Constructal Theory of Social Dynamics / Edition 1

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Overview

Constructal Theory of Social Dynamics brings together for the first time social scientists and engineers to develop a predictive theory of social organization, as a conglomerate of mating flows that morph in time to flow more easily (people, goods, money, energy, information). These flows have objectives (e.g., minimization of effort, travel time, cost), and the objectives clash with global constraints (space, time, resources). The result is organization (flow architecture) derived from one principle of configuration evolution in time (the constructal law): "for a flow system to persist in time, its configuration must morph such that it provides easier access to its streams."
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780387476803
  • Publisher: Springer US
  • Publication date: 7/30/2007
  • Edition description: 2007
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 350
  • Product dimensions: 6.10 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface xi

1 The Constructal Law in Nature and Society Adrian Bejan 1

1.1 The Constructal Law 1

1.2 The Urge to Organize Is an Expression of Selfish Behavior 5

1.3 The Distribution of Human Settlements 13

1.4 Human Constructions and Flow Fossils in General 17

1.5 Animal Movement 22

1.5.1 Flying 24

1.5.2 Running 25

1.5.3 Swimming 26

1.6 Patterned Movement and Turbulent Flow Structure 29

1.7 Science as a Constructal Flow Architecture 31

References 32

2 Constructal Models in Social Processes Gilbert W. Merkx 35

2.1 Introduction 35

2.2 Natural Versus Social Phenomena: An Important Distinction? 36

2.3 Case Studies: Two Social Networks 38

2.3.1 The Argentine Railway Network: 1870-1914 38

2.3.2 Mexican Migration to the United States, 1980-2006 45

2.4 Conclusions 48

References 50

3 Tree Flow Networks in Urban Design Sylvie Lorente 51

3.1 Introduction 51

3.2 How to Distribute Hot Water over an Area 51

3.3 Tree Network Generated by Repetitive Pairing 55

3.4 Robustness and Complexity 59

3.5 Development of Configuration by Adding New Users to Existing Networks 60

3.6 Social Determinism and Constructal Theory 68

References 70

4 Natural Flow Patterns and Structured People Dynamics: A Constructal View A. Heitor Reis 71

4.1 Introduction 71

4.2 Patterns in Natural Flows: The River Basins Case 71

4.2.1 Scaling Laws of River Basins 72

4.3 Patterns of Global Circulations 74

4.4 Flows of People 76

4.4.1 Optimal Flow Tree 77

4.4.2 Fossils of Flows of People 79

4.5 Conclusions 82

References 82

5 Constructal Pattern Formation in Nature, Pedestrian Motion, and Epidemics Propagation Antonio F. Miguel 85

5.1Introduction 85

5.2 Constructal Law and the Generation of Configuration 86

5.3 Constructal Pattern Formation in Nature 87

5.3.1 Formation of Dissimilar Patterns Inside Flow Systems 87

5.3.2 The Shapes of Stony Coral Colonies and Plant Roots 89

5.4 Constructal Patterns Formation in Pedestrian Motion 92

5.4.1 Pedestrian Dynamics: Observation and Models 92

5.4.2 Diffusion and Channeling in Pedestrian Motion 95

5.4.3 Crowd Density and Pedestrian Flow 98

5.5 Optimizing Pedestrian Facilities by Minimizing Residence Time 103

5.5.1 The Optimal Gates Geometry 103

5.5.2 Optimal Architecture for Different Locomotion Velocities 104

5.5.3 The Optimal Queuing Flow 106

5.6 Constructal View of Self-organized Pedestrian Movement 108

5.7 Population Motion and Spread of Epidemics 109

5.7.1 Modeling the Spreading of an Epidemic 110

5.7.2 Geotemporal Dynamics of Epidemics 112

References 114

6 The Constructal Nature of the Air Traffic System Stephen Perin 119

6.1 Introduction 119

6.2 The Constructal Law of Maximum Flow Access 120

6.2.1 Foundations of Constructal Theory 120

6.2.2 The Volume-to-Point Flow Problem 122

6.3 Relevant Results for Aeronautics 124

6.3.1 Aircraft Design 124

6.3.2 Meteorological Models 126

6.4 Application to the Air Traffic System 127

6.4.1 Air traffic flow 127

6.4.2 The Constructal Law and the Generation of Benford Distribution in ATFM 130

6.4.3 Spatial Patterns of Airport Flows 133

6.4.4 Temporal Patterns of Airport Flows 137

6.4.5 Aircraft Fleets 139

6.5 Conclusions 142

References 143

7 Sociological Theory, Constructal Theory, and Globalization Edward A. Tiryakian 147

7.1 Introduction 147

7.1.1 Physics and Engineering in Previous Sociology 148

7.2 Theorizing the Global 154

7.2.1 Globalization 155

References 159

8 Is Animal Learning Optimal? John E. R. Staddon 161

8.1 Reinforcement Learning 161

8.1.1 Instinctive Drift: Do Animals "Know" What to Do? 162

8.1.2 Interval Timing: Why Wait? 162

8.1.2.1 Ratio Schedules 163

8.1.2.2 Interval Schedules 164

8.2 What are the Alternatives to Optimality? 166

References 167

9 Conflict and Conciliation Dynamics Anthony Oberschall 169

9.1 The Natural and the Social Sciences 169

9.2 Conflict and Conciliation Dynamics (CCD) 172

9.3 CCD Flow Chart Representation of a Conflict and Peace Process 174

9.3.1 Oslo Agreement Game (1993) 177

9.3.2 Coalition Game 178

9.3.3 Militant Game A 178

9.3.4 Militant Game B 179

9.4 Empirical Checks and Discussion 179

9.5 Conclusions 181

References 182

10 Human Aging and Mortality Kenneth G. Manton Kenneth C. Land Eric Stallard 183

10.1 Introduction 183

10.2 The Random Walk Model 184

10.2.1 The Fokker-Planck Diffusion Equation 184

10.2.2 The State-Space and Quadratic Mortality Equations 186

10.3 Findings from Empirical Applications 188

10.4 Extensions of the Random Walk Model 192

10.5 Conclusions 194

References 195

11 Statistical Mechanical Models for Social Systems Carter T. Butts 197

11.1 Summary 197

11.2 Introduction 197

11.2.1 Precursors Within Social Network Analysis 198

11.2.2 Notation 199

11.3 Generalized Location Systems 200

11.4 Modeling Location Systems 201

11.4.1 A Family of Social Potentials 202

11.4.2 Thermodynamic Properties of the Location System Model 206

11.4.3 Simulation 207

11.4.3.1 The Location System Model as a Constrained Optimization Process 208

11.5 Illustrative Applications 209

11.5.1 Job Segregation, Discrimination, and Inequality 209

11.5.2 Settlement Patterns and Residential Segregation 215

11.6 Conclusions 221

References 221

12 Discrete Exponential Family Models for Ethnic Residential Segregation Miruna Petrescu-Prahova 225

12.1 Introduction 225

12.2 Potential Determinants of Ethnic Residential Segregation 226

12.3 Research Methodology 229

12.4 Simulation Results 232

12.5 Conclusion 244

References 244

13 Corporate Interlock Lorien Jasny 247

13.1 Abstract 247

13.2 Introduction 247

13.3 Corporate Interlocks 249

13.4 Data 252

13.5 Methodology 252

13.6 Analysis 253

13.7 Conclusion 261

References 261

14 Constructal Approach to Company Sustainability Franca Morroni 263

14.1 Introduction 263

14.2 Sustainability and Its Evaluation 264

14.3 The Constructal Law of Maximum Flow Access 267

14.3.1 Application to Complex Structures: Design of Platform of Customizable Products 268

14.4 The Structural Theory of Thermoeconomics 269

14.5 Application to Company Sustainability 272

14.5.1 The Stakeholder Approach 272

14.5.2 The Analytical Tree 274

14.5.3 The Objectives of Research 274

14.6 Conclusions 276

References 277

15 The Inequality Process is an Evoluationary Process John Angle 279

15.1 Summary 279

15.2 Introduction: Competition for Energy, Fuel, Food, and Wealth 279

15.2.1 The Inequality Process (IP) as an Evolutionary Optimizer 281

15.2.2 Mathematical Description of the IP 282

15.3 The Gamma PDF Approximation to the IP's Stationary Distribution in the ωψ Equivalence Class 284

15.3.1 The Exact Solution 284

15.3.2 An Approximation to the Exact Solution 285

15.4 The IP, an Evolutionary Process 287

15.5 The Empirical Evidence That Robust Losers Are the More Productive Particles 290

15.6 Conclusions 293

References 294

16 Constructal Theory of Written Language Cyrus Amoozegar 297

16.1 Introduction 297

16.2 Written Language 297

16.2.1 What Is a Written Language? 297

16.2.2 How Does Constructal Theory Apply? 298

16.2.3 Origins of Written Language 299

16.3 First Pairing Level 300

16.3.1 Creation of First Pairing Level 300

16.3.2 Evolution of First Pairing Level 303

16.3.2.1 Egyptian 304

16.4 Second Pairing Level 307

16.4.1 Creation of Second Pairing Level 307

16.4.1.1 English 308

16.4.1.2 Chinese 308

16.4.2 Evolution of Second Pairing Level 312

16.4.2.1 Chinese 312

16.5 Conclusions 313

References 314

17 Life and Cognition Jean-Christophe Denaes 315

17.1 What is Life? 315

17.2 Psyche, the "Higher" Cognition 316

17.2.1 From Aristotle's Hylemorphism to the Rationalization of Probabilities 317

17.2.2 The Cognitive Implication 320

17.2.3 Empirism Probabilis and Vis Formandi 321

17.3 Nature as Matter, Unique-ness and Kaos 322

17.3.1 The Impossible Emergence of the Emergence 322

17.3.2 Matter as Unique-ness 323

17.3.3 Matter as Kaos 323

17.4 Consequences 324

17.4.1 The Intentional and Non-intentional Beings 324

17.4.2 The Descent of Darwin, and Selection in Relation to Ideology 326

17.5 Historicity, Instinct, Intelligence, and Consciousness 328

17.5.1 History Versus Historicity, Continuous Versus Discreet 328

17.5.2 The Psyche 329

17.6 Nature and Cognitive Computer Science 330

17.6.1 Neural Networks Versus Constructal Architectures 331

17.6.2 Cellular Automata and the Belousov-Zhabotinsky Reaction 334

17.6.3 RD-Computation or Simulation of the Individuation? 335

17.7 Constructal Law, in Depth 337

17.7.1 The Geometric Vitalism of the Constructal Theory 337

17.7.2 The Constructal Law Definition 337

17.8 A Never-Ending Story 338

References 340

Index 345

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