Contemporary Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice : Essays in Honor of Gilbert Geis / Edition 1

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Overview

This volume was assembled in honor of the preeminent criminologist and scholar, Gilbert Geis, on the occasion of his seventy-fifth birthday. As one of the most prolific writers in criminology and the social sciences, having published over twenty books and over three hundred articles, chapters, and monographs over the past six decades, Gil's work has covered an incredibly broad range of topics. In this volume, his colleagues were invited to submit works that also cover a broad terrain. While many chapters are related to the topic of white-collar crime, for which Gil is perhaps best known, his friends have also honored him by providing original, interesting, and relevant pieces in such areas as punishment and social control, public policy issues, comparative criminology, law, victimology, and policing, that are important reading for scholars, students, and practitioners alike.

AUTHORS INVOLVED:

Robert F. Meier

John Braithwaite

Arnold Binder and Virginia Binder

Diane Vaughan

William K. Black

David Shichor, Dale Sechrest, and Jeffrey Doocy

Sean Patrick Griffin and Alan A. Block

Michael L. Benson and Kent R. Kerley

Peter Grabosky

Mary Dodge

Sally S. Simpson and Nicole Leeper Piquero

Colin Goff

James F. Short, Jr

Duncan Chappell

Joseph F. DiMento and Gabrio Forti

Francis T. Cullen, Jody Sundt, and John Wozniak

Deborah Parsons and Paul Jesilow

Henry N. Pontell, Stephen M. Rosoff, and Jason Lam

Michael Levi

Hans Joachim Schneider

Susan Will and Kitty Calavita

C. Ronald Huff

Richard Wright

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130875853
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 8/14/2000
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 418
  • Product dimensions: 7.07 (w) x 9.13 (h) x 0.88 (d)

Meet the Author

HENRY N. PONTELL is professor and chair of the Department of Criminology, Law and Society, in the School of Social Ecology at the University of California-Irvine. He has written extensively on the topics of deviance and social control, white-collar and corporate crime, punishment and deterrence, crime seriousness, jail overcrowding and litigation, criminal justice system capacity, medical fraud, and the role of crime in the savings and loan debacle. He is a past president and fellow of the Western Society of Criminology. His books include: A Capacity to Punish: The Ecology of Crime and Punishment; Social Deviance; Prescription for Profit: How Doctors Defraud Medicaid; Profit Without Honor: White Collar Crime and the Looting of America; and Big Money Crime: Fraud and Politics in the Savings and Loan Crisis. His current work includes research on international financial fraud, and new books on social deviance, and contemporary legal debates in America.

DAVID SHICHOR is professor emeritus of criminal justice, California State University-San Bernardino. He received his Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Southern California, and taught at the Tel Aviv University, Israel prior to his arrival at CSUSB. He has written, co-authored, and co-edited several books and published numerous articles and book chapters on various topics, including juvenile delinquency, victimization, white-collar crime, corrections, and privatization in criminal justice. He is currently working on several projects on privatization, restorative justice, fraud victimization, and the mental health of jail inmates.

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Preface

This volume was assembled in honor of the preeminent criminologist and scholar, Gilbert Geis, on the occasion of his seventy-fifth birthday. Although this is a significant milestone in his life and certainly a cause for celebration, Gil deserves to be honored for many other reasons as well. First, and perhaps foremost, he is one of the most outstanding teachers and colleagues one could ever imagine. To those who know him, as well as to many who have simply met him, the combination of Gil's great warmth, caring, humor, intellect, breadth of interests, and energy mark him as one of the truly unique persons in the academic world today. As a prolific writer on a variety of topics related to law, crime, and criminal justice, his record of productivity over the past six decades, to use an analogy from his favorite sport, is similar in stature to the benchmarks set by Joe DiMaggio, Nolan Ryan, Hank Aaron, Cal Ripken, and Mark McGwire. That is, it is extremely difficult to imagine anyone ever surpassing his academic publication record. At last count, he has written or edited 21 books, 192 articles, 104 book chapters, and 30 monographs and has edited a number of special issues of journals. The incredible number of Gil's scholarly publications is matched only by the fact that it is first-rate work, written in a rich and engaging manner that appeals to scholars, practitioners, and students alike.

Gil's academic career began in 1952 in the sociology department at the University of Oklahoma, Norman. Before that, he served as a radioman in the U.S. Navy during the war years (1942-45), and as a reporter for the Times in Hartford, Connecticut (1946) and the DailyHome News in New Brunswick, New Jersey (1947-48). He earned his Ph.D. (1953) in sociology at the University of Wisconsin, Madison after receiving his M.S. (1949) at Brigham Young University and his B.A. (1947) at Colgate University. He also spent a year (1948) at the University of Stockholm in Sweden.

Gil left Oklahoma as an assistant professor in 1957, and took a position at California State University, Los Angeles, where he was promoted to associate professor in 1960 and then professor in 1963. During the 1969-70 school year, he was a visiting professor in the School of Criminal Justice at the State University of New York, Albany. In 1971 he served as a visiting professor in the Program in Social Ecology at the University of California, Irvine. The program's founder, Arnold Binder, a mathematical psychologist, convinced him to join the faculty the following year. Gil remained at Irvine and became professor emeritus in 1987, with brief stints as a visiting fellow in the Institute of Criminology at Cambridge University (1976-77), a visiting professor in the law school at the University of Sydney (1979), a distinguished visiting professor in the College of Human Development at Pennsylvania State University (1981), and a distinguished visiting professor in the John Jay School of Criminal Justice of the City University of New York (1996).

He has also been the recipient of numerous awards throughout his career as a criminologist. Among them are outstanding professor awards at California State University (1968, 1971), the Distinguished Faculty Lectureship Award at UC, Irvine (1980), the Paul Tappan Award for outstanding contributions to criminology from the Western Society of Criminology (1980), the Edwin H. Sutherland Award for outstanding contributions to theory and research in criminology from the American Society of Criminology (1985), and the Donald R. Cressey Award for excellence in fraud detection and deterrence from the National Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (1992). He has been a principal investigator or director of thirteen grants, including projects funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the Ford Foundation, the U.S. Department of Justice, and the Federal Bureau of Prisons.

Throughout his career, Gil has also been a model citizen of his profession, serving on numerous committees and boards. He has been an associate editor or editorial board member of sixteen academic journals, and has served as a member of advisory groups and executive committees for national and international organizations and publishers, including acting as advisor to the President's Committee on Narcotic and Drug Abuse (1963-64). In 1975 he was elected president of the American Society of Criminology. Since 1992 he has served as the president of the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners.

For all of his academic success and commitment over the years, the capstone of Gil's career has to be his publication record. His writings have thus far spanned six decades and have covered an incredible range of topics, including education, race relations, Scandinavian issues, the death penalty, film censorship, prisons, biographies, probation, courts, legal rights, drugs, juvenile justice and delinquency, prostitution, crime and crime victims, policing, community corrections, rehabilitation, organized crime, prisoner rights, evaluations, rape, homicide, victimless crimes, ethical issues in law, violence, social problems, good samaritans, compensation, restitution, deterrence, witch trials, criminal justice issues, research methods, and, of course, white-collar crime. It is this last area for which he has become most well known, beginning with the publication of his classic piece, The Heavy Electrical Equipment Antitrust Case of 1961, in the book, Criminal Behavior Systems: A Typology, edited by Marshall Clinard and Richard Quinney. Ironically perhaps, this seminal work appeared as a chapter in a textbook rather than in a leading journal, and is responsible for resurrecting interest in the topic of white-collar crime, which was introduced by Edwin Sutherland decades earlier but by and large ignored by criminologists and others. The piece helped spawn a new generation of criminologists, whose primary research agenda was the study of white-collar and corporate crime. The importance of Gil's professional contribution in this regard cannot be overstated.

Since the writing of that pathbreaking piece, Gil's work in white-collar crime has been prolific and varied. It includes research on the deterrence of corporate crime, consumer fraud laws, victimization, the psychology of white-collar offenders, corporate violence, punishment issues, white-collar crime seriousness, medical fraud, legal and regulatory issues, fraud examination, organizational deviance, as well as a number of general pieces on white-collar crime.

While Gil's name is most frequently related to the study of white-collar crime, it is hard to find any major subject area in criminology, or for that matter any minor area of the discipline, in which he hasn't published. In an era of increasing emphasis on expertise confined to narrow fields of study, when, as some critics claim, scholars tend "to learn and know more and more; about less and less," Gil is a true exception. His credo is "to learn and know more and more, about more and more." Those who know him can attest to his keen interest, encyclopedic knowledge, analytical skills, and fascinating writing style dealing not only with criminological topics but a wide array of other subjects as well. Perhaps the most fitting characterization of his professional writings is that he is what is commonly called a "Renaissance man," although he would probably prefer the label, "Renaissance person."

Gil is not only one of the most prolific criminologists in the world today, but also a great teacher, mentor, and colleague. Anyone who has ever asked him to read and comment on a draft can testify to his promptness, meticulous editing (with loads of red ink), and helpful comments that invariably enhance the quality and clarity of the manuscript. He has helped many students and junior colleagues with his support, advice, encouragement, and active participation in the completion of their work. He has done so in spite of his own, always more than full, agenda, which is characterized by a meticulously kept list of works he has to complete. Those who have ever collaborated with Gil on any book, article, or other project find him to be well prepared, prompt (somewhat compulsive), and usually taking upon himself more than his fair share of the work. All these are done with a wonderful sense of humor amid entertaining conversations. His numerous co-authored publications are an excellent testimony to his ability and readiness to work constructively with others.

Gil can be a sharp critic as well. While he is urbane (almost always), he is not shy in his readiness to voice his opinions, even if they may ruffle some feathers. He is not an iconoclast for the sake of being one, but he is always ready to get into the fray and has more than once criticized some of the works of well-known social scientists.

As is suitable for a volume honoring Gilbert Geis, the pieces in this book cover a broad terrain, although many of them, naturally, are related to the topic of white-collar crime.

Blomberg and Cohen, in their introduction to the collection of essays honoring Sheldon Messinger on the occasion of his retirement, maintained that there are two main categories of festschrifts:

At the one extreme, there is the self-indulgently personal: reminiscences and tributes that
place the person being honored at the center of the stage, obsessively tracking down his or
her every lifetime contribution. At the other extreme, there is the ascetically intellectual:
detached scholarship that virtually ignores any personal references and seems only obliquely
related to the biographical record of the person honored (Blomberg & Cohen, 1995, p. 3).

In the case of this volume the contributors were, in one way or another, connected with Gil professionally. They were asked to write a chapter on the basis of the second category; that is, following the principle of detached scholarship. However, because of Gil's extensive contributions to contemporary criminology, his works and ideas resurface in many of the chapters in this volume. Thus, we witness a certain degree of blending of the two categories; detached scholarship on the one hand, with an oblique focus on the professional contributions of Gil, on the other.

As noted above, the pieces in this volume cover many subject areas, in keeping with Gil's eclectic approach to research. Our organization of the chapters resulted from the topics the authors chose to write about, and the section headings we selected reflect a broad array of ideas. In a fitting introduction to this volume, Robert Meier compares the works of Edwin Sutherland and Gilbert Geis on the topic of white-collar crime. He notes that Gil has done more than any other scholar to bring white-collar crime into the limelight since Sutherland's pioneering work on the subject. This is followed by a selection of pieces related to theory and method in criminological research. In the first chapter, John Braithwaite discusses the ambiguities currently present in the study of organizational crime, and offers insights into how we might better go about operationalizing it in future research. Following this, Arnold and Virginia Binder examine the relationship between criminological research and public policy and, using a number of examples from the literature, caution that researchers must "not confuse what is good for society with what is good for their own careers." In the third piece in this section, Diane Vaughan uses experience gained from her study of the fatal launch of the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1986 to examine the problems inherent in studying "sensational cases," and warns of the danger of over-generalizing from such instances while paying too little attention to what made them different in the first place.

The next section contains pieces related to the study of white-collar and corporate crime. In the first piece, using examples drawn from the savings and loan crisis of the 1980s, William Black elaborates on the concept of "control fraud," and how it occurs both in nations ("kleptocracies") and firms. Following this, the chapter by David Shichor, Dale Sechrest, and Jeffrey Doocy examines the nature of victimization of consumers who were taken by a large telemarketing scam in California. The third chapter, authored by Sean Patrick Griffin and Alan Block, provides a criminological analysis of fraud in the penny stock industry. In the next chapter in this section, Michael Benson and Kent Kerley analyze sentencing data in order to understand the relationship between life course theory and white-collar crime. In the final chapter, Peter Grabosky analyzes issues related to corporate crime control, and provides a conceptual framework for future research.

The next set of chapters involves case studies of white-collar crime. In the first piece, Mary Dodge analyzes the nature of medical fraud at the once-famous Center for Reproductive Health, a fertility clinic at the University of California-Irvine that made international headlines when it was discovered, among other illegalities, that patient eggs and embryos had been misused by doctors. In the next piece, Sally Simpson and Nicole Leeper Piquero document the price-fixing conspiracy involving Archer Daniels Midland Company and examine individual and organizational characteristics related to the conspiracy, the techniques employed, and the various responses to the offense. In the third chapter, which examines the Westray Mine explosion in Canada, Colin Goff analyzes how and what the media reports when it provides coverage of a violent corporate act.

The following section entails studies of social control. The first piece, by James Short, examines the special problems created for social control by advances in science and technology, and offers general principles to deal with them. In the following chapter, Duncan Chappell examines the impact of certain new technologies on the ability of law enforcement agencies to intercept communications, and considers the balancing of investigative needs with the protection of personal privacy. Next; Joseph DiMento and Gabrio Forti examine issues related to the use of criminal sanctions in pollution control efforts, and the viability of "green management" in shielding companies from legal liability. Following this, Francis Cullen, Jody Sundt, and John Wozniak discuss issues related to running more humane and effective correctional institutions by providing "restorative rehabilitation" in what they term "virtuous prisons." In the final chapter in this section, Deborah Parsons and Paul Jesilow discuss the history of women in policing, and how the conflict between the crime fighting and service roles of the police have undermined most efforts to integrate women into the occupation.

The next section contains international and comparative studies. In the first chapter, David Farrington reviews his own cross-national comparisons of risk factors for delinquency, criminal career features, and rates of crime and punishment in different countries, and argues that additional comparisons in the future will serve to better inform criminological theories. In the second piece, Henry Pontell, Stephen Rosoff, and Jason Lam draw comparisons between forms of fraud present in the savings-and-loan debacle in the United States, and crimes found at the heart of the Japanese banking crisis, arguing that the Asian financial meltdown had less to do with a "currency crisis" or "falling real estate values" than it did with major problems in financial institutions and their regulation. In the next chapter, Michael Levi discusses victimization issues related to transnational white-collar crime, including how seriously it is viewed by various constituencies, and the methodological issues that need to be recognized in future inquiries. The final chapter in this section, by Hans Joachim Schneider, examines a number of topics related to the purposes, methods, and research findings of comparative criminology.

The final section of the volume relates to various forms of crime. The first selection, by Susan Will and Kitty Calavita, examines the relationship between economic transformation and the evolution of bankruptcy law and analyzes how bankruptcy, once considered a severe criminal act, has now become an investor's device and management tool. In the second chapter, C. Ronald Huff uses primary data to analyze the criminal activities engaged in by gangs, and develops public policy recommendations from the results of his study. In the concluding chapter, Richard Wright uses interview data to examine the mindset of residential burglars in order to understand the decision-making dynamics involved in such criminal activity, and what might best deter it.

When this festschrift was planned, it was a hard task to decide whom to ask to contribute, because Gil has so many close colleagues and students, not only in the United States, but all over the world. The pool of potential contributors was so large, that even if a modest number of them participated, it would have been impossible to include them all in one volume. We contacted those wham we knew had a close relationship with Gil, but there is no doubt that we also missed others who would have qualified on such grounds. This was certainly not intentional, and could be "blamed" on Gil's huge professional network. Nonetheless, the editors take full responsibility for any omissions and oversights, and apologize to any persons who would have liked to contribute to this volume. To those and all others, we simply ask that you join us in celebrating Gil's accomplishments by using this book. It is notable that all those who were asked to participate in the project agreed enthusiastically and with two or three exceptions, due to some unforeseen personal reasons, they delivered highly valuable original chapters.

We thank all the contributors to this volume for their support, especially given the rather short deadline under which they were forced to work. We also thank them for keeping this project a secret from Gil. The development of this volume took place without any knowledge on his part, as we felt that his surprise in seeing it would be an extra reward for both Gil and the contributors. For many of us, this was a taxing effort, as we interact with Gil on a regular basis. For one of the editors, this meant fraudulently representing his current work on many occasions, and keeping files labeled "Project Good Guy," in case Gil happened to be in the office while they were being used. The file label was designated by our Department Manager at the University of California-Irvine, Judy Omiya, without whose assistance this volume would not have been possible. For years Judy has dedicated herself to matters of our department, and she welcomed the chance to show her great fondness for Gil by providing superb assistance on this project. Judy kept all files in meticulous order, followed up with authors, and prepared the final manuscript for submission to the publisher. We greatly appreciate her efforts, as well as those of Teri Denman and Marilyn Wahlert, who helped with secretarial matters relating to this volume over the past year.

We also thank Neil Marquardt, Senior Editor at Prentice Hall, for his support and encouragement. After a brief discussion, Neil (in his infinite wisdom) was convinced that this would be an excellent project, and the authors greatly appreciate his confidence in their ability to make this book a first-rate contribution to the field. Upon Neil's departure, our new editor, Kim Davies, and her assistant, Lisa Schwartz, have provided us with equal support. We also thank the staff at Prentice Hall, especially Marion Gottlieb and Susan Kegler, for their excellent assistance in bringing this volume to publication in a timely fashion.

We hope that this collection of essays is suitable recognition of Gil's contribution to our field. In the spirit of his devotion to his students, the proceeds of this book will go into a scholarship fund established at the University of California-Irvine, in the name of Gilbert Geis.

Henry Pontell and David Shichor
August, 1999

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Table of Contents

I. INTRODUCTION.

Geis, Sutherland, and White-Collar Crime, Robert F. Meier.

II. THEORY AND METHOD IN CRIMINOLOGICAL RESEARCH.

Conceptualizing Organizational Crime in a World of Plural Cultures, John Braithwaite.

The Relationship between Research Results and Public Policy, Arnold Binder and Virginia Binder.

Sensational Cases, Flawed Theories, Diane Vaughan.

III. WHITE-COLLAR CRIME AND CORPORATE CRIME.

Control Fraud and Control Freaks, William K. Black.

Victims of Investment Fraud, David Shichor, Dale Sechrest, and Jeffrey Doocy.

Penny Wise: Accounting for Fraud in the Penny-Stock Industry, Sean Patrick Griffin and Alan A. Block.

Life Course Theory and White-Collar Crime, Michael L. Benson and Kent R. Kerley.

The System of Corporate Crime Control, Peter Grabosky.

IV. CASE STUDIES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME.

Fertile Frontiers in Medical Fraud: A Case Study of Egg and Embryo Theft, Mary Dodge.

The Archer Daniels Midland Antitrust Case of 1996: A Case Study, Sally S. Simpson and Nicole Leeper Piquero.

The Westray Mine Disaster: Media Coverage of a Corporate Crime in Canada, Colin Goff.

V. STUDIES IN SOCIAL CONTROL.

Technology, Risk Analysis, and the Challenge of Social Control, James F. Short, Jr.

Law Enforcement, Intercepting Communications and the Right to Privacy: The Impact of New Technologies, Duncan Chappell.

“Green Managers Don't Cry”: Criminal Environmental Law and Corporate Strategy, Joseph F. DiMento and Gabrio Forti.

The Virtuous Prison: Toward A Restorative Rehabilitation, Francis T. Cullen, Jody Sundt, and John Wozniak.

Women in Policing: A Tale of Cultural Conformity, Deborah Parsons and Paul Jesilow.

VI. INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE STUDIES.

Cross-National Comparative Studies in Criminology, David P. Farrington.

The Role of Fraud in the Japanese Financial Crisis: A Comparative Study, Henry N. Pontell, Stephen M. Rosoff, and Jason Lam.

Trans-National White-Collar Crime: Some Explorations of Victimization Impact, Michael Levi.

Comparative Criminology: Purposes, Methods and Research Findings, Hans Joachim Schneider.

VII. VARIOUS FORMS OF CRIME.

When Crime Is Not a Crime: Economic Transformations and the Evolution in Bankruptcy Law, Susan Will and Kitty Calavita.

Youth Gangs, Crime, and Public Policy, C. Ronald Huff.

Searching a Dwelling: Deterrence and the Undeterred Residential Burglar, Richard Wright.

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Preface

Preface

This volume was assembled in honor of the preeminent criminologist and scholar, Gilbert Geis, on the occasion of his seventy-fifth birthday. Although this is a significant milestone in his life and certainly a cause for celebration, Gil deserves to be honored for many other reasons as well. First, and perhaps foremost, he is one of the most outstanding teachers and colleagues one could ever imagine. To those who know him, as well as to many who have simply met him, the combination of Gil's great warmth, caring, humor, intellect, breadth of interests, and energy mark him as one of the truly unique persons in the academic world today. As a prolific writer on a variety of topics related to law, crime, and criminal justice, his record of productivity over the past six decades, to use an analogy from his favorite sport, is similar in stature to the benchmarks set by Joe DiMaggio, Nolan Ryan, Hank Aaron, Cal Ripken, and Mark McGwire. That is, it is extremely difficult to imagine anyone ever surpassing his academic publication record. At last count, he has written or edited 21 books, 192 articles, 104 book chapters, and 30 monographs and has edited a number of special issues of journals. The incredible number of Gil's scholarly publications is matched only by the fact that it is first-rate work, written in a rich and engaging manner that appeals to scholars, practitioners, and students alike.

Gil's academic career began in 1952 in the sociology department at the University of Oklahoma, Norman. Before that, he served as a radioman in the U.S. Navy during the war years (1942-45), and as a reporter for the Times in Hartford, Connecticut (1946) and the Daily Home News in New Brunswick, New Jersey (1947-48). He earned his Ph.D. (1953) in sociology at the University of Wisconsin, Madison after receiving his M.S. (1949) at Brigham Young University and his B.A. (1947) at Colgate University. He also spent a year (1948) at the University of Stockholm in Sweden.

Gil left Oklahoma as an assistant professor in 1957, and took a position at California State University, Los Angeles, where he was promoted to associate professor in 1960 and then professor in 1963. During the 1969-70 school year, he was a visiting professor in the School of Criminal Justice at the State University of New York, Albany. In 1971 he served as a visiting professor in the Program in Social Ecology at the University of California, Irvine. The program's founder, Arnold Binder, a mathematical psychologist, convinced him to join the faculty the following year. Gil remained at Irvine and became professor emeritus in 1987, with brief stints as a visiting fellow in the Institute of Criminology at Cambridge University (1976-77), a visiting professor in the law school at the University of Sydney (1979), a distinguished visiting professor in the College of Human Development at Pennsylvania State University (1981), and a distinguished visiting professor in the John Jay School of Criminal Justice of the City University of New York (1996).

He has also been the recipient of numerous awards throughout his career as a criminologist. Among them are outstanding professor awards at California State University (1968, 1971), the Distinguished Faculty Lectureship Award at UC, Irvine (1980), the Paul Tappan Award for outstanding contributions to criminology from the Western Society of Criminology (1980), the Edwin H. Sutherland Award for outstanding contributions to theory and research in criminology from the American Society of Criminology (1985), and the Donald R. Cressey Award for excellence in fraud detection and deterrence from the National Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (1992). He has been a principal investigator or director of thirteen grants, including projects funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the Ford Foundation, the U.S. Department of Justice, and the Federal Bureau of Prisons.

Throughout his career, Gil has also been a model citizen of his profession, serving on numerous committees and boards. He has been an associate editor or editorial board member of sixteen academic journals, and has served as a member of advisory groups and executive committees for national and international organizations and publishers, including acting as advisor to the President's Committee on Narcotic and Drug Abuse (1963-64). In 1975 he was elected president of the American Society of Criminology. Since 1992 he has served as the president of the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners.

For all of his academic success and commitment over the years, the capstone of Gil's career has to be his publication record. His writings have thus far spanned six decades and have covered an incredible range of topics, including education, race relations, Scandinavian issues, the death penalty, film censorship, prisons, biographies, probation, courts, legal rights, drugs, juvenile justice and delinquency, prostitution, crime and crime victims, policing, community corrections, rehabilitation, organized crime, prisoner rights, evaluations, rape, homicide, victimless crimes, ethical issues in law, violence, social problems, good samaritans, compensation, restitution, deterrence, witch trials, criminal justice issues, research methods, and, of course, white-collar crime. It is this last area for which he has become most well known, beginning with the publication of his classic piece, The Heavy Electrical Equipment Antitrust Case of 1961, in the book, Criminal Behavior Systems: A Typology, edited by Marshall Clinard and Richard Quinney. Ironically perhaps, this seminal work appeared as a chapter in a textbook rather than in a leading journal, and is responsible for resurrecting interest in the topic of white-collar crime, which was introduced by Edwin Sutherland decades earlier but by and large ignored by criminologists and others. The piece helped spawn a new generation of criminologists, whose primary research agenda was the study of white-collar and corporate crime. The importance of Gil's professional contribution in this regard cannot be overstated.

Since the writing of that pathbreaking piece, Gil's work in white-collar crime has been prolific and varied. It includes research on the deterrence of corporate crime, consumer fraud laws, victimization, the psychology of white-collar offenders, corporate violence, punishment issues, white-collar crime seriousness, medical fraud, legal and regulatory issues, fraud examination, organizational deviance, as well as a number of general pieces on white-collar crime.

While Gil's name is most frequently related to the study of white-collar crime, it is hard to find any major subject area in criminology, or for that matter any minor area of the discipline, in which he hasn't published. In an era of increasing emphasis on expertise confined to narrow fields of study, when, as some critics claim, scholars tend "to learn and know more and more; about less and less," Gil is a true exception. His credo is "to learn and know more and more, about more and more." Those who know him can attest to his keen interest, encyclopedic knowledge, analytical skills, and fascinating writing style dealing not only with criminological topics but a wide array of other subjects as well. Perhaps the most fitting characterization of his professional writings is that he is what is commonly called a "Renaissance man," although he would probably prefer the label, "Renaissance person."

Gil is not only one of the most prolific criminologists in the world today, but also a great teacher, mentor, and colleague. Anyone who has ever asked him to read and comment on a draft can testify to his promptness, meticulous editing (with loads of red ink), and helpful comments that invariably enhance the quality and clarity of the manuscript. He has helped many students and junior colleagues with his support, advice, encouragement, and active participation in the completion of their work. He has done so in spite of his own, always more than full, agenda, which is characterized by a meticulously kept list of works he has to complete. Those who have ever collaborated with Gil on any book, article, or other project find him to be well prepared, prompt (somewhat compulsive), and usually taking upon himself more than his fair share of the work. All these are done with a wonderful sense of humor amid entertaining conversations. His numerous co-authored publications are an excellent testimony to his ability and readiness to work constructively with others.

Gil can be a sharp critic as well. While he is urbane (almost always), he is not shy in his readiness to voice his opinions, even if they may ruffle some feathers. He is not an iconoclast for the sake of being one, but he is always ready to get into the fray and has more than once criticized some of the works of well-known social scientists.

As is suitable for a volume honoring Gilbert Geis, the pieces in this book cover a broad terrain, although many of them, naturally, are related to the topic of white-collar crime.

Blomberg and Cohen, in their introduction to the collection of essays honoring Sheldon Messinger on the occasion of his retirement, maintained that there are two main categories of festschrifts:

At the one extreme, there is the self-indulgently personal: reminiscences and tributes that place the person being honored at the center of the stage, obsessively tracking down his or her every lifetime contribution. At the other extreme, there is the ascetically intellectual:
detached scholarship that virtually ignores any personal references and seems only obliquely related to the biographical record of the person honored (Blomberg & Cohen, 1995, p. 3).

In the case of this volume the contributors were, in one way or another, connected with Gil professionally. They were asked to write a chapter on the basis of the second category; that is, following the principle of detached scholarship. However, because of Gil's extensive contributions to contemporary criminology, his works and ideas resurface in many of the chapters in this volume. Thus, we witness a certain degree of blending of the two categories; detached scholarship on the one hand, with an oblique focus on the professional contributions of Gil, on the other.

As noted above, the pieces in this volume cover many subject areas, in keeping with Gil's eclectic approach to research. Our organization of the chapters resulted from the topics the authors chose to write about, and the section headings we selected reflect a broad array of ideas. In a fitting introduction to this volume, Robert Meier compares the works of Edwin Sutherland and Gilbert Geis on the topic of white-collar crime. He notes that Gil has done more than any other scholar to bring white-collar crime into the limelight since Sutherland's pioneering work on the subject. This is followed by a selection of pieces related to theory and method in criminological research. In the first chapter, John Braithwaite discusses the ambiguities currently present in the study of organizational crime, and offers insights into how we might better go about operationalizing it in future research. Following this, Arnold and Virginia Binder examine the relationship between criminological research and public policy and, using a number of examples from the literature, caution that researchers must "not confuse what is good for society with what is good for their own careers." In the third piece in this section, Diane Vaughan uses experience gained from her study of the fatal launch of the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1986 to examine the problems inherent in studying "sensational cases," and warns of the danger of over-generalizing from such instances while paying too little attention to what made them different in the first place.

The next section contains pieces related to the study of white-collar and corporate crime. In the first piece, using examples drawn from the savings and loan crisis of the 1980s, William Black elaborates on the concept of "control fraud," and how it occurs both in nations ("kleptocracies") and firms. Following this, the chapter by David Shichor, Dale Sechrest, and Jeffrey Doocy examines the nature of victimization of consumers who were taken by a large telemarketing scam in California. The third chapter, authored by Sean Patrick Griffin and Alan Block, provides a criminological analysis of fraud in the penny stock industry. In the next chapter in this section, Michael Benson and Kent Kerley analyze sentencing data in order to understand the relationship between life course theory and white-collar crime. In the final chapter, Peter Grabosky analyzes issues related to corporate crime control, and provides a conceptual framework for future research.

The next set of chapters involves case studies of white-collar crime. In the first piece, Mary Dodge analyzes the nature of medical fraud at the once-famous Center for Reproductive Health, a fertility clinic at the University of California-Irvine that made international headlines when it was discovered, among other illegalities, that patient eggs and embryos had been misused by doctors. In the next piece, Sally Simpson and Nicole Leeper Piquero document the price-fixing conspiracy involving Archer Daniels Midland Company and examine individual and organizational characteristics related to the conspiracy, the techniques employed, and the various responses to the offense. In the third chapter, which examines the Westray Mine explosion in Canada, Colin Goff analyzes how and what the media reports when it provides coverage of a violent corporate act.

The following section entails studies of social control. The first piece, by James Short, examines the special problems created for social control by advances in science and technology, and offers general principles to deal with them. In the following chapter, Duncan Chappell examines the impact of certain new technologies on the ability of law enforcement agencies to intercept communications, and considers the balancing of investigative needs with the protection of personal privacy. Next; Joseph DiMento and Gabrio Forti examine issues related to the use of criminal sanctions in pollution control efforts, and the viability of "green management" in shielding companies from legal liability. Following this, Francis Cullen, Jody Sundt, and John Wozniak discuss issues related to running more humane and effective correctional institutions by providing "restorative rehabilitation" in what they term "virtuous prisons." In the final chapter in this section, Deborah Parsons and Paul Jesilow discuss the history of women in policing, and how the conflict between the crime fighting and service roles of the police have undermined most efforts to integrate women into the occupation.

The next section contains international and comparative studies. In the first chapter, David Farrington reviews his own cross-national comparisons of risk factors for delinquency, criminal career features, and rates of crime and punishment in different countries, and argues that additional comparisons in the future will serve to better inform criminological theories. In the second piece, Henry Pontell, Stephen Rosoff, and Jason Lam draw comparisons between forms of fraud present in the savings-and-loan debacle in the United States, and crimes found at the heart of the Japanese banking crisis, arguing that the Asian financial meltdown had less to do with a "currency crisis" or "falling real estate values" than it did with major problems in financial institutions and their regulation. In the next chapter, Michael Levi discusses victimization issues related to transnational white-collar crime, including how seriously it is viewed by various constituencies, and the methodological issues that need to be recognized in future inquiries. The final chapter in this section, by Hans Joachim Schneider, examines a number of topics related to the purposes, methods, and research findings of comparative criminology.

The final section of the volume relates to various forms of crime. The first selection, by Susan Will and Kitty Calavita, examines the relationship between economic transformation and the evolution of bankruptcy law and analyzes how bankruptcy, once considered a severe criminal act, has now become an investor's device and management tool. In the second chapter, C. Ronald Huff uses primary data to analyze the criminal activities engaged in by gangs, and develops public policy recommendations from the results of his study. In the concluding chapter, Richard Wright uses interview data to examine the mindset of residential burglars in order to understand the decision-making dynamics involved in such criminal activity, and what might best deter it.

When this festschrift was planned, it was a hard task to decide whom to ask to contribute, because Gil has so many close colleagues and students, not only in the United States, but all over the world. The pool of potential contributors was so large, that even if a modest number of them participated, it would have been impossible to include them all in one volume. We contacted those wham we knew had a close relationship with Gil, but there is no doubt that we also missed others who would have qualified on such grounds. This was certainly not intentional, and could be "blamed" on Gil's huge professional network. Nonetheless, the editors take full responsibility for any omissions and oversights, and apologize to any persons who would have liked to contribute to this volume. To those and all others, we simply ask that you join us in celebrating Gil's accomplishments by using this book. It is notable that all those who were asked to participate in the project agreed enthusiastically and with two or three exceptions, due to some unforeseen personal reasons, they delivered highly valuable original chapters.

We thank all the contributors to this volume for their support, especially given the rather short deadline under which they were forced to work. We also thank them for keeping this project a secret from Gil. The development of this volume took place without any knowledge on his part, as we felt that his surprise in seeing it would be an extra reward for both Gil and the contributors. For many of us, this was a taxing effort, as we interact with Gil on a regular basis. For one of the editors, this meant fraudulently representing his current work on many occasions, and keeping files labeled "Project Good Guy," in case Gil happened to be in the office while they were being used. The file label was designated by our Department Manager at the University of California-Irvine, Judy Omiya, without whose assistance this volume would not have been possible. For years Judy has dedicated herself to matters of our department, and she welcomed the chance to show her great fondness for Gil by providing superb assistance on this project. Judy kept all files in meticulous order, followed up with authors, and prepared the final manuscript for submission to the publisher. We greatly appreciate her efforts, as well as those of Teri Denman and Marilyn Wahlert, who helped with secretarial matters relating to this volume over the past year.

We also thank Neil Marquardt, Senior Editor at Prentice Hall, for his support and encouragement. After a brief discussion, Neil (in his infinite wisdom) was convinced that this would be an excellent project, and the authors greatly appreciate his confidence in their ability to make this book a first-rate contribution to the field. Upon Neil's departure, our new editor, Kim Davies, and her assistant, Lisa Schwartz, have provided us with equal support. We also thank the staff at Prentice Hall, especially Marion Gottlieb and Susan Kegler, for their excellent assistance in bringing this volume to publication in a timely fashion.

We hope that this collection of essays is suitable recognition of Gil's contribution to our field. In the spirit of his devotion to his students, the proceeds of this book will go into a scholarship fund established at the University of California-Irvine, in the name of Gilbert Geis.

Henry Pontell and David Shichor August, 1999

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