Contaminant Geochemistry: Interactions and Transport in the Subsurface Environment / Edition 1

Contaminant Geochemistry: Interactions and Transport in the Subsurface Environment / Edition 1

by Brian Berkowitz, Ishai Dror, Bruno Yaron
     
 

ISBN-10: 3540743812

ISBN-13: 9783540743811

Pub. Date: 06/26/2008

Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg

This book combines earth science, subsurface hydrology and environmental geochemistry, providing a comprehensive background for specialists interested in the protection and sustainable management of the subsurface environment. The reader is introduced to the chemistry of contaminants, which usually disturb the natural equilibrium in the subsurface as a result of human

Overview

This book combines earth science, subsurface hydrology and environmental geochemistry, providing a comprehensive background for specialists interested in the protection and sustainable management of the subsurface environment. The reader is introduced to the chemistry of contaminants, which usually disturb the natural equilibrium in the subsurface as a result of human activity. The major focus of the book is on contaminant reactions in soil solutions, groundwater and porous media solid phases, accounting for their persistence and transformation in the subsurface, as they are transported from the land surface into groundwater. Discussions on selected case studies are provided.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9783540743811
Publisher:
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date:
06/26/2008
Edition description:
2008
Pages:
412
Product dimensions:
6.30(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

Part I Geochemistry Revisited: Selected Aspects

Chapter 1 Characterization of the Subsurface Environment 3

1.1 Subsurface Solid Phase 4

1.1.1 Silica Minerals 4

1.1.2 Clay Minerals 6

1.1.3 Minerals Other Than Silica and Clay 12

1.1.4 Organic Matter 14

1.1.5 Electrically Charged Surfaces 17

1.2 Subsurface Liquid Phase 18

1.2.1 Near Solid Phase Water 19

1.2.2 Subsurface Aqueous Solutions 21

1.3 Subsurface Gaseous Phase 22

1.4 Aquifers 23

1.4.1 Aquifer Structure 23

1.4.2 Groundwater Composition 25

Chapter 2 Selected Geochemical Processes 27

2.1 Thermodynamics and Equilibrium 27

2.1.1 Enthalpy, Entropy, and the Laws of Thermodynamics 27

2.1.2 Equilibrium 29

2.1.3 Solubility, Chemical Potential, and Ion Activities 30

2.1.4 Kinetic Considerations and Reaction Rate Laws 33

2.2 Weathering 37

2.2.1 Dissolution and Precipitation 38

2.2.2 Redox Processes 40

2.3 Adsorption 44

2.3.1 Adsorption of Charged Ionic Compounds 44

2.3.2 Adsorption of Nonionic Compounds 46

2.3.3 Kinetic Considerations 47

Part II Properties of Potential Contaminants: Environmental and Health Hazards

Chapter 3 Inorganic and Organometallic Compounds 51

3.1 Nitrogen 51

3.2 Phosphorus 53

3.3 Salts 55

3.3.1 Agricultural Impacts 55

3.3.2 Impacts on Water Usage 57

3.3.3 Impacts on Infrastructure 58

3.3.4 Impacts on Biodiversity and the Environment 58

3.4 Radionuclides 59

3.5 Heavy Metals and Metalloids 61

3.5.1 Arsenic 61

3.5.2 Cadmium 63

3.5.3 Chromium 64

3.5.4 Lead 65

3.5.5 Nickel 66

3.6 Nanomaterials 67

Chapter 4 Organic Compounds 71

4.1 Pesticides 71

4.1.1 Organochlorine Insecticides 73

4.1.2 Organophosphates 75

4.1.3 N-methylCarbamate 75

4.1.4 Triazines 76

4.1.5 Paraquat and Diquat 77

4.2 Synthetic Halogenated Organic Substances 78

4.2.1 Chlorinated Hydrocarbons 78

4.2.2 Brominated Flame Retardants 81

4.3 Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Fuel Additives 83

4.4 Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products 86

4.4.1 Analgesics and Antiinflammatory Drugs 88

4.4.2 Hormones 88

4.4.3 Antibacterial Drugs 89

4.4.4 Antiepileptic Drugs 90

4.4.5 Beta-Blockers 90

Part III Contaminant Partitioning in the Subsurface

Chapter 5 Sorption, Retention, and Release of Contaminants 93

5.1 Surface Properties of Adsorbents 93

5.2 Quantifying Adsorption 95

5.2.1 Adsorption-Desorption Coefficients 95

5.2.2 Adsorption Isotherms 95

5.3 Kinetics of Adsorption 101

5.4 Adsorption of Ionic Contaminants 104

5.5 Adsorption of Nonionic Contaminants 109

5.6 Other Factors Affecting Adsorption 112

5.7 Nonadsorptive Retention of Contaminants 114

5.7.1 Contaminant Precipitation 115

5.7.2 Liquid Trapping 116

5.7.3 Particle Deposition and Trapping 118

5.8 Reversible and Irreversible Retention 120

5.8.1 Genuine Hysteresis 120

5.8.2 Apparent Hysteresis 122

5.8.3 Bound Residues 123

Chapter 6 Contaminant Partitioning in the Aqueous Phase 127

6.1 Solubility Equilibrium 128

6.2 Aqueous Solubility of Organic Contaminants 130

6.3 Ligand Effects 131

6.4 Cosolvents and Surfactant Effects 133

6.5 Salting-out Effect 136

6.6 Apparent Solubility 139

Chapter 7 Partitioning of Volatile Compounds 143

7.1 Gas-Liquid Relationships 144

7.2 Volatilization from Subsurface Aqueous Solutions 145

7.3 Vapor Pressure-Volatilization Relationship 148

7.4 Volatilization of Multicomponent Contaminants 149

Chapter 8 Selected Research Findings: Contaminant Partitioning 151

8.1 Partitioning Among Phases 151

8.2 Contaminant Volatilization 153

8.2.1 Inorganic Contaminants 154

8.2.2 Organic Contaminants 156

8.2.3 Mixtures of Organic Contaminants 160

8.3 Solubility and Dissolution 165

8.3.1 Acidity and Alkalinity Effects 165

8.3.2 Redox Processes 167

8.3.3 Dissolution from Mixtures of Organic Contaminants 169

8.3.4 Apparent Solubility 169

8.4 Contaminant Retention in the Subsurface 178

8.4.1 Contaminant Adsorption 179

8.4.2 Nonadsorptive Retention 196

8.5 Contaminant Release 201

8.6 Bound Residues 206

Part IV Contaminant Transport from Land Surface to Groundwater

Chapter 9 Water Flow in the Subsurface Environment 213

9.1 Water Flow in Soils and the Vadose Zone 213

9.2 Flow Through the Capillary Fringe 216

Chapter 10 Transport of Passive Contaminants 219

10.1 Advection, Dispersion, and Molecular Diffusion 220

10.2 Preferential Transport 223

10.3 Non-Fickian Transport 225

Chapter 11 Transport of Reactive Contaminants 231

11.1 Contaminant Sorption 231

11.2 Colloids and Sorption on Colloids 233

11.3 Dissolving and Precipitating Contaminants 234

11.4 Transport of Immiscible Liquids 237

11.5 Transport of Contaminants by Runoff 242

Chapter 12 Selected Research Findings: Contaminant Transport 247

12.1 Aqueous Transport of Reactive Contaminants: Field and Laboratory Studies 247

12.1.1 Field Experiment Results 247

12.1.2 Modeling Field Experiments 252

12.1.3 Laboratory and Outdoor Studies 256

12.1.4 Preferential Flow 257

12.2 Transport of Nonaqueous Phase Liquids 260

12.2.1 Infiltration into the Subsurface 260

12.2.2 Transport of Soluble NAPL Fractions in Aquifers 263

12.3 Colloid-Mediated Transport of Contaminants 264

12.3.1 Surface Runoff 265

12.3.2 Transport in the Subsurface 266

Part V Transformations and Reactions of Contaminants in the Subsurface

Chapter 13 Abiotic Contaminant Transformations in Subsurface Water 273

13.1 Abiotic Contaminant Transformations in Natural Subsurface Water 273

13.1.1 Factors Affecting Contaminant Transformations 273

13.1.2 Reactions in Natural Waters 275

13.2 Selected Contaminant Transformations in Sediments and Groundwater 286

13.2.1 pH and Hydrolysis Reactions 286

13.2.2 Redox State and Reactions 287

Chapter 14 Abiotic Transformation at the Solid-Liquid Interface 295

14.1 Catalysis 295

14.2 Surface-Induced Transformation of Organic Contaminants 296

14.3 Surface-Induced Interactions of Inorganic Contaminants 301

Chapter 15 Biologically Mediated Transformations 303

15.1 Subsurface Microbial Populations 303

15.2 Processes Governing Contaminant Attenuation 303

15.3 Biotransformation of Organic Contaminants 305

15.4 Biotransformation of Inorganic Contaminants 311

Chapter 16 Selected Research Findings: Transformations and Reactions 317

16.1 Abiotic Alteration of Contaminants 317

16.1.1 Transformation in Subsurface Water 317

16.1.2 Surface-Induced Transformation on Clays 332

16.1.3 Photochemical Reactions 336

16.1.4 Ligand Effects 342

16.1.5 Multiple-Component Contaminant Transformation 345

16.2 Biomediated Transformation of Contaminants 357

16.2.1 Petroleum Products 357

16.2.2 Pesticides 361

References 373

Subject Index 409

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