Constitutional Debates On Freedom Of Religion

Constitutional Debates On Freedom Of Religion

by John Patrick

ISBN-10: 0313301409

ISBN-13: 9780313301407

Pub. Date: 11/30/1999

Publisher: ABC-CLIO, Incorporated

Debates over the separation or accommodation of religion and government have divided Americans since the founding of our country and continue to echo in governmental chambers today, as people argue sharply and heatedly about the exact meaning and correct applications of First Amendment clauses on religious establishment and free exercise of religion. Students can

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Debates over the separation or accommodation of religion and government have divided Americans since the founding of our country and continue to echo in governmental chambers today, as people argue sharply and heatedly about the exact meaning and correct applications of First Amendment clauses on religious establishment and free exercise of religion. Students can trace the history and development of these arguments, as well as the reactions to them, through this unique collection of over 70 primary documents. Court cases and other documents bring to life the controversies surrounding the issues. Explanatory introductions to documents aid users in understanding the various arguments put forth, while illuminating the significance of each document.

Patrick and Long trace the origins and changes in the nature of the debates surrounding the issue of freedom of religion using carefully chosen court cases and other documents to reflect the fact that the Court's decision has not always ended public controversy about the relationships between church and state or religion and government. Indeed, especially in recent years, the Court's decisions in some cases have exacerbated old tensions and generated new issues. The focus throughout is on the connection between the U.S. Constitution and freedom of religion. The introductory and explanatory text help readers understand the nature of the conflicts, the issues being litigated, the social and cultural pressures that shaped each debate, and the manner in which the passions of individual government officials, justices, and our presidents affected the development of policies concerning freedom of religion.

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Product Details

ABC-CLIO, Incorporated
Publication date:
Primary Documents in American History and Contemporary Issues Series
Edition description:
New Edition
Product dimensions:
6.14(w) x 9.21(h) x 0.81(d)

Table of Contents

Series Foreword
Chronology of Key Events
Pt. IColonial Roots of Religious Liberty, 1606-1776
Document 1First Charter of Virginia (November 20, 1606)8
Document 2Acts of the Virginia Colonial Government on Religion (1624 and 1630)9
Document 3Charter of Massachusetts Bay (March 4, 1629)10
Document 4Acts of the Massachusetts Colonial Government on Religion (1631, 1635, and 1638)11
Document 5Massachusetts Body of Liberties (December 10, 1641)12
Document 6Massachusetts School Law (November 11, 1647)13
Document 7Maryland Toleration Act (April 21, 1649)14
Document 8Rhode Island Charter (July 8, 1663)15
Document 9The Great Case of Liberty of Conscience (William Penn, 1670)16
Document 10Great Law of Pennsylvania (December 7, 1682)17
Document 11A Letter Concerning Toleration (John Locke, 1689)19
Document 12Charter of Privileges of Pennsylvania (Granted by William Penn, October 28, 1701)22
Document 13Letter to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (The Reverend Thomas Barton, November 8, 1762)23
Document 14An Appeal to the Public for Religious Liberty (The Reverend Isaac Backus, 1773)24
Pt. IIReligious Liberty in the Founding of the United States, 1776-1791
Document 15The Virginia Declaration of Rights (June 12, 1776)36
Document 16Articles on Religion in the Pennsylvania Declaration of Rights and Constitution (1776)38
Document 17Articles on Religion in the Maryland Declaration of Rights (1776)40
Document 18The Massachusetts Declaration of Rights (1780)41
Document 19Liberty of Worship in America (Hector St. John de Crevecoeur, 1782)43
Document 20An Argument for Religious Liberty in Notes on the State of Virginia (Thomas Jefferson, 1782)44
Document 21Letter on the Selection of a Roman Catholic Bishop in the United States of America (Father John Carroll, February 27, 1785)46
Document 22Memorial and Remonstrance Against Religious Assessments (James Madison, June 20, 1785)48
Document 23The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (Thomas Jefferson, January 16, 1786)53
Document 24Article VI of the United States Constitution (1787)55
Document 25An Argument Against a Religious Test for Public Office (Oliver Ellsworth, December 17, 1787)56
Document 26The Federalist 51 (Publius [James Madison], February 6, 1788)58
Document 27Speech on Rights in the U.S. House of Representatives (James Madison, June 8, 1789)60
Document 28Discussion in the House of Representatives on Constitutional Guarantees of Religious Liberty (August 15, 1789)63
Document 29Action in the Senate on Constitutional Guarantees of Religious Liberty (September 3 and 9, 1789)66
Document 30Clauses on Religion in the First Amendment of the United States Constitution (December 15, 1791)67
Pt. IIIThe Constitutional Right to Free Exercise of Religion, 1791-1991
Document 31Reynolds v. United States (1879)76
Document 32Pierce v. Society of the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary (1925)78
Document 33Cantwell v. Connecticut (1940)80
Document 34West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette (1943)83
Document 35Murdock v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1943)88
Document 36United States v. Ballard (1944)91
Document 37Prince v. Commonwealth of Massachusetts (1944)95
Document 38Braunfeld v. Brown (1961)97
Document 39Sherbert v. Verner (1963)101
Document 40Welsh v. United States (1970)104
Document 41Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972)107
Document 42Heffron v. International Society for Krishna Consciousness (1981)112
Document 43United States v. Lee (1982)116
Document 44Bob Jones University v. United States (1983)119
Document 45Goldman v. Weinberger (1986)122
Document 46Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective Association (1988)125
Document 47Employment Division, Department of Human Resources of Oregon v. Smith (1990)130
Pt. IVThe Constitutional Prohibition of an Establishment of Religion, 1791-1991
Document 48Everson v. Board of Education of Ewing Township (1947)145
Document 49Zorach v. Clauson (1952)151
Document 50McGowan v. Maryland (1961)156
Document 51Engel v. Vitale (1962)160
Document 52School District of Abington Township, Pennsylvania v. Schempp (1963)164
Document 53Board of Education of Central School District No. 1 v. Allen (1968)169
Document 54Walz v. Tax Commission of the City of New York (1970)174
Document 55Lemon v. Kurtzman, Superintendent of Public Instruction of Pennsylvania (1971)178
Document 56Meek v. Pittenger (1975)183
Document 57Wolman v. Walter (1977)188
Document 58Mueller v. Allen (1983)195
Document 59Marsh Chambers (1983)200
Document 60The Equal Access Act (1984)204
Document 61Wallace v. Jaffree (1985)206
Document 62Aguilar v. Felton (1985)216
Document 63Edwards v. Aguillard (1987)220
Document 64Allegheny County v. American Civil Liberties Union, Greater Pittsburgh Chapter (1989)225
Document 65Board of Education of the Westside Community Schools v. Mergens (1990)234
Pt. VConstitutional Issues on Freedom of Religion, 1991-1998
Document 66Lee v. Weisman (1992)249
Document 67Lamb's Chapel v. Center Moriches Union Free School District (1993)260
Document 68Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye, Inc. v. City of Hialeah (1993)264
Document 69Zobrest v. Catalina Foothills School District (1993)270
Document 70Religious Freedom Restoration Act (1993)275
Document 71Board of Education of Kiryas Joel Village School District v. Grumet (1994)278
Document 72Rosenberger v. University of Virginia (1995)285
Document 73Capitol Square Review and Advisory Board v. Pinette (1995)292
Document 74President Clinton's Statement on Religious Expression in Public Schools (July 13, 1995)299
Document 75Agostini v. Felton (1997)304
Document 76City of Boerne v. Flores (1997)310
Document 77Religious Diversity in the United States of America (1998)321
Appendix: Categorical Listings of U.S. Supreme Court Cases Treated in This Volume325

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