Consumer Behavior and Culture: Consequences for Global Marketing and Advertising / Edition 2

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The Second Edition of this popular text brings up-to-date Marieke de Mooij's important analysis of the impact of culture on consumer behavior worldwide. The author shows how it is increasingly vital for marketing students---tomorrow's marketing professionals---to understand the limits of consistent brand identities and universal advertising campaigns. Consumer behavior is not converging across countries, and therefore it is of even greater importance to understand, and be able to respond to, differences in behavior.

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Editorial Reviews

Geert Hofstede
"Marieke de Mooij shows that American theories of consumer behavior do not necessarily apply abroad. Her national consumption data are an unobtrusive measure of national cultures. She has made marketing students discover culture, and her work should make cross-cultural psychologists discover the consumer as an informant."
Sushobhan Mukherjee
"Prof. De Mooij helps the reader navigate unknown landscapes through interesting anecdotes. Where she goes beyond anecdotes, are the solid analyses around a well-tested statistical model for understanding cultures. Dr de Mooij has written a timely book, one that adds tremendously to informed debate on what culture means for consumption. For practitioners, be they in academia or business, it demonstrates once again exactly how rich insights can be extracted from rigorous data. It is an exhortation to go beyond the first conclusion that springs to mind. Finally, as citizens of a rapidly developing country , all Indian readers would be grateful to the author for asserting what we have always thought but have seldom been encouraged to believe that we are representatives of unique history, heritage and culture. And that being Indian is not a cause for being defensive on the Global Arena."
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781412979900
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications
  • Publication date: 9/29/2010
  • Edition description: Second Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 403
  • Sales rank: 651,344
  • Product dimensions: 7.30 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Marieke de Mooij, Ph.D. (Netherlands), is a consultant in cross-cultural communications, as well as a retired profesora associada of international advertising at the University of Navarra in Spain and visiting professor at several universities across the world. She is the author of several academic publications on the influence of culture on marketing and advertising. She has also authored books on culture and consumer behavior as well as culture and communication theory worldwide.

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Table of Contents


Chapter 1 Consumer Behavior Across Cultures 1

Global Consumers in a Global Village? 2

Globalization and Global Consumer Culture 4

Globalization 4

Global Consumer Culture 5

Converging and Diverging Consumer Behavior 6

Post-Scarcity Societies and the Culture Paradigm 7

Global Communities? 9

New Media 11

Universalism 12

Sense of History 15

Branding and Advertising: From Global to Multi-Local 17

Consumer Behavior 21

A Model of Cross-Cultural Consumer Behavior 22

Organization of the Book 23

Conclusion 24

Notes 25

Chapter 2 Values and Culture 27

Values 27

The Desirable and the Desired 28

Values Are Enduring 29

Values in Marketing 31

Culture Defined 33

Comparing Cultures 33

The Emic and the Etic 33

Measuring Cultural Values 34

Individual and Culture Levels 35

Searching for Similarities or for Differences 36

National Cultures 38

Dimensions of Culture 40

Relationship of Man With Nature 43

High-Context Communication Culture and Low-Context Communication Culture 43

Dimensions of Time 44

Closure 45

Time Is Linear or Circular 45

Monochronic and Polychronic Time 45

Hofstede: Five Dimensions of National Culture 46

Power Distance 46

Individualism/Collectivism 47

Masculinity/Femininity or the Gender of Nations (Tough Versus Tender) 48

Uncertainty Avoidance 49

Long-/Short-Term Orientation 49

Validation 50

Schwartz: Seven Value Types or Motivational Domains 51

Autonomy (Intellectual or Affective) Versus Embeddedness 51

Hierarchy Versus Egalitarianism 52

Mastery Versus Harmony 52

Overlap With the Hofstede Dimensions 52

Comparing Dimensional Models 53

Application to Consumer Behavior 55

Culture Relationships 58

Cause-Effect 58

Comparing Groups of Cultures 59

Comparing Groups Within Cultures 60

Value Shift 60

Conclusion 61

Notes 61

Chapter 3 Convergence and Divergence in Consumer Behavior 67

Convergence Theory 67

Modernization 68

From Premodern to Postmodern 69

Convergence: Macro and Micro Level 70

The Macro/Micro Dichotomy 70

Convergence and Divergence at Macro Level 71

Convergence of Markets? 73

Forms of Convergence 73

Measuring Convergence/Divergence 74

Convergence/Divergence in Consumer Behavior 75

Stability 79

Convergence/Divergence: A Pattern 81

National Wealth as an Explaining Variable 82

Composite Development Indicators 83

Over Time, Culture Replaces Income as an Explanatory Variable 84

Radios, TV Sets, and Cars 84

Information Technology 86

With Increased Wealth, Cultural Values Become Manifest 87

New Manifestations of "Old" Values 88

Other Measurement Variables 89

Urbanization 89

Urbanization and Housing 89

Urbanization and Retail Structure 90

Population Density 90

Education 91

Age Distribution 91

Household and Family 93

Social Class 97

Measuring Class 98

Ethnicity 99

Climate 100

Consumer Behavior, National Wealth, and Culture 102

The Concept of the Rational Consumer 102

Engel's Law 103

Conclusion 104

Notes 104

Chapter 4 The Consumer: Attributes 109

The Concept of Self 109

Self-Descriptions and Self-Evaluations 112

Implications for Marketing, Branding, and Advertising 113

The Self-Concept and Branding 113

The Self-Concept and Advertising 115

Self-Enhancement and Self-Esteem 116

Personality 120

The Brand Personality Concept 122

Personal Traits 123

Brand Personality Traits 126

Identity and Image 129

The Body and Identity 130

Corporate Identity, Brand Identity, and Brand Image 132

Attitude 133

Attitude and Behavior 134

Attitudes Toward Food 136

Attitudes Toward Health 137

Attitudes Toward Consumption: Materialism 139

National Pride and Consumer Ethnocentrism 140

Attitudes Toward Country of Origin 142

Attitudes Toward the Environment 142

Sex- and Love-Related Attitudes 143

Lifestyle 144

Lifestyles Across Cultures 146

Global Communities? 147

Conclusion 148

Notes 148

Chapter 5 Social Processes 157

Motivation, Needs, and Drives 157

Freud 158

Maslow 159

McClelland 160

Culture-Related Consumer Needs and Motives 161

The Status Motive 162

Face 165

Green Motives, the Environment 165

Purity 166

Convenience 166

Car-Buying Motives 169

Emotion 171

Universal, Basic Emotions? 173

Emotion and Language 173

Expression of Emotions 175

Recognition and Judgment of Expressions of Emotions 177

Display Rules 180

Emotion-Eliciting Events 181

Emotions in Advertising 183

Emotional Versus Rational Advertising 185

Facial Expressions: Application to Advertising 186

Group Processes 187

In-Group and Out-Group 188

Family and Relationships: Parents-Children 191

Conformity 192

Inner-, Outer-Directedness 194

Public and Private Self-Consciousness 194

Public and Private Space 195

Appearance 199

Reference Groups 201

Opinion Leaders 203

Conclusion 204

Notes 204

Chapter 6 Mental Processes 211

Cognition and Cognitive Styles 211

Learning and Memory 213

Cognition and Affect 217

Cognitive and Affective Components of Attitudes Toward Food 217

Cognitive Dissonance 219

Language 219

Language, Perception, and Memory 223

Language in Advertising and Value Studies 224

Foreign Language Speaking and Understanding 225

Categorization 226

Perception 228

Selective Perception 229

Aesthetic Experience 229

Color Perception 230

Aesthetic Preferences: Paintings and Music 233

Field Dependency 234

The Creative Process 235

Attribution 237

Locus of Control 238

Information Processing 243

Processing Advertising 246

Western Bias in Cross-Cultural Analysis of Advertising 247

Processing Visual Images 247

Processing Foreign Words 250

Involvement Theory 251

Decision Making 252

Consumer Decision-Making Styles 253

Business Decision Making 254

Conclusion 255

Notes 256

Chapter 7 Culture, Communication, and Media Behavior 263

Communication and Culture 2637

Communication Styles 267

Verbal Styles 267

Nonverbal Styles 267

Interpersonal Communication Styles 268

Communication and the Electronic Media 270

Mass Communication Styles 271

Advertising Styles 272

Direct Versus Indirect Communication in Mass Communication and Advertising 273

Mapping Advertising Styles 276

The Purpose of Advertising 278

Web Communicaiton Styles 282

Media Behavior 284

Television 284

Radio 286

Press Media 286

The Internet 288

Responses to Marketing Communications 291

Responses to Sales Promotions 291

Responses to Advertising 292

Acceptance of Advertising in General 293

Consumers' Relationships With the Media 293

Advertising Appeals 294

Executional Styles 295

Execution of Advertising 296

Brand Communications Across Cultures 299

Value Structure Maps 299

The Future of Global Advertising 302

Conclusion 303

Notes 304

Chapter 8 Consumer Behavior Domains 311

Product Acquisition, Usage, and Ownership 311

Food and Beverages 312

Processed Food 313

Soft Drinks 314

Mineral Water 314

Coffee and Tea 315

Alcoholic Beverages 317

Cigarettes 318

Nondurable Household Products 318

Personal Care and Cosmetics 319

Clothing and Footwear 322

Household Appliances 323

Consumer Electronics and Personal Computers 324

Telecommunications 327

Luxury Articles 330

Cars 332

Leisure 334

Leisure Activities 334

Pets 338

Finance 339

Shopping and Buying Behavior 341

Out-of-Home Shopping and Buying 344

Retail Design 345

Complaining Behavior 348

Brand Loyalty 349

Adoption and Diffusion of Innovations 350

Predicting Market Development Across Cultures 354

Conclusion 355

Notes 356

Appendix A GNI per Capita at Purchasing Power Parity 2008 (US$) and Hofstede Country Scores for 68 Countries 363

Appendix B Data Sources 365

Author Index 373

Subject Index 385

About the Author 401

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