Contemporary Clinical Psychology / Edition 3

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"Contemporary Clinical Psychology, Third Edition introduces students to this fascinating profession from an integrative, biopsychosocial perspective. Thoroughly updated to include the latest information on topics central to the field, this innovative approach to studying clinical psychology delivers an engaging overview of the roles and responsibilities of today's clinical psychologists that is designed to inform and spark interest in a future career in this dynamic field. Highlighting evidence-based therapies, multiple case studies round out the portrayal of clinical practice. Designed for graduate and undergraduate students in introductory clinical psychology courses"--Provided by publisher.

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Editorial Reviews

Overviews the field of clinical psychology from an integrative biopsychosocial perspective. Demonstrates the activities, role, and responsibilities of clinical psychologists through actual case material, and reviews the history, scientific underpinnings, and theoretical orientations of the field. Looks at contemporary issues in the field, and provides a road map for those interested in pursuing careers. Assumes previous undergraduate courses in introductory and abnormal psychology. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470587393
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 9/14/2010
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 624
  • Sales rank: 239,071
  • Product dimensions: 7.30 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 1.80 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface to the Third Edition

About the Author

PART ONE Foundations and Fundamentals 1

Chapter 1 What is Contemporary Clinical Psychology? 3

Case Study: Carlos 3

Definition and Inherent Intrigue 5

Perspective and Philosophy 6

Education and Training 8

Activities 10

Highlight of a Contemporary Clinical Psychologist Patrick H. DeLeon DeLeon, Patrick H. 14

Employment Settings 16

Subspecialties 18

Organizations 21

How Does Clinical Psychology Differ from Related Fields? 22

The Big Picture 27

Key Points 28

Key Terms 29

For Reflection 29

Real Students, Real Questions 29

Web Resources 29

Chapter 2 Foundations and Early History of Clinical Psychology 31

Early Conceptions of Mental Illness: Mind and Body Paradigms 33

The Founding of Clinical Psychology 38

Highlight of a Contemporary Clinical Psychologist Gerdenio "Sonny" Manuel Manuel, Gerdenio "Sonny" 39

The Influence of Binet's Intelligence Test 40

The Influence of the Mental Health and Child Guidance Movement 40

The Influence of Sigmund Freud in America 41

The American Psychological Association and Early Clinical Psychology 41

The Influence of World War I 42

Clinical Psychology between the World Wars 43

The Influence of World War II 44

The Big Picture 45

Key Points 45

Key Terms 47

For Reflection 47

Real Students, Real Questions 47

Web Resources 47

Chapter 3 Recent History of Clinical Psychology 49

Clinical Psychology Immediately after World War II 49

The Rise of Alternatives to the Psychodynamic Approach 56

Highlight of a Contemporary Clinical Psychologist Nadine J. Kaslow Kaslow, Nadine J. 63

A New Training Model Emerges 66

The Rise of Empirically Supported Treatments and Resurgence of Cognitive Behavioral Models 67

Present Status 69

The Big Picture 70

Key Points 71

Key Terms 72

For Reflection 72

Real Students, Real Questions 72

Web Resources 72

Chapter 4 Research: Design and Outcome 73

Research Methods and Designs 74

Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Designs 87

Highlight of a Contemporary Clinical Psychologist Alan E. Kazdin Kazdin, Alan E. 88

Treatment Outcome Research 91

Questions and Challenges in Conducting Treatment Outcome Research 94

Contemporary Issues in Clinical Psycholgy Treatment Outcome Research 99

How and Where is Research Conducted in Clinical Psychology and How is it Funded? 103

The Big Picture 105

Key Points 106

Key Terms 108

For Reflection 108

Real Students, Real Questions 108

Web Resources 109

Chapter 5 The Major Theoretical Models: Psychodynamic, Cognitive-Behavioral, Humanistic, and Family Systems 111

The Four Major Theoretical Models in Clinical Psychology 112

Case Study: Mary 113

Highlight of a Contemporary Clinical Psychologist Marcia J. Wood Wood, Marcia J. 128

Understanding Mary from Different Theoretical Orientations 130

The Big Picture 132

Key Points 132

Key Terms 133

For Reflection 133

Real Students, Real Questions 134

Web Resources 134

Chapter 6 Integrative and Biopsychosocial Approaches in Contemporary Clinical Psychology 135

The Call to Integration 135

Biopsychosocial Integration 140

Case Study: Mary---Integrating Biological Factors 146

Synthesizing Biological, Psychological, and Social Factors in Contemporary Integration 148

Case Study: Mary---Integrating Social Factors 150

Highlight of a Contemporary Clinical Psychologist Stephanie Pinder-Amaker Pinder-Amaker, Stephanie 152

Application of the Biopsychosocial Perspective to Contemporary Clinical Psychology Problems 153

Case Study: Hector Experiences Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (Biopsychosocial) 156

Case Study: Nicole Experiences School Phobia (Biopsychosocial) 158

Case Study: Taylor Experiences Cardiovascular Disease, Job and Family Stress, and Type A Personality (Biopsychosocial) 160

Case Study: Marilyn---Biopsychosocial with Cancer 162

Case Study: Mary---Biopsychosocial Synthesis 164

Conclusion 165

The Big Picture 165

Key Points 165

Key Terms 166

For Reflection 166

Real Students, Real Questions 166

Web Resources 166

PART TWO Roles and Responsibilities 167

Chapter 7 Contemporary Psychological Assessment I: Interviewing and Observing Behavior 169

Goals, Purposes, and Types of Assessment 170

Reliability and Validity 171

Interviewing 173

Types of Interviews 177

Case Study: Joe Experiences Depression 178

Highlight of a Contemporary Clinical Psychologist Stanley Sue Sue, Stanley 186

Potential Threats to Effective Interviewing 187

Behavioral Observations 187

Checklists and Inventories 193

Case Study: Jose and the BDI, CBCL, and SCL-90-R 196

Physiological Testing 197

The Big Picture 198

Key Points 198

Key Terms 199

For Reflection 200

Real Students, Real Questions 200

Web Resources 200

Chapter 8 Contemporary Psychological Assessment II: Cognitive and Personality Assessment 201

Cognitive Testing 201

Case Study: Paul---Wais-IV (Intellectual Assessment) 207

Case Study: Donald---Wisc-IV (Intellectual Assessment) 211

Case Study: Robert Experiences a Head Injury and Resulting Antisocial Behaviors (Neuropsychological) 219

Highlight of a Contemporary Clinical Psychologist Lori Goldfarb Plante Plante, Lori Goldfarb 221

Personality Testing 222

Case Study: Martha Experiences Severe Depression and Borderline Personality (Rorschach) 231

Case Study: Xavier Experiences Bipolar Disorder (Rorschach) 233

Case Study: Debbie Experiences Alcoholism, Depression, and Phobic Anxiety (TAT) 235

Case Study: Xavier (Sentence Completion) 236

Case Study: Elias Experiences Anxiety and Depression (Sentence Completion) 236

Clinical Inference and Judgment 237

Communicating Assessment Results 240

Case Study: Thomas Experiences Aggressive Behavior Associated with Asperger's Syndrome (Psychological Assessment Report) 241

The Big Picture 244

Key Points 244

Key Terms 245

For Reflection 246

Real Students, Real Questions 246

Web Resources 246

Chapter 9 Psychotherapeutic Interventions 247

Contemporary Integration in Psychotherapy Using Evidence-Based Approaches 248

Goals of Psychotherapy 250

Similarities or Common Denominators in Psychotherapy 250

Stages of Psychotherapy 253

Modes of Psychotherapy 256

Case Study: Shawna Experiences Enuresis (Individual Child Therapy) 257

Case Study: James Experiences Bipolar Disorder (Individual Psychotherapy) 259

Highlight of a Contemporary Clinical Psychologist John C. Norcross Norcross, John C. 262

Nonpsychotherapy Approaches to Treatment: Biological and Social Interventions 263

Case Study: Inpatient Group Psychotherapy 265

Case Study: Hans and Marta Experience Severe Marital Discord (Couples Therapy) 268

Case Study: The Kaplans Experience a Family Death and a Suicide Attempt in the Family (Family Therapy) 270

Case Study: Mako Experiences Anorexia Nervosa---Integration of Theories, Techniques, Modalities, and Biopsychosocial Factors (Contemporary Psychotherapy) 274

The Big Picture 276

Key Points 276

Key Terms 276

For Reflection 276

Real Students, Real Questions 277

Web Resources 277

Chapter 10 Psychotherapeutic Issues 279

Does Psychotherapy Work? 279

Long-Term Therapy versus Short-Term Treatment 282

Psychotherapy Dropouts 284

Is One Type of Therapy Better Than Another? 285

Enduring Psychotherapy Effects 287

Highlight of a Contemporary Clinical Psychologist John Pina Pina, John 288

Common Factors Associated with Positive Psychotherapy Outcome 289

Change Is Challenging 291

Level of Training for Psychotherapists 292

Health-Care Costs and Psychotherapy 294

Psychotherapy Harm 294

The Big Picture 300

Key Points 301

Key Terms 302

For Reflection 302

Real Students, Real Questions 302

Web Resources 302

Chapter 11 Areas of Specialization 303

Clinical Health Psychology 305

Case Study: Celeste Experiences Type A Personality and Irritable Bowel Syndrome 313

Child Clinical Psychology 314

Case Study: Weight-Loss Treatment Program 315

Case Study: Joe Experiences Alcoholism 316

Highlight of a Contemporary Clinical Psychologist Susan Steibe-Pasalich Steibe-Pasalich, Susan 324

Clinical Neuropsychology 325

Case Study: Sam Experiences Autism 326

Case Study: Zoe Experiences Acting-Out Behaviors 327

Case Study: Sally Experiences Anorexia Nervosa 328

Case Study: Joseph Experiences Dementia and Depression 331

Geropsychology 332

Forensic Psychology 336

Case Study: Austin Experiences Substance Abuse and a Severe Head Injury 337

Case Study: Margaret Experiences Problems Associated with a Stroke 337

Other Subspecialties 339

Case Study: The Lee Family Experiences Stress Associated with Divorce and Child Custody 341

Case Study: Marie Experiences Suicidal Behaviors and Depression 341

Case Study: Betty Experiences Job Stress 342

The Big Picture 342

Key Points 342

Key Terms 343

For Reflection 344

Real Students, Real Questions 344

Web Resources 344

Chapter 12 Consultative, Teaching, and Administrative Roles 345

Consulation 345

Case Studies: Consultation with Mental Health Colleagues 355

Case Studies: Consultation with Non-Mental Health Professionals 357

Highlight of a Contemporary Clinical Psychologist Julie B. (Sincoff) Jampel Jampel, Julie B. (Sincoff) 358

Teaching 359

Case Studies: Teaching in Academic Settings 362

Case Studies: Teaching in Nonacademic Locations 364

Administration 365

Case Studies: Administrators in Clinical Psychology 366

The Big Picture 366

Key Points 367

Key Terms 368

For Reflection 368

Real Students, Real Questions 368

Web Resources 369

Chapter 13 Ethical Standards 371

How Do Professional Ethics Differ from the Law? 373

The Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct 374

Case Study: Dr. A Treats a Patient Although He Has Inadequate Competence to Do So 377

Case Study: Dr. C Misleads His Clients Regarding His Credentials 379

Case Study: Dr. D Participates in a Dual Relationship with Her Client 379

Case Study: Dr. E Treats a Client Very Different from Those with Whom He Has Expertise 380

Case Study: Dr. F Is Concerned about Unethical Behavior in a Colleague 381

Case Study: Dr. H Breaks Confidentiality with a Client 382

Case Study: Dr. I Does Not Report Child Abuse Due to Patient Pressure 382

Case Study: Dr. J Has Strong Personal Values That Impact His Work with Clients 382

Case Study: Dr. K Experiences Personal Prejudice That Impacts Her Work with Diverse Clients 383

Case Study: Dr. L Takes Advantage of His Students for Personal Favors 383

Case Study: Dr. M is Greedy and Unwilling to Give Back to Society 384

Case Study: Dr. N Allows Unqualified Trainees to Give Psychological Test 386

Case Study: Dr. O Uses Testing Materials for Purposes for Which They Were Not Developed 386

Case Study: Dr. P Does Not Protect Psychological Tests from Misuse 387

Case Study: Dr. Q Uses His Work with a Client for His Own Advantage 388

Case Study: Dr. R Allows Others to Misrepresent Her Credentials 388

Case Study: Dr. S Misleads Others about His Training 389

Case Study: Dr. T Dates a Relative of His Patient 395

Case Study: Dr. U Abandons His Clients 395

Case Study: Dr. V Publishes Research in a Way to Help Her Career Rather Than Doing So More Resoponsibly 395

Case Study: Dr. W Surprises His Students with Rejection without Any Warning 396

Highlight of a Contemporary Clinical Psychologist: Thomas G. Plante, PhD, ABPP 396

Why Would a Psychologist Behave in an Unethical Manner? 397

Case Study: Dr. X Doesn't Provide Full Informed Consent to His Clients 398

Case Study: Dr. Y Fails to Help and Support Her Students 399

Case Study: Dr. AA Commits Insurance Fraud 399

How are Ethics Enforced? 399

Case Study: Dr. BB Enters a Dual Relationship with His Client 400

What is the Process for Solving Ethical Dilemmas? 401

Is Behaving in Accordance with Ethical Principles Always Clear Cut? 401

The Big Picture 402

Key Points 403

Key Terms 404

For Reflection 404

Real Students, Real Questions 404

Web Resources 404

PART THREE Where is Clinical Psychology Going, and Should I Go With It? 407

Chapter 14 Current and Future Trends andd Challenges 409

Trends in Society 410

Highlight of a Contemporary Clinical Psychologist Aisha Laureen Hamdan Hamdan, Aisha Laureen 419

Research Issues 420

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First Chapter

Contemporary Clinical Psychology

By Thomas G. Plante

John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0-471-47276-X

Chapter One

What Is Contemporary Clinical Psychology?

Chapter Objectives

1. To define clinical psychology. 2. To provide a brief history of the field and put it in context relative to similar fields and professions.

3. To understand the various activities, roles, and employment settings of clinical psychologists.

Chapter Outline

Highlight of a Contemporary Clinical Psychologist: Patrick H. DeLeon, PhD, ABPP Definition and Inherent Intrigue Perspective and Philosophy Education and Training Activities Subspecialties Organizations How Does Clinical Psychology Differ from Related Fields?

Highlight of a Contemporary Clinical Psychologist

Patrick H. DeLeon, PhD, ABPP

Dr. DeLeon uses his training and skills as a clinical psychologist by working on Capital Hill. He helps shape policy and legislation that best reflects both the science and application of clinical psychology. He is a former president of the American Psychological Association.

Birth Date: January 6, 1943

College: Amherst College (BA, Liberal Arts), 1964

Graduate Program: Purdue University (MS, Psychology), 1966; Purdue University (PhD, Clinical Psychology), 1969; University of Hawaii (MPH, Health Services Administration), 1973; Catholic University, Columbus School of Law (JD), 1980

Clinical Internship: FortLogan Mental Health Center, Denver, Colorado

Current Job: Administrative Assistant (Chief of Staff), U.S. Senator D. K. Inouye, United States Senate

Pros and Cons of Being a Clinical Psychologist:

Pros: "Substantive knowledge about people, systems, health care, etc."

Cons: "Most psychologists or psychology colleagues do not appreciate how little they know about public policy and national trends."

Future of Clinical Psychology: "The knowledge base will continue to expand; whether services are provided by psychologists or other professionals is an open question. Psychology controls its own destiny-to not seek new agendas and to not save society means to be replaced by nursing and social work."

Changes during the past 5 to 7 years: "We have developed a significantly broader focus and thus have brought the behavioral sciences to a wider range of activities, especially within the generic health care arena. As our numbers have increased, we have developed a greater presence (i.e., influence) in defining quality care and health care priorities. Significantly more colleagues are now personally active within the public policy and political process, thus ensuring that psychology's voice (and values) will be heard. The development of postdoctoral training positions has resulted in society developing a greater appreciation for the importance of the psychosocial aspects of health care. Clearly, the prescription privileges agenda is revolutionizing mental health care delivery."

What do you think will be the major changes in clinical psychology during the next several years? "The prescription privilege agenda will continue to expand and thereby absolutely redefine quality mental health care. Advances in the technology and communications fields will be found to have direct applicability to health care and psychology will play a major role in addressing this challenge. Health care will become more patient-centered and interdisciplinary in nature. No longer will any of the health care professional schools be allowed to foster isolated or 'silo-oriented' training modules. The percentage of women in the field will increase to nearly 75%. And, clinical protocols will focus concretely on special populations (such as the elderly, children, and various ethnic minority clients). Health care will become more accountable and data driven. Distance learning and virtual training programs will become 'the norm.' "

Typical Schedule:

9:00 Meet with Legislative Assistants and committee staff members concerning upcoming legislation.

10:00 Attend senate hearing on issues related to managed health care (Labor, House of Human Services Appropriations Subcommittee).

11:00 Senate hearings continue.

12:00 Lunch.

1:00 Attend briefing on health care issues for the elderly.

2:00 Meet with constituents and advocacy groups (e.g., members of APA regarding upcoming vote on legislation relevant to psychology; mental health professionals from Hawaii).

3:00 Respond to e-mail and phone calls.

4:00 Meet with Senator Inouye for briefing and review of day's activities. 5:00 Stand-by in office until Senate adjourns to provide information to Senator Inouye for a pending vote.

As you can tell from this example, clinical psychology is a complex field that parallels the complexity of human behavior and emotion. Just as we are defined by more than blood and tissue, emotions and ideas, or our relationships to others, the field of clinical psychology is, by necessity, an integrative effort to understand the interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors in making each of us "tick." Furthermore, modern clinical psychology must respond to contemporary issues that impact all of our lives. For example, the importance of ethnicity, culture, and gender in today's society informs and enriches the field of contemporary clinical psychology as do current issues related to economics, technology, ethics, and popular culture.

Like medicine and other fields, the roots of clinical psychology are viewed as simplistic and narrowly conceived. However, with scientific advancements and collaboration between various fields and schools of thought, contemporary clinical psychology champions a sophisticated integration that pulls together the best of these models for optimal treatment, assessment, consultation, and research.

Before describing the historical evolution of clinical psychology into its contemporary form, this chapter defines clinical psychology and the varied roles and activities of today's clinical psychologist. In addition, the integrative nature of contemporary clinical psychology will be highlighted. The purpose of this chapter is to examine exactly what clinical psychology is all about. I will define clinical psychology as well as outline the educational process for clinical psychologists, detail their typical roles and professional activities, list the usual employment settings, the various subspecialties within clinical psychology, the professional organizations of clinical psychology, and the similarities and differences between clinical psychology and related fields. Subsequent chapters will highlight these issues (and others) in much more detail. In doing so, a comprehensive and realistic view of the field of clinical psychology will be presented.

Throughout the course of this book, I discuss the field of clinical psychology as understood and practiced in the United States. However, clinical psychology is recognized and practiced in many other countries. The American Psychological Association (APA), the Canadian Psychological Association, and the British Psychological Society for example, have more similarities than differences and often host joint meetings and other professional activities. The doctorate is the expected level of training for psychologists in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Much of Europe and elsewhere do not require doctoral training for clinical psychologists. Unfortunately, it is beyond the scope of this book to detail the training, history, and activities of clinical psychologists in other countries. However, much of the information presented is universally relevant to clinical psychologists.

Definition and Inherent Intrigue

What could be more intriguing than human behavior and interpersonal relationships in all their complexity? A visit to any major bookstore reveals that topics such as clinical psychology, self-help, and the general use of psychological principles in understanding our lives are enormously popular and pervasive. Hundreds of books are published each year that focus on ways to better understand human behavior, replete with methods to improve psychological functioning as it interacts with physical well-being, emotions, and interpersonal relationships. Furthermore, one of the most popular television programs during the past several years has been The Dr. Phil Show, a clinical psychologist offering advice on numerous wide-ranging topics for willing participants.

Although the discipline of psychology is only about 100 years old, psychology is one of the most popular current undergraduate majors in most colleges and universities. Furthermore, clinical psychology is the most popular specialty area within psychology (APA, 2001; Norcross, Sayette, & Mayne, 2002). Doctorates in psychology are more common than any other doctoral degree awarded in the United States with the majority of psychology doctorates being awarded in clinical psychology (APA, 2000a, 2000b; Norcross et al., 2002). The majority of members of the APA list clinical psychology as their area of specialization (APA, 2001).

How is clinical psychology defined? Clinical psychology focuses on the assessment, treatment, and understanding of psychological and behavioral problems and disorders. In fact, clinical psychology focuses its efforts on the ways in which the human psyche interacts with physical, emotional, and social aspects of health and dysfunction. According to the APA, clinical psychology attempts to use the principles of psychology to better understand, predict, and alleviate "intellectual, emotional, biological, psychological, social, and behavioral aspects of human functioning" (APA, 2000b). Clinical psychology is "the aspect of psychological science and practice concerned with the analysis, treatment, and prevention of human psychological disabilities and with the enhancing of personal adjustment and effectiveness" (Rodnick, 1985, p. 1929). Thus, clinical psychology uses what is known about the principles of human behavior to help people with the numerous troubles and concerns they experience during the course of life in their relationships, emotions, and physical selves. For example, a clinical psychologist might evaluate a child using intellectual and educational tests to determine if the child has a learning disability or an attentional problem that might contribute to poor school performance. Another example includes a psychologist who treats an adult experiencing severe depression following a recent divorce. People experiencing substance addictions, hallucinations, compulsive eating, sexual dysfunction, physical abuse, suicidal impulses, and head injuries are a few of the many problem areas that are of interest to clinical psychologists.

Who is a clinical psychologist? Many people with different types of training and experience are involved with helping understand, assess, and treat people with problems in living. Counselors, nurses, psychiatrists, peer helpers, and others are involved with the areas of concern already listed. Clinical psychologists "have a doctoral degree from a regionally accredited university or professional school providing an organized, sequential clinical psychology program in a department of psychology" (APA, 1981, p. 641). Although many universities offer master's degree training programs in clinical psychology, the doctorate is considered to be the minimal level of training to be considered a clinical psychologist. Clinical psychology is not so much a specialty separate from psychology, but is more a unique application of psychology to the realm of emotional and behavioral problems (Matarazzo, 1987).

Perspective and Philosophy

Clinical psychology uses the scientific method to approach and understand human problems in behavior, emotions, thinking, relationships, and health. Rigorous scientific inquiry is used to select and evaluate assessment and treatment approaches and activities. Treatment outcome research helps to determine which treatments might be most effective for people seeking help with particular clinical problems. However, clinical psychology is both a science and an art. Findings from scientific investigations must be applied to the unique and special needs of an individual, group, or organization. What might be helpful to one person may not be to another even if they both experience the same diagnosis or problems. The science of clinical psychology informs the art while the art also informs the science. For example, research findings from experiments on psychotherapy outcomes are used to determine which type of psychotherapy is most useful with people experiencing depression whereas clinical experience working with people struggling with depression is used to better design and implement psychotherapy outcome research.

Contemporary clinical psychology uses integrative approaches to understand and address problems in human behavior. While a wealth of individual perspectives contribute important pieces of understanding to the puzzle of human behavior, these pieces must often be joined in novel ways to provide the most complete and holistic perspective. For example, advances in biology have provided important knowledge about the role of neurotransmitters in depression. Similarly, personal variables such as history of loss and trauma, as well as sociocultural factors such as poverty, discrimination, and community support in depression, are well appreciated. Ultimately, an intelligent melding of these biological, psychological, and social factors leads to intervention strategies that best address the complex needs of depressed individuals. Therefore, this book emphasizes integrative efforts to address human behavior, referring to biopsychosocial factors throughout.

Although individual clinical psychologists may be closely aligned with particular theoretical perspectives on human behavior, most contemporary clinical psychologists also appreciate the integral roles of biopsychological factors in health and illness. The biopsychosocial perspective, an example of an integrative approach, will be more fully described in Chapter 6. To understand psychology's roots and gradual development into its present form as an integrative endeavor, it is important to keep in mind the impact of biopsychosocial issues simply as the interplay of relevant biological, psychological, and social factors in human behavior.

Research and practice in clinical psychology has found that certain approaches to understanding and treating problems may be especially useful for certain people and problems while different approaches might be most helpful for others.


Excerpted from Contemporary Clinical Psychology by Thomas G. Plante Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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