. Conspiracy to Commit Air Piracy and Terrorist Acts Against the United States.

14. Drug Trafficking Conspiracy Case Study.

Introduction. Conspiracy to Distribute Controlled Substances.

15. Gang Conspiracy Case Study.

Introduction. Conspiracy to Commit Murder; Attempted Murder.

Appendix A: Sample Conspiracy Indictment.

Appendix B: The Zacarias Moussaoui Indictment.

Appendix C: U.S. v. Alvarez-Machain, 504 U.S. 655 (1992).

Appendix D: Osama bin Laden Conspiracy Indictment.

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Preface

Terrorists, drug traffickers, and street gangs increase their likelihood of success when they organize. Someone acting alone is more likely to change his mind about committing a crime than someone who is involved with others in a criminal conspiracy. Because of their far-reaching effects, conspiracy investigations have been proven to be some of the most effective means to dismantle entire criminal organizations.

Arresting individual low-level terrorists, drug dealers, and street gang members does little to stop their supervisors, managers, organizers, and facilitators from continuing their criminal enterprises. However, these criminal organizations are especially vulnerable to comprehensive conspiracy investigations. Thanks to judicial Interpertation of existing conspiracy laws, these groups can be dismantled by making all members of a criminal conspiracy subject to indictment, arrest, and conviction for the crimes each member of the organization commits in furtherance of the conspiracy.

Conspiracy Investigations: Terrorism, Drugs, and Gangs explains in detail what a conspiracy is, what the elements of the crime are, how the law allows prosecutors to attach criminal liability to all members of a conspiracy, and the many other advantages of charging defendants with these statutes. The book guides the reader through a series of realistic examples to reinforce important teaching points that focus on how to investigate and successfully prosecute these cases. It also discusses the techniques used by federal agencies to perform extrajudicial renditions to bring international conspirators to the United States to face justice, regardless of whether an extradition treaty exists.

While an instructor at the Office of Training for the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), I taught new special agents, intelligence analysts, diversion investigators, state and local police officers, and members of the intelligence community how to conduct comprehensive conspiracy investigations. As a member of a DEA international training team, I also taught many foreign law enforcement officials how to apply their newly ratified conspiracy laws against organized drug criminals.

Conspiracy Investigations: Terrorism, Drugs, and Gangs takes the mystery out of the law and explores the many investigative techniques that can be used to expand criminal investigations to their fullest potential, so criminal organizations can be dismantled. This book also describes how to develop successful investigative and prosecution strategies against organized criminals. Along the way, it introduces the reader to the world of terrorism, drug, and gang organizations and how they operate.

Read More Show Less

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