Contemporary Curriculum: In Thought and Action / Edition 6

Contemporary Curriculum: In Thought and Action / Edition 6

by John D. McNeil

ISBN-10: 0471459755

ISBN-13: 9780471459750

Pub. Date: 03/11/2005

Publisher: Wiley

Practical tools for joining curriculum conversation

Curriculum is a field in continual flux, the result of an ongoing discussion among teachers approaching from a multitude of perspectives. Contemporary Curriculum: In Thought and Action, Seventh Edition offers the tools to participate in curriculum discussion and to construct and implement


Practical tools for joining curriculum conversation

Curriculum is a field in continual flux, the result of an ongoing discussion among teachers approaching from a multitude of perspectives. Contemporary Curriculum: In Thought and Action, Seventh Edition offers the tools to participate in curriculum discussion and to construct and implement curriculum in the classroom.

The Seventh Edition provides you with practical tools for executing curriculum at all levels: policy, institutional, and classroom. You’ll develop multiple strategies for dealing with curriculum problems, and build your skills in such areas as determining goals and purposes, providing optimum learning opportunities, and organizing for effective and continuous learning.

This text encourages online curriculum conversation among users and two-way communication between the author and readers. With an array of thoughtful new features and content, the Seventh Edition now:

  • Profiles thinkers and resources who are energizing the field with “new departures” that deviate from the established views or prevailing thought discussed in each chapter
  • Covers political ideologies, the conflicts over school subject matter, and data-driven decision making at state, district, school and classroom levels
  • Examines the functioning of schools and media as democratic institutions and the relationship of citizens and the political system
  • Discusses the impact of the privatization of schooling and the world-wide growth of the “Silent Curriculum”

With a balanced presentation of humanistic, social reconstructionist, systemic, and academic perspectives and fresh insights into key curriculum questions, Contemporary Curriculum: In Thought and Action, Seventh Edition comprises an excellent foundation for every educator from master’s to doctoral level.

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Table of Contents

Preface xi

Acknowledgement xv

Part I Conceptions of Curriculum

Chapter 1 Humanistic Curriculum 3

Characteristics of the Humanistic Curriculum 5

Purpose 5

Role of the Teacher 5

Forms of Humanistic Curriculum 6

A Confluent Curriculum 6

Consciousness and Transcendency 7

Responses to Depersonalization 9

Psychological Foundations of the Humanistic Curriculum 14

Third-Force Psychology 14

Historical Antecedents to the Humanistic Curriculum 18

Ancient Greeks and Romans 18

Traditional Humanities 19

Progressive Education 20

Spiritual Images 20

Criticisms of the Humanistic Curriculum 20

Concluding Comments 22

Questions 23

Suggested Strategic Research 24

New Directions in the Humanistic Curriculum 24

Chapter 2 The Social Reconstructionist Curriculum 27

Characteristics of the Social Reconstructionist Curriculum 27

Purpose 27

Role of the Teacher 28

Social Reconstruction in Practice 29

Changing the Community 29

Freire's Social Reconstructionism 30

Eradicating Illiteracy 31

Neo-Marxists 32

A Neo-Marxist Manifesto 33

Critical Theory against Reproductive Knowledge 33

Environmental Reconstruction 35

Futurologists 36

The Use of Future Planning 36

Typical Futurists' Recommendations 37

Critical Pedagogy 37

Social Adaptation versus Social Reconstruction 39

Psychological Foundatons of Social Reconstruction 40

Cultural Psychology as a Source 40

Psychoanalytical Psychology and Social Reconstruction 42

Historical Antecedents to Social Reconstruction 43

Criticisms of Social Reconstructionism 46

Concluding Comments 47

Questions 48

Suggested Strategic Research 48

New Directions in Social Reconstruction Curriculum49

Chapter 3 The Systemic Curriculum 52

Alignment 53

Accountability 54

Standards-Based Curriculum 54

Policies for Standards-Based Curriculum 54

Standards-Based Curriculum in the Classroom 57

Psychological Foundations of the Systemic Curriculum 60

Historical Antecedents to the Systemic Curriculum 62

Consequences of Systemic Curriculum 64

Concluding Comments 67

Questions 68

Suggested Strategic Research 68

New Directions in the Systemic Curriculum 69

Chapter 4 The Academic Curriculum 71

Approaches to the Academic Curriculum 75

The Forms of Knowledge Approach 75

Structure in the Disciplines Approach 77

Reaction against a Structure of Knowledge 80

Revival of the Disciplines Approach 81

Liberal Arts and the Academic Core 83

Liberal Arts in Higher Education 84

Academic Programs in the Elementary and Secondary Curriculum 86

Cultural Literacy 87

Making Subject Matter More Appealing to Growing Minds 88

Psychological Foundations of the Academic Curriculum 91

Historical Antecedents of the Academic Curriculum 93

Concluding Comments 97

Questions 98

Suggested Strategic Research 98

New Directions in the Academic Curriculum 99

Part II Curriculum Development

Chapter 5 Deciding What Should be Taught 105

Arenas for Deciding What to Teach 106

Levels of Decision Making 106

Curriculum at Different Levels 107

Contexts for Development of Curriculum 108

Range of Activity 108

Development of Materials 109

State, Regional, and Local Curriculum Planning 109

Institutional Curriculum Planning 109

Functions of the Curriculum 110

Determining What to Teach 112

Rational and Technical Models in Curriculum Decision Making 113

Needs Assessment Model 113

Steps in Needs Assessment 114

The Futuristic Model 116

The Rational Model 118

The Vocational or Training Model 122

Alternative Approaches to Determining Curriculum Purposes 123

Disjointed Incrementalism 123

Problems with Disjointed Incrementalism in Curriculum Making 124

Emergent Approaches in Curriculum Decision Making 125

A Comment on Models and Approaches for Curriculum Building 127

Concluding Comments 129

Questions 129

Suggested Strategic Research 130

New Directions in Deciding What is to be Taught 131

Chapter 6 Developing and Selecting Learning Opportunities 133

Standards for Teaching Impact Classroom Curriculum Development 134

Principles for Developing Learning Opportunities 136

Learning Opportunities for Higher Order Thinking 139

Transfer and Problem Solving 139

Creativity 140

Creating New Knowledge 142

Procedures for Developing Learning Activities 144

Current Orientations in Developing Learning Activities 144

Criteria for Selecting Learning Activities 148

Philosophical Criteria 149

Psychological Criteria 149

Political Criteria 151

Practicality as a Criterion 152

Scientifically Based Research Criteria 153

Criticisms of Textbooks and Learning Opportunities 154

Criticisms of Criteria for Selecting Learning Opportunities 155

Concluding Comments 155

Questions 156

Suggested Strategic Research 156

Aperture Chapter 6 How Technology is Used with Curriculum Orientations 158

Technology in Humanistic Classrooms 158

Social Reconstruction and Technology 159

Technology in a Systemic Curriculum 161

Technology in the Academic Curriculum 163

Building Web Sites 165

New Developments in Learning Opportunities 165

Chapter 7 Organizing Learning Opportunities 168

Key Concepts in Curriculum Organization 168

Organizing Centers or Foci 169

Organizing Elements 169

Principles for Sequencing Centers and Activities Related to Elements 172

Organizing Structures 173

Structure at the Institutional Level 173

Structure at the Classroom Level 173

Organizational Patterns and Conceptions of the Curriculum 179

Unified Disciplines: The New Academic Pattern 181

Empirical Studies of the Effects of Patterns 186

Issues in Curriculum Organization 189

Concluding Comments 191

Questions 191

Suggested Strategic Research 192

New Directions in Organizing Learning Opportunities 193

Part III Curriculum Management

Chapter 8 Managing Curriculum 197

Schools and the Institutionalized Curriculum 197

Curriculum Change in the Context of Restructuring 199

Roles in Restructuring Curriculum 203

The Principal as Director of Learning 203

The Principal in Shared Leadership 204

Department Heads in Curriculum Management 205

Administrative Arrangements 205

Stratifying Students 207

Staffing Patterns and Scheduling 208

Supplementary Personnel 210

Nongrading 210

Facilities 210

The Middle School 211

Alternative, Magnet, Charter, and Specialist Schools 212

Trends in Reforming School Organization 215

Options in the Schools 215

Administration for Instructional Effectiveness 216

Coordinating the Curriculum 216

Effective Research and Curriculum Policy 219

Concluding Comments 221

Questions 221

Suggested Strategic Research 222

New Directions in Schools as Institutions 223

Chapter 9 Evaluating the Curriculum 225

Models for Evaluation 227

Consensus Models (Traditional and Technical Evaluation) 227

Pluralistic Models (Humanistic and Social Reconstructionist Evaluation) 230

Controversial Technical Issues in Curriculum Evaluation 232

The Form of Objectives (Goals, Standards, Benchmarks, and Indicators) 232

Measurement of Intended Outcomes versus Goal-Free Evaluation 234

Norm- and Criterion-Referenced Tests 235

Tests and Invasion of Privacy 236

Authentic Assessment of Student Performance 237

Assessment as Learning 238

Techniques for Collecting Data 239

Measuring Affect 240

Sampling 241

Hazards in Conducting Traditional Evaluation 242

Value Added Assessment 243

Concluding Comments 244

Questions 245

Suggested Strategic Research 246

New Directions in Curriculum Evaluation 246

Chapter 10 The Politics of Curriculum Making 249

Curriculum Policy 252

The Politics Involved 252

Political Decisions about What will be Taught 253

Concepts for Interpreting the Process of Political Decision Making 253

The Professionalization of Reform 253

Forces of Stability 254

Constraints on Policy 255

Participants in Determining Curriculum Policy 256

School-Based Political Participants 256

Community Participants 260

State Agencies 262

Testing Agencies 263

Publishers 263

The Courts 264

The Federal Government 265

Foundations 266

Special Interests 267

Conflicts in Curriculum Control 268

Concluding Comments 269

Questions 270

Suggested Strategic Research 270

New Directions in the Politics of Curriculum Making 270

Part IV Issues and Trends

Chapter 11 Current Issues Demanding Responses 275

Curriculum For Thinking 275

The Focus of a Thinking Curriculum 277

Curriculum Competition: An International Comparison 279

Invidious Comparisons 280

Vocational Education 286

Contrasting Purposes for Vocational Education 287

Access to Vocational Education 289

Content of Vocational Education 290

Reorganizing Vocational Education 292

Trends in Vocational Education 292

Moral Education 293

Phenix's Basic Questions in Moral Education 293

Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development 295

Character Education 296

School Safety 297

Concluding Comments 299

Questions 299

Suggested Strategic Research 300

New Directions in Curriculum Issues 301

Chapter 12 Trends in the Subject Fields 305

Mathematics 305

Mathematics in Our Schools 305

Trends in Mathematics 306

Science 309

Evolution of Science Teaching 309

New Approaches in Science Education 311

Recommendations for the Future Science Curriculum 313

Physical and Health Education 315

Its Place in the Curriculum 315

Guidelines for Future Physical Education Programs 316

English 318

English as a Subject 318

Current Trends in the Teaching of English 320

Reading 321

The Curriculum of Reading 321

Contested Trends in Reading 322

History and Social Studies 324

History as a Subject 324

An Evaluation of History Curriculum 324

History and Geography in the 1990s 325

History and the Social Studies in the Standards Movement 326

Social Studies 327

The Future of Social Studies 329

Foreign Language 330

The Rise and Fall of Foreign Language 330

Efforts to Revive Language Instruction 330

The Arts 333

Concluding Comments 335

Questions 336

Suggested Strategic Research 337

New Directions in the Subject Matters 337

Part V Curriculum Inquiry: Retrospect and Prospect

Chapter 13 A Historical Perspective of Curriculum Making 345

Curriculum Historians 346

Context for Formulation of the Curriculum Field 347

Founders of the Field of Curriculum 349

Herbartism and the McMurrys 349

Basic Tenets of Herbartism 350

The McMurrys' Thinking 350

Dewey's Opposition to Herbartism 353

Dewey's School 353

Dewey's Curriculum 354

Scientific Curriculum Making: Franklin Bobbitt and Werrett W. Charters 354

Societal Influences on the Scientific Movement 354

Key Ideas of Scientific Curriculum Making 355

Bobbitt's Contribution to Curriculum Making 355

Charters's Contribution to the Curriculum Field 358

Improvement of Instruction 359

Local Development of Curriculum 359

The Course of Study Movement 359

Caswell's Influence on the Curriculum Field 360

Rational Curriculum Making 361

Tyler's Curriculum Inquiry 361

Feminine Enactment of Curriculum 365

Hilda Taba 365

Mary Sheldon Barnes 366

Lucy Maynard Salmon 366

Lucy Sprague Mitchell 366

Concluding Comments 367

Questions 368

Suggested Strategic Research 368

New Directions in Historical Curriculum Studies 369

Chapter 14 The Promise of Theory and Inquiry in Curriculum 370

State of the Field 371

The Need for Curriculum Theory 371

The Need for Curriculum Conceptions 373

The Need for Studies of Correlation and Integration 375

The Need for Studies of Sequence 376

The Need for Analyzing Education Objectives (Standards) 377

The Need for Process-Product Research 378

Trends in Curriculum Inquiry 379

Forms of Inquiry 380

Synoptic Activity as Curriculum Inquiry 381

Inquiry in the School and Classroom 381

Narrative 382

Qualitative Inquiry in School Settings 382

Action Research as Curriculum Inquiry 383

Concluding Comments 385

Questions 386

Suggested Strategic Research 386

New Directions in Curriculum Inquiry 387

Name Index 389

Subject Index 395

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