Consumer Behavior in Travel and Tourism

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Containing original and previously unpublished theoretical and empirical studies, Consumer Behavior in Travel and Tourism will give professionals, professors, and researchers in the field up-to-date insight and information on trends, happenings, and findings in the international hospitality business arena. A great resource for educators, this book is complete with learning objectives, concept definitions, and even review questions at the end of each chapter. From this book, readers will understand and learn the needs and preferences of tourists and how to investigate the process of destination and product selection to help provide customers with products and services that will best meet their needs.

In today's highly competitive business environment, understanding travel behavior is imperative to success. Consumer Behavior in Travel and Tourism brings together several studies in one volume, representing the first attempt to explore, define, analyze, and evaluate the consumption of tourist and travel products.

This guide offers essential research strategies and methods that enables readers to determine the wants and needs of tourists, including:

  • discussing and evaluating the main factors that affect consumer behavior in travel and tourism, such as travel motivation, destination choice, and the consequent travel behavior
  • exploring the various decision-making processes of consumers that leads to consequent destination choices through case study analysis and marketing suggestions
  • determining customer expectations of products through a variety of research techniques in order to find ways of improving satisfaction
  • examining selected research tools, such as product positioning and repositioning and using perceptual maps, to evaluate the market implications of using qualitative and/or quantitative research techniques
  • detecting and analyzing the relative roles individual, environmental, socioeconomic, and demographic factors play in choosing travel destinations
Full of detailed charts and graphs, Consumer Behavior in Travel and Tourism illustrates key points to give you a better understanding of important facts and findings in the field.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780789006103
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • Publication date: 1/28/2005
  • Pages: 550
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 8.60 (h) x 1.60 (d)

Table of Contents

About the Editors xv
Contributors xvii
Introduction 1
Part I Overview 5
Chapter 1. Consumer Behavior Related to Tourism 7
Learning Objectives 7
Motivation of Tourists 7
Typologies of Tourists 11
Destination Choice 14
Models of Consumer Behavior in Tourism 18
The Nonuser 27
Summary and Conclusions 28
Concept Definitions 29
Review Questions 30
Part II Destination Selection And Product Choice 33
Chapter 2. Estimating What Affects Tourist Destination Choice 35
Learning Objectives 35
Introduction 35
Theoretical Background of Discrete Choice Experiments 37
A Model of Choices of Hypothetical Destinations on Five Caribbean Islands 39
A Discrete Choice Experiment on Remote Fly-In Recreational Angling in Northern Ontario 45
Summary and Conclusions 55
Concept Definitions 56
Review Questions 57
Chapter 3. Understanding the Factors Influencing Ski Destination Choice: A Means-End Analytic Approach 59
Learning Objectives 59
Introduction 59
Means-End Theory 60
General Methodology for Assessing Means-End Relationships 62
Study Objectives and Methodology 63
Analysis and Results 65
Implications for Leisure and Destination Research 74
Concept Definitions 75
Review Questions 76
Optional Project: Measuring Means-End Chains 76
Chapter 4. The Roles of Image and Perceived Constraints at Different Stages in the Tourist's Destination Decision Process 81
Learning Objectives 81
Introduction 81
The Structure of Destination Choice Sets 84
Study Hypotheses 87
Data Collection 88
Operationalizing Facilitators and Inhibitors 91
Results 93
Concluding Comments 97
Concept Definitions 98
Review Questions 99
Chapter 5. Tourists' Decision-Making and Behavior Processes 103
Learning Objectives 103
Introduction 103
Major Aspects of Tourists' Decision-Making and Behavior Processes 104
The Need for Relativism: Competing Paradigms in the Social Sciences and in Decision Theory 111
The Positivist View: The Rational Tourist 114
The Interpretivist View: The Other Aspect of the Tourist 121
Summary and Conclusions 129
Concept Definitions 129
Review Questions 130
Chapter 6. Family Decision Making and Tourism Behaviors and Attitudes 135
Learning Objectives 135
Introduction 135
Data and Method 136
Findings 138
Marketing Implications 143
Recommendations for Future Research 144
Concept Definitions 145
Review Questions 146
Chapter 7. Consumer Decision Making and Prepurchase Information Search 149
Learning Objectives 149
Marketing Communications in the Travel and Tourism Industry 149
The Nature of Prepurchase Information Search 152
Types of Information Sought 154
Amounts and Sources of External Information Search 155
Determinants of Information Search 161
Purchase Involvement and Information Search 161
Strategic Implications 164
Concept Definitions 164
Review Questions 166
Chapter 8. Consumer Choice in Context: The Decoy Effect in Travel and Tourism 169
Learning Objectives 169
Introduction 169
Purpose of the Study 172
Methodology 172
Findings 177
Implications 180
Limitations 181
Conclusions 182
Concept Definitions 182
Review Questions 183
Chapter 9. Package Tourism and Customer Loyalties 185
Learning Objectives 185
Chapter Aim and Structure 185
Package Tourism 186
Travel Experiences and Loyalties 187
Descriptors of Package Tourism Loyalties 190
Summary and Conclusions 198
Concept Definitions 200
Review Questions 201
Part III Perceptions, Expectations, and Satisfaction 205
Chapter 10. Destination Image and Its Modification After Travel: An Empirical Study on Turkey 207
Learning Objectives 207
Destination Image 207
Image and Marketing 213
An Empirical Study of the Image Change Induced by Actual Experience of Turkey 219
Conclusions 223
Concept Definitions 223
Review Questions 225
Chapter 11. Valuing Changes to Scenic Byways 227
Learning Objectives 227
Introduction 227
Economics of Travel Choice Behavior 228
Survey Methodology 231
The Logit Model 233
Maximum Likelihood Estimates 235
Willingness to Pay for Roadway Changes 235
An Applications Workbook 240
Limitations 241
Conclusions 242
Concept Definitions 242
Review Questions 243
Chapter 12. Tourism Expectation Formation: The Case of Camper-Van Tourists in New Zealand 245
Learning Objectives 245
Introduction 245
Developing an Understanding of Expectations 246
The Constructs or Tools 247
Motives and Motivations 247
Values 250
The "Logic" of Values 251
Attitudes 252
Expectations 253
Emotions 255
Empirical Investigation of Expectations: Camper-Van Tourists in New Zealand 257
Concept Definitions 264
Review Questions 264
Chapter 13. From the Psychometrics of Servqual to Sex: Measurements of Tourist Satisfaction 267
Learning Objectives 267
Introduction 267
The Development of Service Quality Theory 268
The Development of SERVQUAL 270
Gap Analysis--Measures of Satisfaction and Service Quality 272
Relationship Between Gap Models and Tourist Experience 278
Summary and Conclusions 281
Concept Definitions 283
Review Questions 283
Chapter 14. Cognitive Distance: A Neglected Issue in Travel Behavior 287
Learning Objectives 287
Introduction 287
Cognitive Distance 288
Distance Cognition 290
A Case Study 292
Conclusions and Implications 299
Concept Definitions 301
Review Questions 301
Part IV Research Methods in Tourist Behavior 305
Chapter 15. Quantitative Tools in Tourism Research: An Application of Perceptual Maps 307
Learning Objectives 307
Introduction 307
Marketing Research As a Managerial Tool 308
Consumer Perceptions and Product Positioning 309
Approaches to Positioning 311
Perceptual Maps 313
Creating a Perceptual Map 315
Research Design 316
Interpreting Perceptual Maps 319
Conclusion 321
Concept Definitions 322
Review Questions 323
Appendix Athletic Footwear Survey 324
Chapter 16. Qualitative Research Methods for the Study of Tourist Behavior 335
Learning Objectives 335
Introduction 335
The Need for Qualitative Approaches in Tourism Research 336
Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry 339
Data Collection 345
Analyzing and Interpreting Data 353
Summary and Conclusions 360
Concept Definitions 361
Review Questions 362
Part V Tourist Behavior 367
Chapter 17. Cruise Consumer Behavior: A Comparative Study 369
Learning Objectives 369
Historical Background 369
Cruising in the 1990s 370
Literature and Research Method 371
Ships of the Study 372
Passenger Profiles 375
Passenger Behavior 380
Arrival and Embarkation 381
Meals 382
Passenger Activities 383
Ports 388
Itineraries Traveled for This Study 388
Conclusion 390
Concept Definitions 391
Review Questions 391
Chapter 18. Cross-Cultural Tourist Behavior 393
Learning Objectives 393
Tourism and Culture 393
The Convergence-Divergence Debate 394
Cross-Cultural or National Character Research 395
Cross-Cultural Studies in Tourism 396
Objections to Cross-Cultural/National Research 399
Objective 400
Methodology 401
Results 404
Conclusions 406
Limitations of the Studies 407
Concept Definitions 407
Review Questions 408
Chapter 19. Consumer Behavior in the U.S. Pleasure Travel Marketplace: An Analysis of Senior and Nonsenior Travelers 413
Learning Objectives 413
Introduction 413
Related Research 415
Study Objectives 416
Methodology 416
Results 417
Implications and Conclusions 424
Concept Definitions 427
Review Questions 427
Chapter 20. Patterns of Tourist Expenditure and Types of Vacation Across the Family Life Cycle 431
Learning Objectives 431
Introduction 431
Study Background and Context 432
Distribution of FLC Observations 434
The FLC and Vacation Expenditure 437
Holiday Differences Over the FLC 439
Conclusions 445
Concept Definitions 446
Review Questions 446
Chapter 21. Developing Travel Lifestyles: A New Zealand Example 449
Learning Objectives 449
Background and Introduction 449
Study Development 451
Conceptualizing Travel Lifestyles 452
Developing a Lifestyle Measurement Instrument 455
Data Analysis 458
Cluster Descriptions 460
Discussion and Conclusions 474
Concept Definitions 476
Review Questions 476
Chapter 22. Travel-Related Lifestyle Profiles of Older Women 481
Learning Objectives 481
Introduction 481
Related Research 482
Focus of the Study 484
Research Methodology 485
Analysis 486
Results 487
Conclusions and Implications 505
Concept Definitions 507
Review Questions 508
Summary and Conclusions 513
Index 515
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