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"This new edition provides the reader with the latest developments in clinical psychology. An excellent text for introducing and motivating students to become well-informed consumers of clinical psychology information. Every chapter provides valuable information for mental health students entering the profession."
- Gerardo D. Canul, PhD
Clinical Psychologist and Lecturer, University of California, Irvine
Visiting Faculty, Graduate School of Psychology and Education, Pepperdine University
UP-TO-DATE INFORMATION AND INSIGHT ON BECOMING A CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGIST
Contemporary Clinical Psychology, Second Edition presents a broad-spectrum overview of clinical psychology. Featuring a detailed review of the history, scientific foundations, and theoretical orientation of the field as it highlights the activities, roles, and responsibilities of today's clinical psychologist, this realistic and practical "view from the inside" provides:
* Insights into prevention, ethics, evidence-based treatments, confidentiality laws and regulations including HIPAA, and countless other current issues
* Case studies detailing the theoretical conceptualization, assessment, and treatment of clients, along with discussions of testing, therapy, consultation, and ethics
* Chapter-ending "Big Picture" synopses and lists of key points and terms to ensure understanding of the material covered, as well as a unique "Real Students, Real Questions" section, featuring actual questions asked by clinical psychology students
* Firsthand input from a diverse cross section of professionals about embarking on a career in clinical psychology
* Current and future trends, plus a step-by-step "road map" that covers all aspects of becoming a clinical psychologist
Utilizing an integrative biopsychosocial approach throughout, this thoroughly revised text reflects a contemporary perspective of clinical psychology. Author Thomas Plante, a practicing clinician as well as college professor, draws on his own experience working with clients as well as his work as a mental health director and consultant to illustrate the real world of clinical psychology and provide an accurate picture of how science and practice function together in the day-to-day practice of psychology.
From general knowledge and information to specific topics, including modes of research and areas of specialization, Contemporary Clinical Psychology, Second Edition presents a comprehensive and engaging view of the art and science of clinical psychology. Designed for upper-level undergraduates and first-year graduate students,yet invaluable for virtually anyone pursuing a career in psychology or related fields, it provides a frank and contemporary portrayal of the dynamic field of clinical psychology from many different perspectives and in many different settings.
|Ch. 1||What is contemporary clinical psychology?||3|
|Ch. 2||Foundations and early history of clinical psychology||33|
|Ch. 3||Recent history of clinical psychology||51|
|Ch. 4||Research : design and outcome||75|
|Ch. 5||The major theoretical models : paving the way toward integration||115|
|Ch. 6||Integrative and biopsychosocial approaches in contemporary clinical psychology||141|
|Ch. 7||Contemporary psychological assessment I : interviewing and observing behavior||177|
|Ch. 8||Contemporary psychological assessment II : cognitive and personality assessment||213|
|Ch. 9||Psychotherapeutic interventions||263|
|Ch. 10||Ten essential questions about psychotherapy||299|
|Ch. 11||Areas of specialization||321|
|Ch. 12||Consultative, teaching, and administrative roles||361|
|Ch. 13||Ethical standards||389|
|Ch. 14||Current and future trends and challenges||429|
|Ch. 15||Becoming a clinical psychologist : a road map||475|
|App||Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct 2002||511|
1. To define clinical psychology. 2. To provide a brief history of the field and put it in context relative to similar fields and professions.
3. To understand the various activities, roles, and employment settings of clinical psychologists.
Highlight of a Contemporary Clinical Psychologist: Patrick H. DeLeon, PhD, ABPP Definition and Inherent Intrigue Perspective and Philosophy Education and Training Activities Subspecialties Organizations How Does Clinical Psychology Differ from Related Fields?
Highlight of a Contemporary Clinical Psychologist
Patrick H. DeLeon, PhD, ABPP
Dr. DeLeon uses his training and skills as a clinical psychologist by working on Capital Hill. He helps shape policy and legislation that best reflects both the science and application of clinical psychology. He is a former president of the American Psychological Association.
Birth Date: January 6, 1943
College: Amherst College (BA, Liberal Arts), 1964
Graduate Program: Purdue University (MS, Psychology), 1966; Purdue University (PhD, Clinical Psychology), 1969; University of Hawaii (MPH, Health Services Administration), 1973; Catholic University, Columbus School of Law (JD), 1980
Clinical Internship: FortLogan Mental Health Center, Denver, Colorado
Current Job: Administrative Assistant (Chief of Staff), U.S. Senator D. K. Inouye, United States Senate
Pros and Cons of Being a Clinical Psychologist:
Pros: "Substantive knowledge about people, systems, health care, etc."
Cons: "Most psychologists or psychology colleagues do not appreciate how little they know about public policy and national trends."
Future of Clinical Psychology: "The knowledge base will continue to expand; whether services are provided by psychologists or other professionals is an open question. Psychology controls its own destiny-to not seek new agendas and to not save society means to be replaced by nursing and social work."
Changes during the past 5 to 7 years: "We have developed a significantly broader focus and thus have brought the behavioral sciences to a wider range of activities, especially within the generic health care arena. As our numbers have increased, we have developed a greater presence (i.e., influence) in defining quality care and health care priorities. Significantly more colleagues are now personally active within the public policy and political process, thus ensuring that psychology's voice (and values) will be heard. The development of postdoctoral training positions has resulted in society developing a greater appreciation for the importance of the psychosocial aspects of health care. Clearly, the prescription privileges agenda is revolutionizing mental health care delivery."
What do you think will be the major changes in clinical psychology during the next several years? "The prescription privilege agenda will continue to expand and thereby absolutely redefine quality mental health care. Advances in the technology and communications fields will be found to have direct applicability to health care and psychology will play a major role in addressing this challenge. Health care will become more patient-centered and interdisciplinary in nature. No longer will any of the health care professional schools be allowed to foster isolated or 'silo-oriented' training modules. The percentage of women in the field will increase to nearly 75%. And, clinical protocols will focus concretely on special populations (such as the elderly, children, and various ethnic minority clients). Health care will become more accountable and data driven. Distance learning and virtual training programs will become 'the norm.' "
9:00 Meet with Legislative Assistants and committee staff members concerning upcoming legislation.
10:00 Attend senate hearing on issues related to managed health care (Labor, House of Human Services Appropriations Subcommittee).
11:00 Senate hearings continue.
1:00 Attend briefing on health care issues for the elderly.
2:00 Meet with constituents and advocacy groups (e.g., members of APA regarding upcoming vote on legislation relevant to psychology; mental health professionals from Hawaii).
3:00 Respond to e-mail and phone calls.
4:00 Meet with Senator Inouye for briefing and review of day's activities. 5:00 Stand-by in office until Senate adjourns to provide information to Senator Inouye for a pending vote.
As you can tell from this example, clinical psychology is a complex field that parallels the complexity of human behavior and emotion. Just as we are defined by more than blood and tissue, emotions and ideas, or our relationships to others, the field of clinical psychology is, by necessity, an integrative effort to understand the interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors in making each of us "tick." Furthermore, modern clinical psychology must respond to contemporary issues that impact all of our lives. For example, the importance of ethnicity, culture, and gender in today's society informs and enriches the field of contemporary clinical psychology as do current issues related to economics, technology, ethics, and popular culture.
Like medicine and other fields, the roots of clinical psychology are viewed as simplistic and narrowly conceived. However, with scientific advancements and collaboration between various fields and schools of thought, contemporary clinical psychology champions a sophisticated integration that pulls together the best of these models for optimal treatment, assessment, consultation, and research.
Before describing the historical evolution of clinical psychology into its contemporary form, this chapter defines clinical psychology and the varied roles and activities of today's clinical psychologist. In addition, the integrative nature of contemporary clinical psychology will be highlighted. The purpose of this chapter is to examine exactly what clinical psychology is all about. I will define clinical psychology as well as outline the educational process for clinical psychologists, detail their typical roles and professional activities, list the usual employment settings, the various subspecialties within clinical psychology, the professional organizations of clinical psychology, and the similarities and differences between clinical psychology and related fields. Subsequent chapters will highlight these issues (and others) in much more detail. In doing so, a comprehensive and realistic view of the field of clinical psychology will be presented.
Throughout the course of this book, I discuss the field of clinical psychology as understood and practiced in the United States. However, clinical psychology is recognized and practiced in many other countries. The American Psychological Association (APA), the Canadian Psychological Association, and the British Psychological Society for example, have more similarities than differences and often host joint meetings and other professional activities. The doctorate is the expected level of training for psychologists in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Much of Europe and elsewhere do not require doctoral training for clinical psychologists. Unfortunately, it is beyond the scope of this book to detail the training, history, and activities of clinical psychologists in other countries. However, much of the information presented is universally relevant to clinical psychologists.
Definition and Inherent Intrigue
What could be more intriguing than human behavior and interpersonal relationships in all their complexity? A visit to any major bookstore reveals that topics such as clinical psychology, self-help, and the general use of psychological principles in understanding our lives are enormously popular and pervasive. Hundreds of books are published each year that focus on ways to better understand human behavior, replete with methods to improve psychological functioning as it interacts with physical well-being, emotions, and interpersonal relationships. Furthermore, one of the most popular television programs during the past several years has been The Dr. Phil Show, a clinical psychologist offering advice on numerous wide-ranging topics for willing participants.
Although the discipline of psychology is only about 100 years old, psychology is one of the most popular current undergraduate majors in most colleges and universities. Furthermore, clinical psychology is the most popular specialty area within psychology (APA, 2001; Norcross, Sayette, & Mayne, 2002). Doctorates in psychology are more common than any other doctoral degree awarded in the United States with the majority of psychology doctorates being awarded in clinical psychology (APA, 2000a, 2000b; Norcross et al., 2002). The majority of members of the APA list clinical psychology as their area of specialization (APA, 2001).
How is clinical psychology defined? Clinical psychology focuses on the assessment, treatment, and understanding of psychological and behavioral problems and disorders. In fact, clinical psychology focuses its efforts on the ways in which the human psyche interacts with physical, emotional, and social aspects of health and dysfunction. According to the APA, clinical psychology attempts to use the principles of psychology to better understand, predict, and alleviate "intellectual, emotional, biological, psychological, social, and behavioral aspects of human functioning" (APA, 2000b). Clinical psychology is "the aspect of psychological science and practice concerned with the analysis, treatment, and prevention of human psychological disabilities and with the enhancing of personal adjustment and effectiveness" (Rodnick, 1985, p. 1929). Thus, clinical psychology uses what is known about the principles of human behavior to help people with the numerous troubles and concerns they experience during the course of life in their relationships, emotions, and physical selves. For example, a clinical psychologist might evaluate a child using intellectual and educational tests to determine if the child has a learning disability or an attentional problem that might contribute to poor school performance. Another example includes a psychologist who treats an adult experiencing severe depression following a recent divorce. People experiencing substance addictions, hallucinations, compulsive eating, sexual dysfunction, physical abuse, suicidal impulses, and head injuries are a few of the many problem areas that are of interest to clinical psychologists.
Who is a clinical psychologist? Many people with different types of training and experience are involved with helping understand, assess, and treat people with problems in living. Counselors, nurses, psychiatrists, peer helpers, and others are involved with the areas of concern already listed. Clinical psychologists "have a doctoral degree from a regionally accredited university or professional school providing an organized, sequential clinical psychology program in a department of psychology" (APA, 1981, p. 641). Although many universities offer master's degree training programs in clinical psychology, the doctorate is considered to be the minimal level of training to be considered a clinical psychologist. Clinical psychology is not so much a specialty separate from psychology, but is more a unique application of psychology to the realm of emotional and behavioral problems (Matarazzo, 1987).
Perspective and Philosophy
Clinical psychology uses the scientific method to approach and understand human problems in behavior, emotions, thinking, relationships, and health. Rigorous scientific inquiry is used to select and evaluate assessment and treatment approaches and activities. Treatment outcome research helps to determine which treatments might be most effective for people seeking help with particular clinical problems. However, clinical psychology is both a science and an art. Findings from scientific investigations must be applied to the unique and special needs of an individual, group, or organization. What might be helpful to one person may not be to another even if they both experience the same diagnosis or problems. The science of clinical psychology informs the art while the art also informs the science. For example, research findings from experiments on psychotherapy outcomes are used to determine which type of psychotherapy is most useful with people experiencing depression whereas clinical experience working with people struggling with depression is used to better design and implement psychotherapy outcome research.
Contemporary clinical psychology uses integrative approaches to understand and address problems in human behavior. While a wealth of individual perspectives contribute important pieces of understanding to the puzzle of human behavior, these pieces must often be joined in novel ways to provide the most complete and holistic perspective. For example, advances in biology have provided important knowledge about the role of neurotransmitters in depression. Similarly, personal variables such as history of loss and trauma, as well as sociocultural factors such as poverty, discrimination, and community support in depression, are well appreciated. Ultimately, an intelligent melding of these biological, psychological, and social factors leads to intervention strategies that best address the complex needs of depressed individuals. Therefore, this book emphasizes integrative efforts to address human behavior, referring to biopsychosocial factors throughout.
Although individual clinical psychologists may be closely aligned with particular theoretical perspectives on human behavior, most contemporary clinical psychologists also appreciate the integral roles of biopsychological factors in health and illness. The biopsychosocial perspective, an example of an integrative approach, will be more fully described in Chapter 6. To understand psychology's roots and gradual development into its present form as an integrative endeavor, it is important to keep in mind the impact of biopsychosocial issues simply as the interplay of relevant biological, psychological, and social factors in human behavior.
Research and practice in clinical psychology has found that certain approaches to understanding and treating problems may be especially useful for certain people and problems while different approaches might be most helpful for others.
Excerpted from Contemporary Clinical Psychology by Thomas G. Plante Excerpted by permission.
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