Contemporary Issues in Bioethics / Edition 6

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Overview

This anthology represents all of the most important points of view on the most pressing topics in bioethics. Containing current essays and actual medical and legal cases written by outstanding scholars from around the globe, this book provides readers with diverse range of standpoints, including those of medical researchers and practitioners, legal exerts, and philosophers.

Addresses mgmt of confidential information/truth telling & mgmt of bad news/right to die/AIDS/eugenics/etc.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
A collection of essays and court opinions on ethical issues in biology and medicine, presenting alternative positions on issues such as reproductive technologies, surrogate parenting, informed consent, confidential information, abortion, and the right to die. This fourth edition includes information on types of ethical theory and ethics in relation to law and public policy, revised chapter introductions, and new chapters on AIDS, euthanasia, and genetics, as well as 88 new selections. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780534584412
  • Publisher: Wadsworth
  • Publication date: 8/28/2002
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 6
  • Pages: 816
  • Product dimensions: 7.30 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Meet the Author

Tom Beauchamp is Professor of Philosophy and Senior Research Scholar at Georgetown University's Kennedy Institute of Ethics. He was born in Austin, Texas. He received graduate degrees from Yale University and The Johns Hopkins University, where he received his Ph.D. in 1970. He then joined the faculty of the Philosophy Department at Georgetown University, and in the mid-70s accepted a joint appointment at the Kennedy Institute of Ethics. In 1976, he joined the staff of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, where he wrote the bulk of The Belmont Report (1978). Dr. Beauchamp's research interests are in Hume and the history of modern philosophy and practical ethics, especially biomedical ethics and business ethics.

LeRoy Walters was born in Illinois and spent his elementary and secondary school years in Pennsylvania. He attended a small Pennsylvania liberal-arts college, Messiah College, receiving his B.A. in 1962. After finishing a B.D. degree at the Associated Mennonite Seminaries in 1965, Dr. Walters studied for two years in Germany, one year at the University of Heidelberg and one year at the Free University of Berlin. In 1967 Walters returned to the United States and began a Ph.D. program in the Department of Religious Studies at Yale University. He finished his Ph.D. in Christian ethics in the spring of 1971. During the summer of 1971, Walters joined the newly-established Kennedy Institute of Ethics as the first faculty member appointed to a multi-year term. He has remained a member of the Kennedy Institute since 1971. In 1975, Dr. Walters received an appointment as Assistant Professor of Philosophy. He was promoted tothe rank of Associate Professor in 1980 and the rank of Professor in 1993. In the latter year he was also named the Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr. Professor of Christian Ethics at the Kennedy Institute. During the summer of 1996 Dr. Walters accepted a three-year term as Director of the Kennedy Institute.

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Table of Contents

Part I: INTRODUCTION TO ETHICS. 1.Ethical Theory and Bioethics. Fundamental Problems. The Study of Morality. Moral Dilemmas and Disagreements. The Problem of Relativism. Moral Justification. Types of Ethical Theory. Utilitarian Theories. Kantian Theories. Contemporary Challenges to Traditional Theories. Virtue Ethics. The Ethics of Care. Casuistry. Ethical Principles. Respect for Autonomy. Beneficence. Justice. Law and Policy. Ethics and Public Affairs. Morality and Law. Legal and Moral Rights. Law, Authority, And Autonomy. Part II: JUSTICE AND AUTONOMY IN HEALTH CARE. 2. Justice in Access to Health Care. Introdcution. Just Health Care and the Right to Health Care. Norman Daniels, Is There a Right to Health Care and, if so, What Does it Encompass?" Robert M. Veatch, Justice, the Basic Social Contract, and Health Care." Allen E. Buchanan, The Right to a Decent Minimum of Health Care." H. Tristam Engelhardt, Jr. Rights to Health Care." Managed Care and Access to Care. Lawrence O. Gostin, Securing Health or Just Health Care?: The Effect of the Health Care System." Madison Powers, Managed Care: How Economic Incentive Reforms Went Wrong." Allen Buchanan, Managed Care: Rationing without Justice, But Not Unjustly." Rationing. Peter A. Ubel and Susan Dorr Goold, ''Rationing'' Health Care: Not All Definitions are Created Equal." Norman Daniels, Rationing Fairly: Programmatic Considerations." Leonard Fleck, Just Caring: Oregon, Health Care Rationing, and Informed Democratic Deliberation." 3. Autonomy Rights and Medical Information. Introduction. The Confidentiality of Medical Information. Mark Siegler, Confidentiality in Medicine - A Decrepit Concept." California Supreme Court, Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California. Morton E. Winston, AIDS, Confidentiality, and the Right to Know." Truth Telling and Disclosing Bad News. David C. Thomasma, Telling the Truth to Patients: A Clinical Ethics Exploration." Garry S. Sigman, Jerome Kraut, and John La Puma, Disclosure of a Diagnosis to Children and Adolescents When Parents Object. Informed Consent. United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit, Cantebury v. Spence. Jay Katz, Physicians and Patients: A History of Silence." Ruth R. Faden and Tom L. Beauchamp, The Concept of Informed Consent." Robert J. Levine, Informed Consent: Some Challenges to the Universal Validity of the Western Model." Refusal of Treatment. California Court of Appeals, Second District, Bouvia v. Superior Court. United States Supreme Court, Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health. Advance Directives. Linda Emmanuel, Marion Danis, Robert A. Pearlman, and Peter A. Singer, Advance Care Planning as a Process: Structuring the Discussions in Practice." Ben E. Rich, Advance Directives: The Next Generation." Part III: LIFE AND DEATH. 4. End-of-Life Decisionmaking. Introduction. The Right to Die. F. M. Kamm, A Right to Choose Death?" Leon R. Kass, Is There a Right to Die?" The Legal Background in the United States. The Oregon Death With Dignity Act. United States Supreme Court, Vacco v. Quil andWashington v. Glucksberg. The Supreme Court of California, Wendland v. Wendland. The Moral Foundations of Public Policy on Physician-Assisted Death. Henck Jochemsen and John Keown, Voluntary Euthanasia under Control?: Further Empirical Evidence from the Netherlands." Johannes J. M. van Delden, Slippery Slopes in Flat Countries: A Response." Palliation and Other Alternatives to Physician-Assisted Death. Bernard Gert, Charles M. Culver, and K. Danner Clouser, An Alternative to Physician-Assisted Suicide." Timothy E. Quill, Bernard Lo, and Dan W. Brock, Palliative Options of Last Resort." 5. Abortion and Maternal-Fetal Relations. Introduction. The Problem Justifying Abortion. Don Marquis, Why Abortion is Immoral." Judith Jarvis Thomson, A Defense of Abortion." Baruch Brody, The Morality of Abortion." Mary Anne Warren, On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion." Legal Issues of Abortion. United States Supreme Court, Roe v. Wade. United States Supreme Court, Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Robert P. Casey, et al., etc. United States Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit, Carhart v. Stenberg. Maternal-Fetal Relationships and Rights. United States Supreme Court, Automobile Workers v. Johnson Controls, Inc. District of Columbia Court of Appeals, In Re A.C. Alexander Capron, Punishing Mothers." Kenneth A. DeVille and Loretta Kopelman, Moral and Social Issues Regarding Pregnant Women Who Use and Abuse Drugs." Part IV: BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY. 6. Research Involving Human and Animal Subjects. Introduction. Codes and Guidelines. The Nuremberg Code" (1947). World Medical Association, Declaration of Helsinki" (2000) and Note of Clarification" (2001). Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, in Collaboration with the World Health Organization, International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects" (2002). Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals" (1985). Ethical Issues in Human Research. National Bioethics Advisory Commission, Protecting Research Participants - A Time for Change" (2001). Ezekiel J. Emanuel and Franklin G. Miller, The Ethics of Placebo-Controlled Trials - A Middle Ground" (2001). Harold T. Shapiro and Eric M. Meslin, Ethical Issues in the Design and Conduct of Clinical Trials in Developing Countries" (2001). Solomon R. Benatar, Justice and Medical Research: A Global Perspective" (2001). Past Abuses of Human Research Subjects. Gregory E. Pence, The Tuskegee Study" (1994). William J. Clinton, In Apology for the Study Done in Tuskegee" (1997). Sheldon H. Harris, Factories of Death" (1994). Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, Final Report" (1995). Ethical Issues in Animal Research. David DeGrazia, The Ethics of Animal Research: What Are the Prospects for Agreement?" (1999). Baruch A. Brody, Defending Animal Research: An International Perspective" (2001). Andrew N. Rowan, Formulation of Ethical Standards for the Use of Animals in Medical Research" (1993). Richard Smith, Animal Research: The Need for a Middle Ground" (2001). Suggested Readings. 7. Eugenics and Human Genetics. Introduction. Eugenics Programs in the Twentieth Century. Daniel J. Kevles, Eugenics and Human Rights" (1999). United States Supreme Court, Buck v. Bell (1927). Stephen Jay Gould, Carrie Buck's Daughter." Jonathan Glover, Eugenics: Some Lessons from the Nazi Experience" (1998). The Human Genome Project. Francis S. Collins and Victor A. McKusick, Implications of the Human Genome Project for Medical Science" (2001). James D. Wilson, Genes and Politics." Allen Buchanan, et al., From Chance to Choice: Genetics and Justice" (2000). Svante Pääbo, The Human Genome and Our View of Ourselves" (2001). Genetic Testing and Screening. Patricia A. Roche and George J. Annas, Protecting Genetic Privacy" (2001). Michael M. Burgess, Beyond Consent: Ethical and Social Issues in Genetic Testing" (2001). Lainie Friedman Ross and Margaret R. Moon, Ethical Issues in Genetic Testing of Children" (2000). Human Gene Transfer Research. Ninkunj Somia and Inder Verma, Gene Therapy: Trials and Tribulations" (edited) (2000). Theodore Friedmann, Principles for Human Gene Therapy Studies" (2000). Julian Savulescu, Harm, Ethics Committees and the Gene Therapy Death" (2001). Genetic Enhancement. Jonathan Glover, Questions about Some Uses of Genetic Engineering." Jon W. Gordon, Genetic Enhancement in Humans" (1999). Erik Parens, The Goodness of Fragility: On the Prospect of Genetic Technologies Aimed at the Enhancement of Human Capabilities." Suggested Readings. 8. Reproductive Technologies and Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research. Introduction. In Vitro Fertilization. John A. Robertson, IVF, Infertility, and the Status of Embryos" (1994). Susan Sherwin, Feminist Ethics and In Vitro Fertilization" (1987). ISLAT Working Group, ART into Science: Regulation of Fertility Techniques" (1998). Reproductive Cloning. Dan W. Brock, Cloning Human Beings: An Assessment of Ethical Issues Pro and Con" (1997). Leon Kass, The Wisdom of Repugnance" (1997). National Bioethics Advisory Commission, Cloning Human Beings" (1997). Ranaan Gillon, Human Reproductive Cloning: A Look at the Arguments Against It and a Rejection of Most of Them" (1999). National Research Council, Scientific and Medical Aspects of Human Reproductive Cloning" (2002). Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research. National Bioethics Advisory Commission, Ethical Issues in Human Stem Cell Research" (1999). Glenn McGee and Arthur L. Caplan, The Ethics and Politics of Small Sacrifices in Stem Cell Research" (1999). Gilbert Meilaender, The Point of a Ban: Or, How to Think about Stem Cell Research" (2001). National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, Stem Cells and the Future of Regenerative Medicine" (2001). National Research Council, Using Nuclear Transplantation to Produce Embryonic Stem Cells" (2002). Suggested Readings. Part V: PUBLIC HEALTH. The Global AIDS Epidemic and the Threat of Bioterrorism. Introduction. General Issues. Anthony S. Fauci, The AIDS Epidemic: Considerations for the 21st Century" (1999). United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS and World Health Organization, AIDS Epidemic Update" (2001). Peter R. Lamptey, Reducing Heterosexual Transmissions of AIDS in Poor Countries" (2002). Lawrence O. Gostin and David W. Webber, HIV Infection and AIDS in the Public Health and Health Care Systems" (1998). AIDS, Justice and Public Health. Gavin Yamey and William W. Rankin, AIDS and Global Justice" (2002). Donald Berwick, We All Have AIDS" (2001). Dorothy E. Logie and Solomon R. Benatar, Africa in the 21st Century: Can Despair be Turned to Hope?" (1997). The Duty to Warn and the Duty Not to Harm. Charles A. Erin and John Harris, Is There an Ethics of Heterosexual AIDS?" (1993). Rebecca Bennett, Heather Draper, and Lucy Frith, Ignorance is Bliss?: HIV and Moral Duties and Legal Duties to Forewarn" (2000). Andrea Carlson Gielen, et al., Women Living with HIV: Disclosure, Violence and Social Support" (2000). Testing and Screening Programs. Institute of Medicine, Reducing the Odds: Preventing Perinatal Transmission of HIV in the United States" (1998). Bernard Lo, Leslie Wolf, and Sohini Sengupta, Ethical Issues in Early Detection of HIV Infection to Reduce Vertical Transmission" (2000). Stephen F. Morin, Early Detection of HIV: Assessing the Legislative Context" (2000). AIDS Vaccine Trials. Dale Guenter, Jose Esparza, and Ruth Macklin, Ethical Issues in International HIV Vaccine Trials" (2000). Malegapuru William Makgoba, Nandipha Solomon, and Timothy John Paul Tucker, The Search for an HIV Vaccine" (2002). The Threat of Bioterrorism. Donald A. Henderson, The Looming Threat of Bioterrorism" (1999). Robert C. Spencer and Nigel F. Lightfoot, Preparedness and Response to Bioterrorism" (2001). Joseph Barbera, et al., Large-Scale Quarantine Following Biological Terrorism in the United States: Scientific Examination, Logisitc and Legal Limits, and Possible Consequences" (2001). Lawrence O. Gostin, Law and Ethics in a Public Health Emergency" (2002). George J. Annas, Bioterrorism, Public Health, and Civil Liberties" (2002). Recommended Readings.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted September 9, 2007

    I would not recommended this book as a learning tool

    This book is extremely hard to comprehend because of the many complex words in every sentence. I am a sophomore in college and this is one of the hardest textbooks i have ever read. Sometimes it feels as though I need a thesaurus by my side to read it. Thumbs down!

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