Contemporary Issues in Bioethics / Edition 7

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Overview

This anthology represents all major points of view on the central topics in bioethics. It contains current essays and actual medical and legal cases written by outstanding scholars from around the globe. The book provides readers with diverse views from many standpoints, including medical researchers and practitioners, legal experts, and philosophers.

Addresses mgmt of confidential information/truth telling & mgmt of bad news/right to die/AIDS/eugenics/etc.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
A collection of essays and court opinions on ethical issues in biology and medicine, presenting alternative positions on issues such as reproductive technologies, surrogate parenting, informed consent, confidential information, abortion, and the right to die. This fourth edition includes information on types of ethical theory and ethics in relation to law and public policy, revised chapter introductions, and new chapters on AIDS, euthanasia, and genetics, as well as 88 new selections. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
From the Publisher
"This is by far the best text in bioethics for upper level and graduate courses. It's compendious and thorough and includes those all important court opinions connected with the major issues. The text is always improved and updated with each new edition while retaining the gold of the past editions."

"The indispensable collection of essays for physicians, philosophers, genetic counselors, and public health professionals."

"Valuable anthology of many of the major papers in contemporary bioethics which serves both to keep it relevant and to maintain its critical edge."

"A text that entices and encourages discussion regarding social, political and economic issues to consider as we adopt a new health care system."

"A comprehensive but concise overview of major issues and perspectives in bioethics that includes summaries of key cases, excerpts from important theoretical approaches and policies, and attempts at practical resolutions of contemporary problems."

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780495006732
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning
  • Publication date: 9/25/2007
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 850
  • Product dimensions: 7.40 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Meet the Author

Tom Beauchamp is Professor of Philosophy and Senior Research Scholar at Georgetown University's Kennedy Institute of Ethics. He received graduate degrees from Yale University (Divinity) and Johns Hopkins University, where he received his Ph.D. in in philosophy 1970. He then joined the faculty of the Philosophy Department at Georgetown University, and in the mid-70s accepted a joint appointment at the Kennedy Institute of Ethics. In 1976, he joined the staff of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, where he wrote the bulk of The Belmont Report (1978). Dr. Beauchamp's research interests are in Hume and the history of modern philosophy and practical ethics, especially biomedical ethics and business ethics.

LeRoy Walters is the Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr. Professor of Christian Ethics at the Kennedy Institute of Ethics at Georgetown University. He received his BA from a small Pennsylvania liberal-arts college, Messiah College, and a B.D. degree at the Associated Mennonite Seminaries. He then studied for two years in Germany, one year at the University of Heidelberg and one year at the Free University of Berlin. Walters returned to the United States and received his PhD in Christian ethics from Yale University. In 1971, Walters joined the newly-established Kennedy Institute of Ethics as the first faculty member appointed to a multi-year term. He served as director of the Institute from 1996-2000. His interests are in the ethical issues in human genetics, and since 2003 Dr. Walters has devoted major attention to Holocaust Studies and to the "euthanasia" program initiated in 1939 under National Socialism.

Jeffrey Kahn is Robert Henry Levi and Ryda Hecht Levi Professor of Bioethics and Public Policy at Johns Hopkins' Berman Institute of Bioethics, and Professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the university's Bloomberg School of Public Health. He received his undergraduate degree from UCLA, and graduate degrees from Johns Hopkins (MPH) and Georgetown University, where he received his Ph.D. in philosophy in 1989. He has held faculty positions in the medical schools at the Medical College of Wisconsin and the University of Minnesota, where he was professor and director in the Center for Bioethics from 1996-2011; he was visiting professor at the University of Zurich in 2009. Dr Kahn has served as staff or a member of a number of national commissions related to bioethics, including chairing the IOM Committee on the Necessity of Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research in 2011. Dr. Kahn's research interest includes ethics of leading-edge research, ethics and genetics, and ethics and public health.

Anna Mastroianni is Professor of Law at the University of Washington's School of Law and Institute for Public Health Genetics. She has additional faculty appointments in the UW Department of Health Services, School of Public Health and in the Department of Bioethics & Humanities and the Department of Pediatrics in the School of Medicine. Professor Mastroianni received her B.A., B.S., and J.D. from the University of Pennsylvania, and her M.P.H. from the University of Washington. She has worked in a number of legal and governmental policy positions in Washington D.C., including Associate Director of President Bill Clinton's Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments and Study Director of the Institute of Medicine at the National Academy of Sciences. Previously, she worked in the private practice of law in Washington, D.C.. She has served on a number of government and non-government advisory bodies, including the National Institutes of Health Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee. She has been nationally recognized for her contributions to health policy, law, and bioethics as a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Professor Mastroianni's research interests are in the intersections of law, bioethics, public health and medicine, with a special emphasis on the legal and ethical challenges of research with human subjects and assisted reproductive technologies.

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Table of Contents

Preface
Pt. I Introduction to Ethics 1
Ch. 1 Ethical Theory and Bioethics 1
Fundamental Problems 1
Types of Ethical Theory 12
Ethical Principles 21
Law and Policy 28
Pt. II Justice and Autonomy in Health Care 39
Ch. 2 Justice in Access to Health Care 39
"Is There a Right to Health Care and, If So, What Does It Encompass?" 46
"Justice, the Basic Social Contract, and Health Care" 53
"The Right to a Decent Minimum of Health Care" 59
"Rights to Health Care, Social Justice, and Fairness in Health Care Allocations" 64
"Securing Health or Just Health Care? The Effect of the Health Care System on the Health of America" 72
"Managed Care: How Economic Incentive Reforms Went Wrong" 79
"Managed Care: Rationing without Justice, But Not Unjustly" 83
"'Rationing' Health Care: Not All Definitions Are Created Equal" 90
"Rationing Fairly: Programmatic Considerations" 95
"Just Caring: Oregon, Health Care Rationing, and Informed Democratic Deliberation" 100
Ch. 3 Autonomy Rights and Medical Information 109
"Confidentiality in Medicine - A Decrepit Concept" 116
Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California 119
"AIDS, Confidentiality, and The Right to Know" 124
"Telling the Truth to Patients: A Clinical Ethics Exploration" 128
"Disclosure of a Diagnosis to Children and Adolescents When Parents Object" 133
Canterbury v. Spence 139
"Physicians and Patients: A History of Silence" 141
"The Concept of Informed Consent" 145
"Informed Consent: Some Challenges to the Universal Validity of the Western Model" 150
Bouvia v. Superior Court 156
Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health 159
"Advance Care Planning as a Process: Structuring the Discussions in Practice" 164
"Advance Directives: The Next Generation" 171
Pt. III Life and Death 179
Ch. 4 End-of-Life Decisionmaking 179
"A Right to Choose Death?" 186
"Is There a Right to Die?" 191
The Oregon Death with Dignity Act 201
Vacco v. Quill and Washington v. Glucksberg 207
Wendland v. Wendland 212
"Voluntary Active Euthanasia" 216
"Physician-Assisted Suicide: A Tragic View" 225
"Voluntary Euthanasia under Control? Further Empirical Evidence from the Netherlands" 235
"Slippery Slopes in Flat Countries - A Response" 241
"An Alternative to Physician-Assisted Suicide" 244
"A Comparison of Voluntarily Stopping Eating and Drinking, Terminal Sedation, Physician-Assisted Suicide, and Voluntary Active Euthanasia" 252
Ch. 5 Abortion and Maternal-Fetal Relations 263
"Why Abortion is Immoral" 270
"A Defense of Abortion" 278
"The Morality of Abortion" 288
"On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion" 298
Roe v. Wade 308
Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Robert P. Casey, et al., etc 312
Carhart v. Stenberg 318
Automobile Workers v. Johnson Controls, Inc 322
In Re A.C. 324
"Punishing Mothers" 330
"Moral and Social Issues Regarding Pregnant Women Who Use and Abuse Drugs" 334
Pt. IV Biomedical Research and Technology 345
Ch. 6 Research Involving Human and Animal Subjects 345
"The Nuremberg Code" 354
"Declaration of Helsinki" and "Note of Clarification" 355
"International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects" 358
"International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals" 363
"Research Ethics: International Perspectives" 365
"Protecting Research Participants - A Time for Change" 371
"The Ethics of Placebo-Controlled Trials - A Middle Ground" 379
"Ethical Issues in the Design and Conduct of Clinical Trials in Developing Countries" 385
"Justice and Medical Research: A Global Perspective" 390
"The Tuskegee Study" 394
"In Apology for the Study Done in Tuskegee" 402
"Factories of Death" 404
"Final Report" 413
"The Ethics of Animal Research: What Are the Prospects for Agreement?" 418
"Defending Animal Research: An International Perspective" 426
"Formulation of Ethical Standards for the Use of Animals in Medical Research" 437
"Animal Research: The Need for a Middle Ground" 442
Ch. 7 Eugenics and Human Genetics 451
"Eugenics and Human Rights" 457
Buck v. Bell 460
"Carrie Buck's Daughter" 462
"Eugenics: Some Lessons from the Nazi Experience" 467
"Implications of the Human Genome Project for Medical Science" 473
"Genes and Politics" 479
"From Chance to Choice: Genetics and Justice" 485
"The Human Genome and Our View of Ourselves" 496
"Protecting Genetic Privacy" 500
"Beyond Consent: Ethical and Social Issues in Genetic Testing" 507
"Ethical Issues in Genetic Testing of Children" 513
"Principles for Human Gene Therapy Studies" 522
"Gene Therapy: Trials and Tribulations" 526
"Harm, Ethics Committees and the Gene Therapy Death" 531
"Questions about Some Uses of Genetic Engineering" 534
"Genetic Enhancement in Humans" 544
"The Goodness of Fragility: On the Prospect of Genetic Technologies Aimed at the Enhancement of Human Capabilities" 548
Ch. 8 Reproductive Technologies and Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research 563
"IVF, Infertility, and the Status of Embryos" 569
"Feminist Ethics and In Vitro Fertilization" 580
"ART into Science: Regulation of Fertility Techniques" 589
"Cloning Human Beings: An Assessment of the Ethical Issues Pro and Con" 593
"The Wisdom of Repugnance" 603
National Bioethics Advisory Commission 618
"Human Reproductive Cloning: A Look at the Arguments Against It and a Rejection of Most of Them" 621
"Scientific and Medical Aspects of Human Reproductive Cloning" 633
"Ethical Issues in Human Stem Cell Research" 636
"The Ethics and Politics of Small Sacrifices in Stem Cell Research" 646
"The Point of a Ban: Or, How to Think about Stem Cell Research" 649
"Stem Cells and the Future of Regenerative Medicine" 656
"Using Nuclear Transplantation to Produce Embryonic Stem Cells" 658
Pt. V Public Health 665
Ch. 9 The Global AIDS Epidemic and the Threat of Bioterrorism 665
"The AIDS Epidemic: Considerations for the 21st Century" 671
"AIDS Epidemic Update" 677
"Reducing Heterosexual Transmission of HIV in Poor Countries" 685
"HIV Infection and AIDS in the Public Health and Health Care Systems" 691
"AIDS and Global Justice" 700
"We All Have AIDS" 702
"Africa in the 21st Century: Can Despair Be Turned to Hope?" 704
"Is There an Ethics of Heterosexual AIDS?" 708
"Ignorance Is Bliss? HIV and Moral Duties and Legal Duties to Forewarn" 716
"Women Living with HIV: Disclosure, Violence, and Social Support" 724
"Reducing the Odds: Preventing Perinatal Transmission of HIV in the United States" 731
"Ethical Issues in Early Detection of HIV Infection to Reduce Vertical Transmission" 734
"Early Detection of HIV: Assessing the Legislative Context" 742
"Ethical Issues in International HIV Vaccine Trials" 750
"The Search for an HIV Vaccine" 757
"The Looming Threat of Bioterrorism" 761
"Preparedness and Response to Bioterrorism" 768
"Large-Scale Quarantine Following Biological Terrorism in the United States: Scientific Examination, Logistic and Legal Limits, and Possible Consequences" 775
"Law and Ethics in a Public Health Emergency" 784
"Bioterrorism, Public Health, and Civil Liberties" 788
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